Method of flight operations organization

FIELD: aerodynamics; designing of flying vehicles, organization of aircraft motion in water.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in forming regular structures for finding the conditions when axis of natural vortices is directed not in way of flow but at any angle required by conditions of flow. Infinite sequence of artificial vortices is similar to roller bearing located between body and medium. Proposed method provides for creating the lifting force for flying vehicle on base of proposed model of flowing around solid bodies by continuous media. Proposed method consists in forming the determined vortices on upper surface of wing which are directed to overwing flap where they are broken. Vortices rolling over upper surface of wing without sliding increase in size. Their destruction within overwing flap results in increase of pressure, thus creating lifting force for aircraft.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

8 cl, 8 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of Aero - and hydrodynamics and without limitation, can be used to wrap technical devices, both liquid and gaseous environment. When creating a deterministic vortex required due to energy saving can be achieved considerable economic effect.

Modern aircraft generate lift force of the desired magnitude at the expense of area of its wings. At the same time, modern advances in the study of the fine structure of the laminar sublayer of a turbulent boundary layerâ„– 2146779 [1], 2159363 [2] allow for a new look and mechanics of swimming and flying creatures, than it is done in the work 2110702 [3], CL F 16 D 1/00. The findings of wildlife and push on the idea of the invention in the organization of flight of the aircraft.

All modern technology is based on the principle of forming a laminar flow of technical devices by creating a perfect aerodynamic form. At the same time, there is a possibility of a drastic reduction of energy consumption for traffic organization technical devices of any type by forming the auxiliary device of the deterministic vortices moving along the streamlined surface in the direction required to create the optimal amount of energy. The creation of a wall with the second deterministic artificially generated sequence of vortices translate the fluid in a state close to the state of superfluidity.

In engineering there have been attempts to reduce one way or another hydrodynamic resistance to movement of the body in water or in air. One of these attempts is the logic applied in patentsâ„– 2146779 [1], 2159363 [2], 2110702 [3], CL F 16 D 1/00. Based on experimental work conducted [1], [2] in the present patent proposes a method of reducing energy consumption per organization currents by interacting supplied from the outside of sinusoidal perturbations of the stream with the experimentally detected coherent structures located in the immediate vicinity of the streamlined surface.

Experimental studies [1], [2] the authors of the patents it was found that the flow of the medium flowing round the motionless body, and regularly appears regularly destroyed the coherent structure of the diverging pairs of vortices. Thus the axis of rotation of all vortices directed flow. They revolve, and therefore diverge in the direction perpendicular to the direction of flow. And because the flow of their blows, then the trajectory of the vortices another coherent structures in the period of its existence take the form of Christmas trees, with angle trajectories in grey, depending on its speed.

The main part of the vortex is destroyed after some time. But some of them its axis of rotation to change from horizontal to vertical, making a slow-moving mass of the environment in a rapidly moving stream boundary layer, thereby turbulize it. The transition from laminar flow to turbulent increases aerodynamic drag by about 40%.

Proposed as discussed in patents receiving intent of the laminar < / span > flow. Because the experimentally found structure of paired vortices regular character. And hopefully, specially selected sound vibrations or regularly spaced bumps on the surface of the streamlined body will interact with the structure of paired vortices.

Therefore, the basic technical idea of patents is hoped that the interaction regularly supplied perturbations with the vortex flow will be throttled mechanism changes the axis of rotation of the vortices from horizontal to vertical. And instead of turbulent nature of the flow will be laminar in nature, and therefore the loss of energy to overcome the resistance of the environment falls to 40%. But instead of the expected 40% of the experimental results were obtained by decreasing the resistance of only 7%.

The hope of the authors discussed patent which would be justified, if coherent patterns from divergent vortices would arise in the stream only at the moment of turbulence. But nothing suggests that coherent patterns of divergent vortices are absent in laminar flow. The study authors say it is only that the flow turbulent only the individual, the bent axis of its rotation, vortices of objectively existing and prior to that coherent structures of the pair of the separating vortices. By the way, and in laminar and turbulent flow losses viscous friction, according to the authors of the present invention, and are energy losses on a regular creation and destruction of the coherent structures of the pair of the separating vortices.

