Bimetallic brake shoe

FIELD: railway transport; brakes of rolling stock.

SUBSTANCE: proposed bimetallic brake shoe contains cast iron bar made by molding and steel plate from which steel cylindrical inserts pass into cast iron bar which are arranged in two parallel rows. Inserts are made of material whose abrasiveness is higher than material of bar. Steel plate is placed longitudinally under boss and it covers entire surface of rear side of cast iron bar. It contains middle profiled section enclosing cross boss. Extreme cylindrical inserts in rows are provided with ring grooves on side surface. Diameter d of each cylindrical insert is found from formula d=(0.16-0.32) x B where d is diameter of cylindrical insert; B is width of working surface of shoe, and T-areas of working surface of shoe without inserts is calculated by formula T=(5.0-9.2) x t where T is area of working surface; t is sum of working surfaces of inserts.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of shoe, increased balanced service life, reliability, efficiency, increased service life of wheels of rolling stock owing to reduction of their wear caused by brake bimetallic shoes.

10 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to railway transport and relates to brake equipment, mainly used on electric locomotives ES-1, ES-2, ES-3, ES-4, diesel locomotives, THE-116, cargo cranes of the type EBC on the go train and other rolling stock, having two shorter partitioned brake pads in one Shoe (columntitle).

Known brake pad containing the arcuate casting in the form of a beam of rectangular cross-section, while in the body of the beam from the side of the working friction surfaces made at least two parallel rows of holes, the axis of which is parallel to the side of the pads, and they fixed cylindrical insert made of a material having a higher abrasion than the material of the beam, arranged in a checkerboard pattern, and in the middle to one surface a number of holes greater than in the subsequent row. Copyright certificate №1643266, M CL VN 1/00, bull. No. 15, 23.04.91,

A disadvantage of the known brake pads is the risk of damage to the cast iron lugs when working pads at high speeds, rolling stock, including the loss of the pads at all.

Due to the cyclic heating and cooling pads with a higher thermal amplitudes risk of cracks in the eye grows.

The installation dimensions given to the boats do not allow to use it on rolling stock with dual shortened the brake pads.

Known brake sectional bezgrebnevogo block containing the arcuate casting in the form of a beam of rectangular cross-section, having on the back side of the center cross-tide, and at the ends of the mounting tabs. The tide made the hole for the wedge pin. On the beams, as well from the back side, is placed longitudinally narrow steel plate, under the tide and the setting under the setup tabs. Krylov V.I., Perov, A.N., Ozolin, A., Klimov NI Handbook on the brakes. Ed. 3rd Rev. and ext. M.: Transport, 1975, S. 379.

The design of the pads does not provide reliable and sufficient heat and cool the working parts of the pad, ensuring the preservation of the friction coefficient at a temperature of 1000°C.

The Shoe has a low resource, low temperature resistance with maintaining the coefficient of friction, an effect of "Hughes" (lock wheelset) during emergency braking.

There is rapid wear of the bandage.

The closest is the brake pad containing the arcuate casting in the form of a beam of rectangular cross-section, consisting of a main and profile plots, while in the body of the beam from the side of the working friction surfaces made at least two parallel rows of cylindrical steel inserts. The inserts are placed in a checkerboard pattern. In the profile plot are four PR is a multidisciplinary, insert, interacting together with the body of the pad with a bandage pair of wheels of the locomotive. Patent No. 2153994, M CL VN 1/00, F16D 65/04, 69/00, bull. No. 22, 10.08.2000,

A disadvantage of the known brake pads is moderate wear on the crest of the bandage from the effects of the relevant section of the pad, as well as increased weight pads due to the presence of the profile plot.

The objective of the invention is to improve the technical and operational characteristics of the pads, the improvement of a balanced resource, reliability, efficiency, ease of maintenance pads, resources of the wheels of the rolling stock, by reducing wear them bimetallic brake pads, improving manufacturing technology shoes with high quality and reliability in the operation.

This object is achieved in that a pad new design.

