Device for enhancing aircraft stall and spin characteristics (versions)

FIELD: aircraft control and stability devices.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device is made in form of stall fences mounted on lower surface of wing or on tail section of aircraft symmetrically relative to longitudinal plane of symmetry of aircraft. Stall fences begin at distance not exceeding 2 B and end at distance of 0.3-1.0 B from respective leading edge; their maximum height reaches 0.3 B, where B is aerodynamic chord of wing at area of mounting the stall hence.

EFFECT: facilitated going out of spin.

3 cl, 10 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of aviation.

Search scientific and technical solutions aimed at improving the characteristics of stall and spin, is dictated primarily by the need to ensure the safety of aircraft operation. It is known that according to world statistics crashes about fifty percent of accidents aircraft is on these modes ("Aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack. Jbeil. the list", lecture notes TSAGI, 1990; "General aviation. Recommendations for designers", Ed. by Vgikelaps, ed. TSAGI, 2001, str).

The problem of stall and spin are critical for all types of aircraft. Particularly badly they stand for fighter aircraft in connection with the development of large angles of attack. However, the imposition of operational restrictions are not always acceptable, because in this case reduced maneuvering capabilities of the aircraft. Ensuring the safety of the flight at high angles of attack is very important for passenger and transport aircraft. The solution of the problems of flight at high angles of attack and resistance to stall and spin is very important for General aviation, administrative and training that can be operated relatively poorly trained pilots. The solution to these problems can be performed on the stage is proektirovaniya and modification of aircraft and can be done in two ways:

to meet the requirements for the characteristics of stall, spin and methods of removing formulated for each specific type of aircraft (fighter, passenger, administrative, training, sports, etc.);

- search aerodynamic configurations of aircraft that do not have uncontrollable spin modes.

The present invention is intended to solve the problems of the stall and spin in the first of these directions.

I. a device in the form of so-called Λ - influx wing having an edge reverse sweep in the place of its junction with the fuselage (Uchenye Zapiski TSAGI, I. XXVII, No. 1-2, 1996, Sagdeev Y.S., Golovkin, VA, Golovkin M.A., Dolzhenko N.N.). Setting this Λ - influx leads to the separation of vortex bundles formed on the forward fuselage, and the influx of the wing. As a result, when there is sliding under the leeward vortex harness influx propagating along the leeward wing, a smaller discharge and implemented smaller lifting force causing the stabilizing moment of the roll, and hence improves the character of the aircraft's stall.

The disadvantage of this device is the inability of its application on the aircraft without the influx of the wing.

The closest known who's technical solutions is a device in the form of ridges (ribs), mounted on the upper surface of the wing perpendicular to it (United States Patent Number: 5,575,442 Date: Nov.19, 1996; Guided Wing for Aircraft Flying at high Angeles of Attack. Tsze C.Tai, Potomac, Md. The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D.C.). The installation of these ridges leads to the tightening angle of attack stall on the upper surface of the wing.

The disadvantage of this device is that it is not intended to increase lateral stability, and hence improve the stall characteristics of the wing. Moreover, such ridges on the upper surface of the wing lead to a deterioration of the transverse stability of the wing, and hence the wing. This is due, firstly, to the fact that boosting, i.e. the deceleration of the flow, realizing when there is a slip with the windward sides of these ridges, because of a difference of the shoulders causes a destabilizing torque roll, which contributes to the wing. Secondly, when there is a slip with the leeward sides of the aerodynamic ridges are formed vortex bundles, the pressure under which raises a couple of additional positive normal forces on the upper wing surface, which is caused by the difference of the shoulders on the right and left wing consoles lead to destabilizing point roll.

The objective of the invention is to improve the lateral stability of the characteristics of the IAS is the air traffic management aircraft wing, the delay angle of attack occurrence of the plane into a spin, increasing the safety of operation.

The technical result is achieved in that the device for improving the characteristics of stall and spin plane contains a plate in the form of aerodynamic ridges that are installed symmetrically about the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the plane on the bottom surface of the wing. Aerodynamic ridges begin no later than 0.2 V, end at a distance of 0.3÷1,0V from the leading edge of the wing and have a maximum height to 0,3V, where in - aerodynamic chord of the wing in the place of installation of the wind crest.