So the flow in the flow sinusoidal oscillations with parameters close to the parameters of the coherent structures of the separating vortices should not give significant effect. After all, the objective occurrence of coherent structures in the laminar sublayer of the boundary layer does not allow to hope for the possibility of at least partial, and the more complete destruction. But if the vortices cannot be destroyed, can you try to use them? Wildlife and supplies us with examples of usage occur in the flow vortices.

Described in [3] research suggests that a flying creature create a lifting force while in the Maha down and during the swing up. In the opinion of the authors of the present invention, a mechanism for creating a lifting force during swing up is concluded that, say, birds usefully used in its flight artificially created by them paired vortices arising from the interaction of parts of their wings with their flowing body of air flow. This is evidenced by repeatedly mentioned in [3] the effect of the descent of the vortices from the trailing edges of the wings of a bird.

When the flow around a stationary wall of the air flow in the laminar sublayer of the boundary layer with the objective inevitability formed a coherent system of paired vortices. For optimal organization of the flight of the bird is required to form the system of paired vortices, but only one pair of divergent vortices, each of which comes with the corresponding wing. The remaining vortices of coherent systems must be crushed. So the body of the bird in flight has a form similar to the swept, the essential role which has a beak, forming the top of the boom. Moreover, depending on the flight speed of the sweep of their body changes, as figure 1 demonstrates, the sketches of parrot in the slow (a), middle (b) and fast (in) speed flight, borrowed from [3].

In the top of the boom could not form a coherent system of diverging vortex is, and can form only one pair. Each of the resulting vortices without interference reaches the corresponding wing. In order vortices on the wing has not collapsed, the dynamics of wave up should have a definite mechanism, push the vortex on the surface of the wing.

And really, the wing does not rise up as a whole, and begins to prepare to swing down. In the final moment of the phase of the wave down the flight feathers of the wing go down in order to reduce the wing area when lifting up. Serves the same purpose and wing bending in the wrist joint. But at the end of the movement of the wing up it should be ready to make the move down: i.e. to have the appropriate angle of attack.

Therefore, the ends of the flight feathers of the wing shape during swing up running across its surface wave. When it is required to sweep down the angle of attack of the wing begins to form from the body of the bird, a traveling wave moving in the direction of the tip of the wing. Most clearly this mechanism can be seen in the top view on a flying bird. But this conclusion allows us to do the analysis frames of high-speed filming (also borrowed from [3], shown in figure 2. the first flight of a dove.

An important role in the formation of the beak of a pair of vortices plays a sharp movement of the wings in the wrist joint is at the end of the stroke down, clearly visible on the frame 2. Since the pair of vortices should be formed beak at any speed flight. I.e. when slow and fast flight beak is obliged to form a pair of vortices faster than the plane of the wing is formed of a coherent system of paired vortices. This and promotes rapid movement of the end of the wing down in a final stage of movement of the wing down as a whole.

Running on the wing wave of primaries before pushing a corresponding vortex, not allowing it to break down and giving him additional kinetic energy. And the vortex generated by the bill passing through the upper surface of the wing is coming off the rear end. I.e. when you swing up to the upper surface of each wing of a bird, the sliding friction is replaced by the rolling friction. On the lower surface of the wing when the flap up, still operates the sliding friction. Because down the flight feathers of the wing create during swing up more resistance, thereby accelerating the formation on the lower surface of the wing coherent system of vortices.

The difference acting on different surfaces of the wing force of rolling friction and sliding friction and generates a lifting force on the phase of the swing wing up. The stroke of the same wing down and lifting power, and traction are formed of standard aerodynamic acceptance by the used is of the desired angle of attack. Thus, birds in flight effective use of the phenomenon that occurs when the wrapping their bodies in the air stream.

Described in [1], [2] coherent vortices laminar sublayer of the boundary layer are small. Coming down from the wings of birds vortices have macroscopic dimensions that can detect them. I.e. muscular efforts birds on the movement of the vortex on the surface of the wing lead to an increase in its size. And replacement coherent system of vortices to move the wing of a single vortex is accompanied by energy costs.

At the gathering of the vortex from the wing of a bird, this energy is wasted. But accumulated in the vortex kinetic energy because you and use. And wildlife provides us with an example of such use. And this example is the organization of beetles mechanism of its flight.