Bimetallic brake pad contains arcuate curved cast-iron beams, cast iron in the form, and the steel plate, which in a cast iron beam depart steel cylindrical insert, use two parallel rows. When this insert is made of a material higher abrasiveness than the material of the beam. On the back side in the middle of the performed cross-flow hole wedge pin. Steel plate laid prodol what about under the tide and covers the entire surface of the back side of the cast-iron beam, and contains in the middle part of the profile plot, covering cross-tide. In the side surfaces of the core area of the steel plate at the level of the holes in the tide made open. Extreme cylindrical insert in the ranks made with annular grooves on the lateral surface, the diameter d of each cylindrical insert is found by the formula:

d=(0,16÷0,32)×,

where d is the diameter of the cylindrical insert;

In - the width of the working surface of the pad, and the area T of the working surface of the pad without inserts are calculated according to the formula:

T=(5,0÷9,2)×t,

where T is the surface area;

t - the amount of the working surfaces of the inserts.

The insert is made of heat-resistant steel.

The rows of inserts deployed relative to the longitudinal axis of the body of the pad in one direction by the angle α=16°-18°.

Each of the rows contains from 3 to 6 inserts.

The working surface of the brake pads and paste from the working surface is made with a slope of 1:20.

The distance K between the centers of the cylindrical inserts in the row found by the formula:

K=(0,17÷0,19)×L,

where K is the distance between the centers of the cylindrical inserts in the series;

L is the length of the pad.

The distance between the rows of inserts N is found by the formula:

N=(0,65÷0,7)×,

where N is the distance between the rows of inserts;

In - the width of the working surface the displacement of the pad.

The length of the cylindrical insert And is found by the formula:

A=(0,96-0,98) x N

where a is the length of the cylindrical insert;

H - the thickness of the cast-iron beams.

The abrasiveness of cast-iron beams pads S find the following dependencies:

S=(0,6÷0,7)×M

where S is the abrasiveness of cast-iron beams pads;

M - abrasion steel insert.

A steel insert is attached to a steel plate by spot welding.

The novelty of the invention lies in the design features pads: on the back in the middle of the performed cross-flow hole wedge-shaped pin, a steel plate is laid longitudinally under the tide and covers the entire surface of the back side of the cast-iron beam, and contains in the middle part of the profile plot, covering cross-tide, in the side surfaces of the core area of the steel plate at the level of the holes in the tide made open. Extreme cylindrical insert in the ranks made with annular grooves on the lateral surface. Formulae for the calculation of the various parameters of the block and its constituent elements.

Design features reduce installation size blocks without losing its quality and performance. This block can be set in the paired Shoe pads (colocalization) rolling jeleznodorojnogo.

The technical result that can be obtained from the use of the invention is to increase tenfold (30-75) resource blocks, reliability and efficiency of the brakes, reducing braking distances due to elasto-plastic friction between the block and the rolling surface of the wheel, the absence Hughes even during emergency braking, the preservation of the friction coefficient at a temperature of pads to 1100°C. the Above performance is achieved at a lower 1.2÷1.4 times the pressure pads per axle, which also increases the life of the wheelset and the pads. Improves reliability of brakes, as the tide closed steel section that prevents the destruction of it when it hit the snow and ice in winter.

The requested block is a further development of the famous family of bimetallic pads. In the brake pad her back back (after installation) is made in the form of a steel plate of the same shape curved curved beams and optionally having in the middle part of the profile section corresponding in shape to the tide and covering it. Thus, the tide is placed on a steel plate and covered more on the sides and top field of steel, which can significantly increase the strength of the given node. In ekovich surfaces of the profile area has a window for fixing pads wedge-shaped cotter of kolokotrones.

The plate is placed and secured by spot welding cylindrical insert with installation groups, with each group the number of inserts may be from 3 to 6 depending on the required resource blocks. This allows precise positioning of the insert in the body of the pad to avoid bias in the casting of cast iron, and significantly reduces the defects in the manufacture and improves the quality of the pads.

After such collection plate cylindrical inserts and their rigid attachment to her resistance spot welding, in fact, finished the back part of the pad is placed in a mold and pouring molten cast iron. The result on a steel plate, cast iron casting with posted inside her soft steel inserts of heat-resistant steel. Cast iron is poured and under the profile section of the steel plate. The pads are labeled in accordance with the resource that is governed by the number and diameter of the inserts.

Fabrication of inserts from the rod guillotine shears and forming them in the package directly on the steel frame pads spot welding machine allows you to automate the entire process of manufacturing pads, including fill blanks with a melt of cast iron, and release the pads from the moulds (molds)that in General the om dramatically reduces the cost of the pads.