This geometry of the device and its position is selected on the basis of theoretical estimates and experimental studies using weight measurements and visualization of vortex bundles formed in the presence of slip-on aerodynamic ridges on the lower surface of the wing model aircraft, conducted in Aero - and hydrodynamic pipes. Boosting, braking of the thread before such aerodynamic ridges that implements around with slip leads from the windward sides of the aerodynamic ridges, standing on the right and left wing consoles, to implement additional positive normal forces on these parts of the wing, and the difference of the shoulders on which they are implemented, to create what s additional stabilizing torque roll. In addition, when the wrap with slip on these aerodynamic ridges with their leeward sides form a free vortex bundles, which are carried down the stream in such a way that under the windward console vortex harness approaching the plane of symmetry of the aircraft, and under the Lee - moving away from it. Wrap individual aerodynamic crest can be approximately estimated in accordance with the scheme Lphandle (mirror plane), as the flow around a wing of small aspect ratio. Whence it follows that the intensity of the trailing vortex bundles on such a wing depends on the area of the wing, i.e. in the present case, from the length and height of the wind crest.

Formed geometry of the proposed device provides a sufficient intensity of vortex bundles that come with aerodynamic ridges, and consequently, a high degree of vacuum on the lower surface of the wing where it passes these vortex bundles. As a result of this depression on the lower surface of the wing on these vortex bundles there are some downward normal force, and the difference of the shoulders, which sold these accessions also provides the increment stabilizing torque roll. Pinch aerodynamic ridges to the front edge of the wing can increase the discard is the free vortex harness from the plane of installation of the aerodynamic ridges, what contributes to the increase of the stabilizing torque roll. To increase the positive effect of the device can be applied to several pairs of such aerodynamic ridges.

In figure 1, 2 shows a General view of the proposed device to improve the characteristics of stall and spin of the aircraft in different versions of its execution.

Figure 3 shows the mechanism of formation of a stabilizing roll moment of the aircraft using the proposed device.

Figure 4 shows a comparison of the characteristics of lateral static stability for model aircraft with the proposed device and without it (original version)when tested in a wind tunnel, depending on the angle of attack α. The characteristic lateral static stability is a derivative of the coefficient of roll moment mxangle slip β: mxβ=∂mx/∂β. It has the dimension [1/deg], deg - degrees.

Device for improving the characteristics of stall and spin plane contains the aerodynamic ridges 1, mounted symmetrically relative to the longitudinal plane of symmetry 2 plane 3 on the bottom surface 4 of the wing 5. Aerodynamic ridges begin no later than 0.2V,end at a distance of 0.3÷1,0V from the front edge 6 of the wing and have a Maxim the optimum height to 0,3V, where in - aerodynamic chord of the wing in the place of installation of the wind crest. The number of installed wind crests even and can be equal to 2, 4, 6, etc.

Consider the operation of the device to enhance the performance of stall and spin plane for example, when the aircraft is equipped with two wind crest (figure 1). The work consists in the following. The device works like a machine, preventing the development of the movement roll. When flying a plane at angles of attack near stall, begins to develop the movement with the slide. In the presence of the glide angle β when installing aerodynamic ridges under the wing are two positive effects. First, when there is a slip with the windward sides of the aerodynamic ridges creates a backwater, the deceleration of the flow (figure 3). This leads to the creation of additional positive normal forces are equal Y1and Y2and by the difference in the shoulders L1=l0+ΔL1, L2=l0-ΔL2creates growth stabilizing torque rollΔMx1≈2ΔLY+where l0- the distance along the axis OZ of the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the aircraft to the wing sections, which provide aerodynamic ridges; Y+≈Y1≈Y2;Ɗ L≈ΔL1ΔL2- the distance along the axis OZ from sections of the wing, which is equipped with aerodynamic ridges, to the center of application of the forces Y1and Y2. Secondly, when there is a slip with the leeward sides of the aerodynamic ridges develops over with the formation of the tear-vortex harness coming down from the edges of the aerodynamic ridges. Vortex harness G1formed under the windward wing, approaching the plane of symmetry of the wing and the vortex harness G2formed under the Lee console - on the contrary - distant from the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the aircraft. Over eddy wiring on the lower surface of the wing is implemented vacuum, resulting in the integral is approximately equal to an additional, negative normal forces Y3, Y4and by the difference in the shoulders l1=l0-Δl1, l2=l0+Δl2creates a gain stabilizing torque rollΔMx2≈2ΔlY-where Y-≈Y3≈Y4Δl≈Δl1Δl2- the distance along the axis OZ from sections of the wing, which has aerodynamic ridges, to the center of the application, forces Y3and Y4. Thus, the installation of the device h is the plane in the presence of slip will act total additional stabilizing point roll ΔMx=ΔMx1+ΔMx2preventing stalling of the aircraft wing and the development of a corkscrew. To increase the positive effect may have multiple pairs of such aerodynamic ridges. From figure 4 it is seen that the model aircraft with installed on it the product more stable in roll than the model in the original version. Mathematical modeling of the dynamics of motion of the aircraft with the proposed device, and without him, and flight experiments on the Yak-52M showed that the plane with the proposed device does not have a stall on the wing, if not to provoke sharp movement of the pedals and handles to the side, but has a soft parachuting without the development spiral, corkscrew-like movement.