The laws of aerodynamics are unable to explain what makes flying beetles. Because the area of the wings is quite insufficient to create a lifting force that allows you to keep in the air their weight. But according to the authors of the present invention, evolution has allowed the beetles to use effectively accumulated in the vortices of energy, which is spent by the birds when they are leaving the rear wings.

Unlike other insects forewings of beetles evolution has transformed the hard nacrelli, who do not participate in primaries movements of the hind wings. At first glance hard nacrelli seemingly useless item structure beetles. But if we consider the existence of divergent pairs of vortices, nacrelli should play a significant role in organizing the flight of beetles.

If birds are preparing for the phase of the wave down start from his body, then, according to the authors, bugs, this technique must start from the tips of the wings. Accordingly, the vortices generated at the tips of the wings of beetles, are sent to their body, get into nacrelli and destroyed them. Absorbed by nacrelli the kinetic energy of the vortices and creates additional lift force, which allowed the beetles to reduce the size of their wings.

According to the authors of the present invention fish for their swimming use a combination of techniques used by birds and beetles. Head of the fish formed a pair of divergent vortices that move on her sides. And poultry, and fish accompany the generated vortices traveling wave. The role of flight feathers of birds, forming a traveling wave, plays a seemingly useless at first glance) fish scales or muscle wave, say the dolphins.

And the tail part of the fish the eddies reach macroscopic dimensions. And when Mahe tail from a Central position outside the fish uses Ki is micescu energy vortexes, reaching this point of the tail. On the one hand tail of the vortex comes with it without damage, replacing sliding friction with rolling friction. On the other hand, the tail forms the analogue of nakrylo beetle, which collapses the corresponding vortex. Accordingly, when Mahe tail to one side with him coming off a whirlwind one direction of rotation. When Mahe same tail in the other direction with it comes the whirlwind the other direction of rotation.

The same movement of the fish tail from the extreme to the Central position corresponds to the Mach wing of a bird down. During movement from the Central position at fish tail catches the corresponding wave from one side of the body that reached it from the head, and destroys it. Therefore, in this phase of movement on one side of the tail has a rolling friction and sliding friction. The difference arising forces and forms traction.

The aim of the invention is to develop the organization's way of flying aircrafts, using the principles of its organization, found living nature.

The invention and its distinguishing features.

Since the propulsion of living beings perform multiple functions at once, then, for example, those beetles are not able to develop on both surfaces of its wings the vortices move in the same direction. Change the wing shape they form the motion of vortices required only on one of its surfaces.

Besides, birds, and beetles do not change the details of the fine structure of the laminar sublayer of the boundary layer. Complication of the movement of their wings they organize only the desired duration artificially generated single vortices, eliminating it at the same time and from the formation of the coherent structures of the separating vortices. Therefore, at low cost energy they reach high speeds of flight.

In our man-made aircraft function of the propulsion device and the function of maintaining the apparatus in the air are separated. And creates a lifting force of the wings unchanged shape is formed naturally in such circumstances, coherent system of vortices, regular destruction and formation of which are accompanied by viscous energy losses.

To create the same sequence of single vortices desired direction, replacing the sliding friction by rolling friction, we must enter into the design of the aircraft separate device that is able to create vortices required on one or both surfaces of the wing.

Therefore, the essence and distinctive feature of the present invention is such a method of organizing the flow environment of the aircraft, in which the sliding friction on its wings is replaced by rolling friction at the same time generated sequence of deterministic single vortices. In one embodiment, the vortices move in the direction of ydqrylb located at either the airframe or on the ends of its wings or in the middle portion thereof. Nacrelli are a significant part of the considered variant of the ways to increase the value of the lifting force.

And following the hint living beings, we need to build a sequence of single vortices, and not to use naturally occurring in flight vortices. For the formation of this sequence it is necessary to understand the mechanism of formation of coherent systems of pairs of divergent vortex that will help in selecting the waveform to form a single deterministic vortices with the desired direction of movement. According to the authors of the present invention, this mechanism can be described as follows.

Modern Aerohydrodynamics rests on the representation of the fluid as a continuous environments. At the same time, it is well known that a liquid medium and a gaseous medium (the latter at least in the immediate vicinity of a solid surface) are polycrystalline structures with short-range order, quickly changing its instantaneous state.