Placing inserts in the row group on the distance between the centers 0,17÷0,19 length L pads the space between the rows of inserts 0,65÷0,7 full width of the working surface of the pad provides effective braking mode by improving the heat sink on the back side through a steel insert in combination with a steel plate rear pads, provides cooling of the working part of the pad that eliminates overheating of the pads, and thus ensures that at high speeds braking when the brakes on a long long slopes pads will not overheat and does not "flow", i.e. it will keep the coefficient of friction.

The ranges of the ratio entered in the claims, as a significant distinguishing features were established experimentally the results of bench tests of this shortened bimetallic brake pads.

The offset rows of inserts due to their deviation from the longitudinal axis of the pad on α=16°-18°selected distance between centers of inserts in the series allow for the overlap width of the rubbing surface of the pad inserts, prevents the formation of longitudinal cracks on the row in the manufacturing process and during operation, ensures minimum wear of the pads and uniform wear on all height of a number of the DKI across its surface, what affects the increase of resource blocks, and reduces the wear of the wheel at high speed braking. Bringing together or removing rows of inserts, it is possible to make the Shoe to different maximum speed braking.

Compliance with the following ratios: square friction working surface of the pad without inserts T depending on the amount of working surfaces of the inserts t and the diameter of the cylindrical insert d of the width of the working surface of the pad To provide effective braking at various speeds of movement of the rolling stock.

In order to balance the wear of the pads and their simultaneous replacement use pads with different resource that is easily adjustable by the number and diameter of the inserts, as well as their material.

The working surface of the brake pads and paste from the working surface is made with a slope of 1:20. This allows you to increase the friction surface of the inserts, as it takes the form of an ellipse with a smaller diameter insert that helps to increase the mechanical strength and, consequently, increases the service life of the pad.

In addition, the slope of the working surface of the pad and inserts provides a better fit without clearance, and interaction with the rolling surface of the wheel all inserts simultaneously in full working surface, creating unprovables the practical friction, that increases the life of the proposed pads and significantly reduces the wear of the tread surface of the wheel.

All inserts of plastic metal cylindrical form, and some of them (extreme insertion), for a more reliable fastening of iron castings in steel girders have one ring groove on the lateral surface, which provides, as shown, a high reliability of connection bimetal construction pads in General and increases its service life. Insert place by grooves in the side of the steel plate.

The calculation of the length of the cylindrical insert, depending on the thickness of the pads allows for the manufacture of pads to create an opportunity to fill their iron to a height of 2-3 mm This allows, when the first brake, to provide abrasion this layer and then completely breaking the entire working surface of the pad to the tread surface of the wheel, including the insert. It also creates better conditions for working couples: wheelset and pads, which increases their lifespan.

Installation and overall dimensions, including length, width and profile plot of the steel plate from the backside together with a curved cast-iron beams meet all installation dimensions shortened cast iron brake pads, so you do not need any alteration is whether the fitting section colocalizes or fixing it to the wedge block checks.

As shown, the resource bimetallic pads in 30-75 times the resource of any cast iron block.

In terms of mechanical properties, the proposed block significantly exceeds the bimetal and the whole cast, especially during the final stage of wear pads before replacing, where Pets thickness of 0.16 original size its thickness.

Figure 1 shows a General view of the pad, figure 2 cut pads on plane A-a in figure 3 cylindrical insert, 4 cylindrical insert with an annular groove on the lateral surface.

Brake pad made in the form of a steel plate 1, adjacent to the arcuate curved iron bar 2 with length L, width B, thickness H, the body of which is placed a cylindrical insert 3 of diameter d, length And heat-resistant steel. The plate 1 has a profile section 4. Insert 3 is welded to the plate 1, and the entire package filled with iron, forming arcuate curved beam 2 (figure 1) located on the back side of the center cross tide with a hole for the wedge pin. The steel plate 1 is laid longitudinally under the tide and covers the entire surface of the back side of the cast-iron beam 2. In the side surfaces of the core section 4 is made open 5 under the wedge-shaped pin of colocalizes at the level of the holes in the tide. On a steel plate 1 insert 3 the size of the received two parallel rows, the distance between rows n Number of inserts in the range of 3-6, the distance between the centers of the cylindrical inserts K. Insert 3 is attached to the steel plate 1 by the contact welding. The rows of inserts 3 are expanded relative to the longitudinal axis of the pad on the corner of 16°-18° in one direction. The working surface of the cast-iron beams 2 and insert 3 has a slope of 1:20 (Fig.1-4). The area of the working surface of the pad T, t is the sum of the working surfaces of the inserts.