II. It is known device in the form of ridges (ribs)that are installed on the upper surface of the wing perpendicular to it (United States Patent Number: 5,575,442, Date: Nov.19, 1996; Guided Wing for Aircraft Flyiny at high Angles of Attack. Tsze C.Tai, Potomac, Md. The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy, Washiuyton, D..)Ustanovka such ridges leads to the tightening angle of attack stall on the upper surface of the wing.

The disadvantage of this device is that it is not intended to increase lateral stability, and hence improve the characteristics of stall and spin.

Know protelos the landing gear for aircraft, allowing the pilot of the plane, got into a spin, if you wish to stop it. It has aerodynamic ridge, one side of which is fixed at the bottom of the rear fuselage of the aircraft, and the other, the lever is able to rotate around the pivot bearing on the plane. The lever is effected by means of a power cylinder. In the normal position of the device folded (France, Patent: 2,050,256 () [69 23290]. - 9 jailed 1969. In 64 5/00 - Diapositif anti-vrille pour aerodyne. - Y.Gardan). At the command of the pilot power cylinder rotates the lever, thus causing the release of the wind crest in a position in which it is almost parallel to the plane of symmetry of the aircraft. This increases the damping factor (damping properties of the tail, and the spin stops. After stopping the spin of the pilot by means of a power cylinder to return the system to its original position.

The disadvantages of this device are:

- the device is not designed to improve stall characteristics, i.e. prevent the aircraft in the spin mode;

- the device does not improve the corkscrew and not dead in advance, before getting into the spin mode;

- the complexity of the design due to the necessity of folding devices at cruise flight conditions; special drive for production and harvesting of such devices;

- greater EU design of such device, especially due to the presence of actuator for cleaning and release.

A device in the form of one or two vertical aerodynamic ridges that are installed from the bottom in the tail of the aircraft (the aircraft. Encyclopedia, chief editor Gpicview, scientific publishing house: "Great Russian encyclopedia". Central Aero-hydrodynamic Institute. Professor N.E. Zhukovsky, M., 1994; str - MiG-21, MiG-31; str - su-27). The installation of such aerodynamic ridges leads to high angles of attack to increase directional stability and damping of rotation when conventional vertical tail does not provide them enough due to aerodynamic shading.

The disadvantage of this device is that it does not improve lateral stability, and therefore, stall, and not delaying the angle of attack of the development of spin motion.

The objective of the invention is to improve the aerodynamic characteristics - lateral and directional static stability, damping of rotation, and consequently, improve the stall characteristics of the wing, the tightening angle of attack reference plane in the spin mode, reducing the angular speed of rotation in the spin and thereby simplifying the exit plane of the spin and increased safety of operation.

Technical is such a result is achieved by the device for improving the characteristics of stall spin plane contains the surface in the form of aerodynamic ridges in the tail of the aircraft, as well as additional aerodynamic ridges that are installed symmetrically about the plane of symmetry of the plane on the bottom surface of the wing. These additional aerodynamic ridges begin at a distance no further than 0.2V,end at a distance of 0.3÷1,0V from the leading edge of the wing and have a maximum height to 0,3V, where in - aerodynamic chord of the wing in the place of installation of the wind crest.

This geometry of the device and the location of the aerodynamic ridges selected on the basis of theoretical estimates and experimental studies conducted in wind tunnels. Wind ridge (or ridges) in the tail of the aircraft at high angles of attack increase the directional stability and damping of the rotation of the corkscrew. The mechanism of improvement of characteristics of the directional static stability and damping of the rotation of the wind crest is as follows.