The polycrystalline structure of any environment is not continuous and dis the specific education. And when you move the selected element from one place to another it is necessary to consider the environment for the provision of free volume to move. I.e. consideration of the current discrete environments requires consideration of the behavior of the individual material particles, but also the availability of free volume between them. The necessity of accounting for the presence of free volume forces us to relate the course to the class of cooperative phenomena.

The most characteristic, described in detail an example of the flow of discrete media is for granular media, described in [4] (Substauce, Adipurana. On the kinematics of granular materials are relatively hard surfaces. - Physico-technical problems of development of mineral resources, 1975, No. 1, p.86-88). At the expiration of the bulk material through the openings of the hoppers concentrators [4] the free volume between the grains or rock fragments is not enough to for the purposes of the current to move one or another element of the granular medium in free space. So in granular media free space environment obbsessed, providing cooperative needs as reversible and irreversible deformations.

Socialization in some within the free volume results in the formation in the environment of dynamic, elastic structures (ODA is delanote call their agglomerates), which are deformed during the period as a whole. Depending on the flow conditions generated quite certain the average size of the agglomerate. I.e. to ensure the free flow volume depersonalized, uniting within the agglomerate, without energy freely moving in required under the terms of the current location.

Over time the debris from different agglomerates are combined, again forming larger education, which over time will be divided again. I.e. in the flow of granular media "reversible" deformation agglomerates side by side with their "irreversible deformations that Deplete the existing aglomerate the structure of the environment. The last and present directly over the granular medium.

It is obvious that in the boundary layer directly on the surface of the streamlined rigid body must also form agglomerates of microcrystalline appropriate environment (merged in a single whole socialized by the free volume). And since any crystal structure has a certain durability, at the border with a solid surface environment can either skim the surface, or to adhere to it.

But the environment can no longer stick to the outer boundary layer to the unperturbed flow, and internal boundary layer to the surface of the TV is Gogo body. And because on the border with the unperturbed medium flow in the boundary layer is almost absent, the environment in the boundary layer clearly adheres to its external border.

Thus, the mechanical properties of polycrystalline structure of the environment dictate that the environment glided over the surface of the streamlined her body. The friction of sliding generates shear stresses. Any type of flow is accompanied by the formation of the velocity gradient normal to the surface of the streamlined body. But the velocity gradient must be accompanied by the formation of a stress gradient. I.e. normal to the surface of the streamlined body occurs the stress gradient.

But as explained above, directly from the surface of the streamlined body is formed agglomerates from microcrystalline environment. The volume of agglomerates, there is a stress gradient. At the same time in the direction of flow is tangential stresses does not change in size, i.e. the stress gradient in this direction does not exist. In the direction perpendicular to both the flow and the surface of a solid body, the agglomerates are in the context of the existing stress gradient.

The agglomerate can be considered as a relatively solid education, with a certain strength. Therefore, incumbent on him the stress gradient can be represented as achiev that steps on solid pair of forces of different sizes, acting on opposite point. And these forces must have the direction perpendicular to the stress gradient. And because the direction of flow of the stress gradient is absent, in this direction and may not be of the moment of forces.

The moment forces generated by the stress gradient should cause rotational movement of the agglomerate. This is the mechanism of formation of the vortex. In accordance with the law of conservation of angular momentum in these circumstances may occur only a pair of vortices with opposite directions of rotation. Note that the absence of a stress gradient in the flow direction does not create the corresponding moment of forces, and hence the generated vortices cannot rotate in this direction.

Moreover, we must note that the shear stresses not only pull in the direction of the flow of matter agglomerate, but in the same direction rebuild and free memory, acquiring the form of elongated flow threads. I.e. any gaps in the flow direction in the structure of the agglomerate does not exist. At the same time, these breaks are formed hollow filaments in the direction perpendicular to the flow. I.e. the vortices have the opportunity to emerge only in the direction where they have freedom to move in the same direction acts and the PTO is t forces, seeking to lead the agglomerate in a rotary motion.

Thus, the direction of rotation of the vortices must be perpendicular to both the direction of the gradient, and the threads of the free volume. And because the thread was directed at the stream, the direction of motion of the vortices should be perpendicular to the flow, and the vortices can move only on the surface of the streamlined body or on the outer border of the laminar sublayer.