Figure 2 shows a cut block on plane a-a, where 1 is a steel plate with profile section 4 holds the cross tide, opening and window 5 for fixing pads wedge cotter in columntitle. The dotted line is shown welded to a steel plate insert 3.

Figure 3 shows the cylindrical insert 3.

Figure 4 shows the extreme steel cylindrical insert 3 having an annular groove on the lateral surface.

Working the friction surface of the Shoe consists of surface iron castings and surfaces of the inserts.

Insert 3 is made of ductile metal, heat-resistant steel having a higher abrasion M than the body material of the pad - cast iron s Proposed placement of inserts 3 in the body of the pad ensures a uniform contact pads with the wheel.

Work bimetallic brake pads, enshrined in sectionrowindex, press the pads to the wheelset wheelset rolling stock. When the pressing of the friction surfaces of the pads to the wheel rolling surface of the wheel contact during friction with inserts. When the first braking due to the fact that the inserts have a length less than the thickness of the cast-iron beam, is breaking the entire surface of the Shoe and the running surface of the wheel. Due to the interaction occurs elastoplastic friction with coefficient K=0,48, where the conditions for the occurrence of elastoplastic friction:

a) a body pads malleable cast iron, hardness 190-240% HB;

b) inserting a soft - steel heat-resistant, hardness 120-170% HB;

C) the rolling surface of the wheels of the rolling stock steel, hardness 195-210% HB;

g) limit thermal stability pads with preservation of the specified coefficient of friction of not lower than 1100°C.

Since the rows of inserts deployed relative to the longitudinal axis of the pad - it allows to cover a large friction surface across the pads, so the chance of catching the bully box across the width of the pad increases. This leads to less wear basics pads, increases the service life of the operation.

In addition, in longitudinal rows, the distance between the centers of the inserts were chosen so that they also shifted otnositelno each other, then the likelihood of cracking during cooling of the casting is reduced.

The proposed bimetallic strip has a more simple manufacturing technology.

The proposed solution provides a significant increase in reliability and performance brake pads, its ten times higher resource simplifies service brakes, while increasing reliability, thermal stability of the body pads to 1100°With preserving the coefficient of friction. Reduced braking distance due to elasto-plastic friction between the block and the rolling surface of the wheel due to sticking on the rolling surface of the wheel scaly particles inserts, made of soft material transported by the wheel on the rail head, which ensures the absence of "Hughes" even during emergency braking. Significantly reduces the wear of the tread surface of the wheel when using the brake pads of the proposed design.

The application stated pads reduces maintenance of rolling stock.

1. Bimetallic brake pad containing arcuate curved cast-iron beams, cast iron in the form, and the steel plate, which in a cast iron beam depart steel cylindrical insert, use two parallel rows, while the insert is made of a material higher abrasiveness, than the material of the beam, characterized in that on the rear side in the middle of the performed cross-flow hole wedge-shaped pin, a steel plate is laid longitudinally under the tide and covers the entire surface of the back side of the cast-iron beam, contains in the middle part of the profile plot, covering cross-tide, in the side surfaces of the core area of the steel plate at the level of the holes in the tide made open, while at the cylindrical insert in the ranks made with annular grooves on the lateral surface, the diameter d of each cylindrical insert is found by the formula:

d=(0,16÷0,32)·,

where d is the diameter of the cylindrical insert;

In - the width of the working surface of the pad,

and the area T of the working surface of the pad without inserts are calculated according to the formula:

T=(5,0÷9,2)·t,

where T is the surface area;

t - the amount of the working surfaces of the inserts.

2. Bimetallic brake pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the insert is made of heat-resistant steel.

3. Bimetallic brake pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the rows of inserts deployed relative to the longitudinal axis of the body of the pad in one direction by the angle α=16-18°.

4. Bimetallic brake pad according to claim 1, characterized in that each of a number which contains from 3 to 6 inserts.

5. Bimetallic brake pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the working surface of the brake pads and paste from the working surface is made with a slope of 1:20.