Drag the comb (comb) in the tail of the aircraft operating as a wing of small aspect ratio, streamlined flow with slip or angular velocity of rotation, to create lateral force, contributing to the increase is ateway stability and damping of the rotation of the plane. Installing aerodynamic ridges on the lower surface of the wing increases the lateral stability of the aircraft and thereby prevents stalling of the aircraft wing. Installing aerodynamic ridges in the tail of the plane and on the lower surface of the wing allows the complex to solve the problem by improving the dynamic stability characteristics on the corner of the slip. Feature dynamic stability angle of slip is determined by the characteristics of the directional and lateral static stability, the ratio of moments of inertia with respect to axes OX and OY and the angle of attack. Installation of the proposed device, as shown by experimental and computational studies, can significantly improve the behavior of the aircraft at a critical flight modes when the stall and spin.

Afflux, the deceleration of the flow in front of aerodynamic ridges mounted on the lower surface of the wing, implemented with the flow with slip leads from the windward sides of the aerodynamic ridges, standing on the right and left wing consoles, to implement additional positive normal forces on these parts of the wing, and the difference of the shoulders on which they are implemented, an additional stabilizing torque roll. In addition, when the wrap with slip on these aerodynamic ridges with their p is Derenik sides form a free vortex bundles, which drifted down the stream in such a way that under the windward console vortex harness approaching the plane of symmetry of the aircraft, and under the Lee - moving away from it. Wrap individual wind of this ridge can be approximately estimated in accordance with the scheme Lphandle (mirror plane), as the flow around a wing of small aspect ratio. Whence it follows that the intensity of the trailing vortex bundles on such a wing depends on the area of the wing, i.e. in the present case, from the length and height of the wind crest.

Formed geometry of the proposed device provides a sufficient intensity of vortex bundles that come with such aerodynamic ridges, and consequently, a high degree of vacuum on the lower surface of the wing where it passes these vortex bundles. As a result of this depression on the lower surface of the wing on these vortex bundles there are some downward lifting force, and the difference of the shoulders, which sold these accessions also provides growth stabilizing torque roll. Pinch aerodynamic ridges to the front edge of the wing can increase the deviation of the free vortex harness from the plane of installation of the aerodynamic ridges, which contributes to the increase of stabiliziruemost roll. To increase the positive effect of the device can be applied to several pairs of aerodynamic ridges on the lower surface of the wing.

Figure 5, 6 show the General options of the device to enhance the performance of stall and spin plane.

7 shows the mechanism of formation of a stabilizing roll moment of the aircraft using the proposed device.

On Fig shows a comparison of the characteristics of the directional static stability of the myβand damping relative to the OY axis rotationmodel aircraft with aerodynamic crest, installed in the tail of the aircraft, and without it (original version)when tested in a wind tunnel, depending on the angle of attack α. The directional characteristic of static stability is a derivative of the coefficient of yawing moment myangle slip β: myβ=∂my/∂β. It has the dimension [1/deg], deg. - degree. The characteristic damping rotation is a derived coefficient myon projectionthe dimensionless angular velocity of rotationon the OY axis, where- dimensional angular velocity of rotation of Frediano, l - wingspan, V is the linear velocity of incoming flow.

Figure 9 placed comparison of the characteristics of the static stability of the aircraft defined on the lower surface of the wing aerodynamic ridges and without them (prototype)when tested in a wind tunnel, depending on the angle of attack α. The characteristic lateral static stability is a derivative of the coefficient of roll moment mxangle slip β: mxβ=∂mx/∂β. It has the dimension [1/deg], deg - degrees.

Figure 10 shows the comparison of characteristics of dynamic stability angle of slip plane model with the proposed device and the prototype. Feature dynamic stability angle of slip is an expression: σβ=myβcosα+mxβsinα(Iy/Ix), where Ix, Iythe moments of inertia of plane with respect to the axes OX and OY, respectively.

Device for improving the characteristics of stall and spin plane contains the aerodynamic combs (comb) 1 in the tail of the aircraft 2. On the bottom surface 3 wing 4 plane symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal plane of symmetry 5 installed additional aerodynamic g is ebni 6. Additional aerodynamic ridges begin no later than 0.2V,end at a distance of 0.3÷1,0V from the front edge 7 of the wing and have a maximum height to 0,3V, where in - aerodynamic chord 9 wing in the place of installation of the wind crest. The number of aerodynamic ridges that are installed on the lower surface of the wing, and even can be equal to 2, 4, 6, etc.