For this reason, experimentally found in [1], [2], the vortices form a coherent system of paired, divergent vortices at regular intervals collapsing and emerging directly from the surface of the streamlined body. And the axis of rotation of the formed vortices directed by the stream.

Naturally generated vortices always roll on the same surface. And since they have opposite directions of rotation, that is why they diverge. Moreover, the direction of the stress gradient allows to determine the surface on which the roll naturally generated vortices. When a body moves in a stationary environment, the stress value decreases from the surface of the body deep into the boundary layer (the force at the surface of the body more strength at the surface of the laminar sublayer), medium separates from the body surface and the roll vortices on the surface of the laminar sublayer. When moving the Reda relative to the stationary body, the stress value decreases towards the surface of the body, the vortices roll on the surface of the body.

For stationary as the existence of vortices in the flow with simultaneous replacement of sliding friction rolling friction is necessary so to arrange the course so that the axis of rotation of the vortices with the longitudinal direction turned in perpendicular to the flow direction. While it is important that the generated vortices rolled over each other. And this is only the case when one vortex rolls on the body surface and the second surface of the laminar sublayer. And only in this case the vortex, rolling on the surface of the streamlined body and receives from him the energy will be able to offset losses on the rolling friction of the second vortex, rolling along the surface of the boundary laminar sublayer. And because once formed a sequence of vortices will not deteriorate over time in a wide range of flow conditions, it will be sharply reduced losses by viscous friction.

For this we need to create a signal asymmetrical shapes. Indeed, due to the inertia of any environment for the formation of a single vortex takes time. And if on a stationary component of the pressure or dynamic pressure to impose a sinusoidal or similar, symmetrical signal, which began to form a vortex in one direction of rotation on the rising area of sinusoids immediately be R is zrusin emerging swirl the opposite direction of rotation on the descending section of the sinusoid. And formed symmetrical signal vortices will mutually destroy each other.

So, naturally formed vortices occur in the presence of a stress gradient changing in the direction perpendicular to the flow. Therefore, for the required organization currents on the stationary component of the pressure (dynamic pressure) it is necessary to impose a signal that creates a stress gradient in the flow direction. And significant feature, suggesting wildlife: signal generated by the longitudinal stress gradient should be such that the signal generated by the vortices were created before will be able to naturally form another coherent system of pairs of divergent vortex.

This sharp increase or reduction of the dynamic pressure for a controlled area in the flow direction will either be stretched or compressed. I.e. this will create a positive or negative stress gradient in the flow direction, which is necessary for the desired organization of the flow. Under dynamic pressure refers to the dynamic pressure of the current on the surface of the body environment, determined by the Pitot tube or equivalent device. The change in value of the dynamic pressure is achieved by increasing or decreasing the flow rate supplied to the control is Amy plot thread. The law changes the magnitude of the dynamic pressure in the future will be called a signal.

Therefore, the desired stress gradient must be created by overlaying the stationary component of the pressure (dynamic pressure) signal type figure 3 - waveform to create the longitudinal stress gradient, or 4 - waveform to create the longitudinal stress gradient, which is equivalent to figure 5 - waveform to create the longitudinal stress gradient.

To discuss in the present invention the flow requires the formation of a tightly Packed sequence of paired vortices in pairs rotating in opposite directions. Because the necessary and sufficient condition for the reduction of energy losses is the requirement that the vortices rolled directly over each other.

This can be achieved by subjecting the stationary component of the pressure signal type 6 - form sequences to construct a sequence of pairs of vortices. While figure 6 shows two full signal and the beginning of the third.

The method is intended for use in open systems, in which the conveyed fluid is not returned to its roots. Thus the law of conservation of angular momentum requires the formation of paired vortices is her opposite directions of rotation. Moreover, the pair of vortices moving in the flow direction, are formed and when they are created signals as shown in figure 3, and of the type shown in figure 4 (5). But if, say, the Wednesday before the managed area signal is compressed, then after the environment is stretched. Therefore, after the managed area a vortex is formed in one direction of rotation, and before him is a vortex is formed in the second direction of rotation.