6. Bimetallic brake pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the distance K between the centers of the cylindrical inserts in the row found by the formula:

K=(0,17÷0,19)·L,

where K is the distance between the centers of the cylindrical inserts in the series;

L is the length of the pad.

7. Bimetallic brake pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the distance between the rows of inserts N is found by the formula:

N=(0,65÷0,7)·B,

where N is the distance between the rows of inserts;

In - the width of the working surface of the pad.

8. Bimetallic brake pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the length of the cylindrical insert And is found by the formula:

A=(0,96÷0,98)·N,

where a is the length of the cylindrical insert;

H - the thickness of the cast-iron beams.

9. Bimetallic brake pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the abrasive cast iron beams pads S find the following dependencies:

S=(0,6÷0,7)·M,

where S is the abrasiveness of cast-iron beams pads;

M - abrasion steel insert.

10. Bimetallic brake pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the steel insert is attached to a steel square is the Steen spot welding machine.



 

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3 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to brake systems of freight cars, namely, to design of brake riggings installed on bogies to transmit force of brake cylinder to brake shoes interacting with wheels. Proposed brake rigging includes vertical levers. Upper part of one of levers is connected with tie-rod of car brake system, and upper part of other lever, with shackle of dead point holder. Lower parts of vertical levers are connected by brace, and in middle parts brake beams are hinge secured being suspended through swinging suspension from brackets of side frames and connected by elastic rod installed parallel to longitudinal axis of bogie. One end of said elastic rod is secured in guide of first brake beam, and other end is mounted in guide of second brake beam for reciprocation. Novelty is that proposed brake rigging is furnished with second elastic rod connecting brake beams in mirror like manner, each elastic rod being provided with limiting head on one end and secured from side of one of brake beams by means of clamp with two coaxial holes feted on elastic rod and arranged inside guide. Bent-on wall of clamp encloses one of webs of brake beam guide and rod head. Elastic rods are installed in parallel on end parts of brake beams between brake shoe and spacer. One rod is secured in guide of first brake beam, and the other, in guide of second brake beam.

EFFECT: provision of parallel release of brake shoes from wheel roll surface at preservation of simple design.

3 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed pneumatic system of automatic brake equipment contains air distributor, spare reservoir, two subsystems "automatic mode-brake cylinder" for each cantilever part of vehicle. Each subsystem provides independent transmission of brake forces to actuating mechanism of bogie of each cantilever part in proportion to its load. Invention improves efficiency of braking of vehicles carrying loads with displaced center of gravity relative to longitudinal axis of vehicle and provides stable brake characteristics and operation reliability.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.

1 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed pneumatic system of automatic brake equipment contains air distributor, spare reservoir, two subsystems "automatic mode-brake cylinder" for each cantilever part of vehicle. Each subsystem provides independent transmission of brake forces to actuating mechanism of bogie of each cantilever part in proportion to its load. Invention improves efficiency of braking of vehicles carrying loads with displaced center of gravity relative to longitudinal axis of vehicle and provides stable brake characteristics and operation reliability.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.

1 dwg

Brake beam // 2254254

FIELD: railway transport; rail vehicle brake leverage.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake beam contains bar with string divided in middle part by brace and connected at ends by means of force transmitting unit consisting of series-mounted thrust yoke, insert, brake holder with shoe and end piece held from longitudinal displacement by means of device with flexible member. Said member is made in form of cylinder arranged between thrust surface of end piece and wedge ring whose inner surface is made in form of truncated cone engaging with outer surfaces of locks getting into conical slot made on end cylindrical surface of string.

EFFECT: provision of reliable fixing of brake holder against longitudinal displacement, possibility of easy disassembling of said unit.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed rail vehicle bogie brake includes brake main line connected through air distributor with standby reservoir and main brake cylinder hinge mounted on bogie whose piston is connected through rod and bell crank with brake shoe control leverage. Additional cylinder is hinge-mounted on vehicle bogie in parallel with main cylinder. Rod of additional cylinder is fitted in slot of shackle for translation, shackle being hinge-secured on bell crank of main brake cylinder. Piston of additional cylinder is spring-loaded from side of rod by compression spring, its underpiston space communicates with atmosphere and its overpiston space communicates with standby reservoir through pipeline.

EFFECT: prevention of self-movement of rail vehicles cut off from locomotive.

1 dwg

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