Method for disinfection of dried food products

FIELD: food-processing industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves two stages: first stage includes heating by means of microwave radiation to temperature of 85-140 C under atmospheric pressure in chamber, and second stage includes cooling to temperature of 30-50 C by evaporating part of moisture when pressure within chamber is reduced to 1.0-10 mm of mercury column; holding during 5-20 min; at first disinfection stage, product may be treated with water or steam supplied in an amount providing increase in moisture content by 1-3%.

EFFECT: improved quality of basic material owing to improved microbiological properties.

4 cl, 6 ex

 

The invention relates to the food and pharmaceutical industries, and is used for decontamination of dried fruit, vegetables, herbs, spices and other ingredients.

A method of producing a food product of dried fruits, including washing dried fruit, grinding them to obtain a pasty mass, and drying. Before chopping spend processing carbon dioxide for sterilization (RF patent No. 20130059, publ. 1994).

The disadvantage of this method is the use of chemical substances affecting the organoleptic properties of dried fruit.

There is a method of sterilization of food products, including increased blood pressure, holding pressure with saturation product gas and subsequent rapid reduction of pressure below atmospheric, and during the final stage of exposure to pressure and then rapidly reducing the pressure of the sterilized products are heated to a temperature of not higher than 100°With (Patent No. 2170046, publ. 2001.07.10).

The disadvantage of this analog is the complexity of the execution of this method.

A known method of drying and disinfection of fruits and berries, which includes four stages. In the first stage, the fruits and berries are heated currents of low frequency to a temperature of 55-65°C. When this occurs electrolytic disinfection. On the second, third and che is a Vert stages fruits and berries dried infrared radiation and microwave energy with a power flux-density not more than 0.2, of 0.3, 0.4 watts/cm2respectively. At each stage the ratio of microwave energy and infrared radiation, respectively, equal to 1/6÷10; 1/3÷6; 1/1,5÷3. Gradual drying provides evaporation, respectively, 35, 30 and 15% of water from fruits and berries (RF patent No. 2194228, publ. 2002).

The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of its use.

The technical result of the invention is a significant improvement in microbiological indicators of dried vegetables, herbs, spices.

The technical result is achieved due to the fact that the disinfection is carried out in two stages: the first stage produce heating by microwave radiation to a temperature of 85÷140°at atmospheric pressure in the chamber, the second stage produces a cooling to a temperature of 30÷50°by evaporation of part of the moisture by lowering the pressure in the chamber to 1.0÷10 mm Hg and the shutter speed for 5÷20 minutes. At the first stage of disinfection product may be treated with water or steam to the calculation of the increase of humidity (1-3)%.

After the second stage decontamination in the camera may be a stream of argon, carbon dioxide or a mixture of gases, contributing to the preservation of the product during storage.

Improving the quality of dried food products, pharmaceutical raw materials and spices by improving microbial performance can be achieved only by heating to temperatures sufficient to destroy certain bacteria. For complete disinfection of the temperature is 85-140°for different microbes and spores. Below a temperature of 85°is not sufficient disinfection, and above 140° - not all products can withstand these temperatures during prolonged heat and lose their properties. The chamber pressure should be atmospheric to exclude intensive drying products at the first stage.

A drop in pressure in the chamber to 1.0÷10 mm Hg in the second stage leads to additional heat stroke and intensive evaporation of water from the product, i.e. to its cooling to a temperature of 30-50°C. This process ensures the preservation of the organoleptic properties of the product. The exposure time providing sufficient evaporation, and therefore cooling, chosen on the assumption that processing affects products with different rheology.

For more intensive cooling in the first stage in the product, particularly with low moisture content (4-5%), inject water in fine condition or process steam. This enables you to moisturize dried product, which will later be more intensively cooled by evaporation.

The introduction of argon, carbon dioxide and other gases upon completion of the second stage helps to reduce the transmission of mikrobasic further. It is important to note that the introduction of gas after stage vacuum facilitates an intensive and deep penetration of gas into the pores of the product of which is evacuated. This reinforces the effect of the gases, since the oxygen content is significantly lower than in the simple filling of the package with an inert gas.

For dried products, providing packaging, it is advisable specified processing to the packaging. Such containers must be radiotransparent and breathable (or have the hole for the steam-air mixture). Below are examples of the proposed method.

Example 1.

The camera was downloaded 10 kg of dried sweet peppers (paprika) in craftiest and heated by microwave radiation to 85°C at atmospheric pressure. Then cooled product to a temperature of 40°With pressure drops up to 10 mm Hg for 10 minutes. After handling peppers the proposed method, the number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (CMATA and M) is 4×102CFU/g, the indicator bacteria of the coli group (BGK) - not detected, the mold - no, bacteria of the genus B.cereus not.

Example 2.

All operations of the method was carried out according to example 1. Only after the stage of cooling the product was introduced a stream of nitrogen. Microbiological indicators osteospermum.

Example 3.

The camera was loaded with 5 kg of dried dill, placed in Kraft bag, and was heated by microwave radiation to a temperature of 100°C at atmospheric pressure. Then was cooled to 50°With pressure drops up to 10 mm Hg for 10 minutes. After disinfection dill proposed method were obtained indicators: CMATA and M were estimated 1.2×104CFU/g, BGK - no mold, no, B.cereus not.

Example 4. All operations of the method was carried out similarly to example 3. But after the cooling phase was introduced nitrogen. Microbiological indicators remained unchanged.

Example 5.

Took 10 kg of raisins with the level of mold 7.0×10 CFU/g Heating to 80°at a pressure of 760 mm Hg cooling Mode: 10 minutes of pumping (maximum pressure of 5 mm Hg). Results: the temperature of the product after processing 50°C, the product appeared shiny. External organoleptic significantly improved. Weight loss of 10 kg on average 250 g, i.e. of 2.5%. The level of mold - 50 CFU/g

Example 6.

Took 10 kg of dried apricots that do not meet the requirements of SanPiN, in a cardboard box. Mode of heating: microwave heating for 5 minutes to a temperature of 85°at atmospheric pressure, cooling to 40°by reducing the pressure to 10 mmHg for 5 minutes. The inflow of air through the filter. Microbiological parameters after treatment: CMATA and M, CFU/g - 1.6×10 2, BHK, g/cm - not detected, Salmonella, g/cm - not detected, mold, CFU/g not more than 1×101. The figures obtained significantly better than the requirements of SanPiN.

1. The method for decontamination of dried food, including two stages, the first stage produces heating by microwave radiation to a temperature of 85-140°at atmospheric pressure, in the second stage produces cooling to a temperature of 30-50°by evaporation at low pressure of 1-10 mm Hg within 5-20 minutes

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first stage of heating in the product inject water in fine condition or pairs.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that after the second stage in the camera additionally introduce a stream of argon, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the disinfection products is carried out in a radiotransparent and breathable container.



 

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