And after the launch of the system in the stationary regime the second half of the first signal 6 is located below a straight line, skips swirl the opposite direction of rotation, formed the first half of the signal. The very same second half of the first signal is formed in the flow before a whirlwind, which in turn will be skipped without distortion the first half of the second signal 6 is located above the straight line. Therefore, the sequence 6 will form a sequence of vortices, which are in pairs opposite direction of rotation.

Considerations show that the sequence of paired vortices rotating in the direction of flow, can be formed and signals 3 and 4 (5). But through the controlled area should be skipped whirlwind opposite direction of rotation, formed in front of him. Therefore, in the sequence with which galow 3 or 4 (5) between the signals must be bassically period to transfer signal, formed before the controlled area. And the sequence must be of the form 7, Fig - form sequences to construct a sequence of pairs of vortices.

At the same time when forming the sequence of single vortices moving at an angle to the flow direction, the signals 7, 8 will form a vortex in one direction of rotation of the rolling surface of the wing. Because naturally formed system of coherent vortices require time for their education: agglomerates of microcrystalline must reach a certain value deformed state.

And since in this case the conditions for the formation of a single vortex is close to natural, there will be formed a pair of vortices moving in opposite directions. And generated by the device microscopic vortices during its movement along the wing will increase in size. And when you disembark from the surface of the wing vortices will have macroscopic size.

The experiments showed that the optimal ratio of signal parameters b/a is in the range of 1.5 to 1.8. However, depending on the material of the transported fluid and its flow rate when transporting the boundaries of the optimal limits of the relationship in question may vary slightly. Because the required technology is a mini-order vortices should be formed before, than when these same conditions will be able to form a coherent system of divergent vortices. Approximately the same boundaries and is the optimum ratio of maximum and minimum values of pressure (dynamic pressure), resulting from the superposition of the signal at fixed pressure value.

According to the views of the authors generated a sequence of vortices rotating in the direction of flow, is moved in the gap between the body surface and the outer surface of the laminar sublayer. One of vortices pair of rolls on the surface of the streamlined medium body, and a second of the vortex pair is rolling on the surface of the laminar sublayer. Because the compression and stretching of the environment on the managed area can be seen as analogous to the motion of a body in a stationary environment and the wrapping medium is motionless body.

So, for example, the energy created by the mover with a uniform motion of a body in a stationary environment, moves over the surface of the body of one of the vortex pair. And since the vortices roll over each other, they exchange energy. And the second vortex pair moves along the surface of the laminar sublayer due to the energy transmitted to it by the first vortex.

In real flight conditions occurs the necessity of varying the frequency and amplitude of the signal. But when zooming in, say, the amplitude h of the signal figure 3 it looks all b is the larger and closer to the shape of an isosceles triangle. Symmetric signal is unable to generate a deterministic vortex.

Therefore, based on the ratio b/a, in this case, we will not be able to realize its goals. To navigate in this case we have for the ratio of d/e. Assuming this ratio is approximately equal to 1.6, from the ratios of elementary mathematics, we can define

The value of the numeric parameters, rounded to tenths. Using the same ratio (1), we can extend the limits of use of the way towards high flow velocities, respectively, by changing the limits of the optimal values of the parameters.

Although it is not particularly required for the organization of aircraft flight (width wing aircraft end), but the generated sequence of paired vortices rotating in the direction of the flow will be stable in a wide range of conditions. According to the results of the experimental work [5] (Gchatting. The onset of turbulence. M, IL, 1962) Taylor vortices, also having pairs of opposite directions of rotation of the vortices have the laminar nature of the flow in the range of numbers of Reynolda from 90 to about 3000.

Therefore, it is possible to vary the magnitude of the signal parameters, for example, 6 in the above range. In this case, changing the settings, signal, we the CoE will also receive a stable sequence of vortices. And this property is created by way of vortices allows you to create vortices to meet these or those supplied by the technical need for goals in a wide range of velocities.

In modern aircraft the lift force created by the air, rolling on the wing, which has a certain angle of attack. According to the authors of the present invention, significant the role played by the mechanism of the formation of coherent systems of pairs of divergent vortex.