Consider the operation of the device to enhance the performance of stall and spin plane. When flying a plane at angles of attack near stall, drag a comb (comb) in the tail of the plane creates additional travel time, increase the sustainability of the aircraft in yaw. However, it does not contributes to the stability of the roll when flying with slip and prevents or not delaying the angle of attack stall, which can develop as a result of disruptive events on the upper surface of the wing or sudden movements by the pilot pedals (on roll) and rudder (yaw). Consider the additional aerodynamic ridges that are installed on the lower surface of the wing, for example, when the two of them. These additional aerodynamic combs work as the machine, preventing the development of the movement roll. In the presence of slip β when installing add is lnyh aerodynamic ridges under the wing are two positive effects. First, when there is a slip with the windward sides of the aerodynamic ridges creates a backwater, the deceleration of the flow (7). This leads to the creation of additional, positive normal forces are equal Y1and Y2but due to the difference shoulders L1=l0+ΔL1, L2=l0-ΔL2creates growth stabilizing torque rollΔMx1=2ΔLY+where l0- the distance along the axis OZ of the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the aircraft to the wing sections, which provide additional aerodynamic ridges; Y+≈Y1≈Y2;ΔL≈ΔL1ΔL2- the distance along the axis OZ from sections of the wing, which is equipped with aerodynamic ridges, to the center of application of the forces Y1and Y2. Secondly, when there is a slip with the leeward sides of the aerodynamic ridges develops over with the formation of the tear-vortex harness coming off the edges more aerodynamic ridges. Vortex harness G1formed under the windward wing, approaching the plane of symmetry of the wing and the vortex harness G2forming under the Lee console, on the contrary moves away from the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the aircraft. Over eddy wiring on the bottom surface is the surface of the wing is implemented, the vacuum resulting in the integral is approximately equal to an additional, negative normal forces Y3, Y4and by the difference in the shoulders l1=l0-Δl1, l2=l0+Δl2creates an increase in additional stabilizing torque rollΔMx2=2ΔlY-where Y-≈Y3≈Y4;Δl≈Δl1Δl2- the distance along the axis OZ from sections of the wing, which established additional aerodynamic ridges, to the center of application of the forces Y3and Y4. Thus, the installation of additional aerodynamic ridges on the plane in the presence of slip will act total additional stabilizing point rollΔMx=ΔMx1+ΔMx2preventing stalling of the aircraft wing and the development of a corkscrew. To increase the positive effect may have multiple pairs of such additional aerodynamic ridges.

From Fig.9, 10, shows that the model aircraft with the attached additional aerodynamic ridges on the lower surface of the wing more resilient roll, and has a greater dynamic stability than the prototype. Mathematical modeling of the dynamics of plane motion with proposed the m device and without it, and flight tests on the Yak-52M showed that the plane with the proposed device does not have a stall on the wing, if not to provoke sharp movement of the pedals and handles to the side, and has a soft parachuting without the development spiral, corkscrew-like movement. If the pilot sharp movement of the pedals and the handle sideways enters the aircraft into a spin, the spin is less oscillatory and with a substantially smaller angular speed. The output plane, even from a developed spin mode is carried out within one and a half to two turns, which is substantially less than for aircraft prototype (up to three turns).

1. Device for improving the characteristics of stall and spin the plane containing the surface in the form of aerodynamic ridges on the surface of the wing, characterized in that on the lower surface of the wing is symmetrical relative to the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the aircraft is equipped with additional aerodynamic ridges that begin at a distance of not more than 0.2 V, end at a distance of 0.3÷1.0 in from the front edge of the wing and have a maximum height of up to 0.3, where in - aerodynamic chord of the wing in the place of installation of the wind crest.

2. Device for improving the characteristics of stall and spin the plane containing the surface in the form of aerodynamic ridges is in the tail of the plane, characterized in that the additional aerodynamic ridges placed symmetrically relative to the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the plane on the bottom surface of the wing, start at a distance of not more than 0.2 V, end at a distance of 0.3÷1.0 in from the front edge of the wing and have a maximum height of up to 0.3, where in - aerodynamic chord of the wing in the place of installation of the wind crest.



 

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