Due to the angle of attack on its lower surface, the air is hindered stronger than on the upper surface of the wing. Therefore, on the lower surface of the wing system of coherent vortices arise and break down more frequently than its top surface. Accordingly, the force of viscous drag on the bottom surface of the wing is larger than its top surface. The difference of the magnitude of the resulting forces of viscous friction on the bottom and on the upper surfaces of the wing and creates lift. The required amount of lifting force created by the wing area.

The magnitude of the lifting force can be increased by forming on the upper surface of the wing of a sequence of single vortices rotating in the direction of flow. Because rolling friction is substantially less than the sliding friction, it will dramatically increase the value of estavamos wing lifting force. This sequence can be created using a sequence of signals 6 and using the sequence of signals 7 or 8. And this will reduce the wing area.

But following the hint wildlife, energy spent on organizing the sequence of single vortices can also be disposed on creating additional value of the lifting force. This created a sequence of single vortices should be sent to the analogue of ydqrylb beetles. The shape of ydqrylb Zhukov tells the form how ydqrylb and wing aircraft. Vortices, artificially formed on the upper and on the lower surface of the wing, should be destroyed or nacrylic or arches, his destruction of creating a lifting force. While the wheel arches may be a separate part of the aircraft, and be membership forms the rear part of the lower surface of the wing.

Nacrelli, as well as the arches can be placed in any place for wings: both the airframe and in the Central part of the wing or on the end of it. Nacrelli and arches can be used on the entire length of the wing. But in this case, the direction of movement of the artificially created vortices should coincide with the direction of movement of the stream.

And at first the m case, you cannot use the paired vortices, rotating in the direction of flow. The sequence of paired vortices rotating in opposite directions, according to the authors of the present invention, in its movement on the wing in sizes is not increased. Therefore, the kinetic energy of microscopic vortices will not be enough to create significant value of the lifting force. Using ydqrylb and arches significant magnitude of the lifting force can be obtained only in the artificial formation of a sequence of vortices, all of which roll along the surface of the wing. Due to the sliding friction of the vortices on the surface of the laminar sublayer they will increase its weight, which when destroyed nacrylic and fender and will create additional value of the lifting force.

When the location of the device, forming vortices (moving at an angle to the flow direction), at the end of the second wing vortex pair will go with a wing without any consequences. Placing the device forming vortices in the Central part of the wing, to make full use of the proposed method we need to establish nacrelli and the housing, and at the end of the wing. Because the kinetic energy of each vortex of divergent pairs can be used to create a lifting force in the respective nutcracke.

But the loss of the aircraft at t is giving can be further reduced, in the likeness of techniques used by fish, creating and lower surfaces of the wing sequence of single vortices, rotating, say, at an angle to the direction of flow. But in this case, the lifting force should be created using additional arches, which should be destroyed vortices moving along the lower surface of the wing.

Thus:

1. The nature and feature of this invention is to organize the flow wing aircraft, in which the natural coherent system of divergent vortices existing way of organizing the flight of aircraft is replaced by a sequence of single vortices moving in the right direction.

2. The lift force is created due to the fact that on the upper wing surface sliding friction is replaced by rolling friction due to the formation therein of a sequence of vortices moving in the direction of the flow.

3. The lift force is created due to the fact that the vortices formed on the upper surface of the wing, sent in nacrelli. Artificially generated vortices must have the same direction of rotation and to roll over the surface of the wing. The kinetic energy of the collapsing in nacrylic vortices and creates additional value of the lifting force.

4. The lift force is created accounts for the fact, the vortices formed on the bottom and on the upper surfaces of the wing, dissolved in nacrylic and arches. Artificially generated vortices must have the same direction of rotation and to roll over the surface of the wing. While the wheel arches can be placed in the same locations, which are located and nacrelli. Released during the destruction of vortices of energy and creates a lifting force.

The essence of the claimed invention is as follows.

The way of organizing the flow of the environment on the wing of the aircraft is to replace periodically forming and collapsing on its upper surface a coherent system of vortices with the axis of rotation, directional flow, single vortices, the axis of rotation which is perpendicular to the flow, by creating a managed segment of the local perturbations in the form of a sequence of signals asymmetric shape, and the amplitude and frequency of signals functionally related to the intensity of the flow and characteristics of its environment, and the amplitude of the signals does not exceed half the value of the dynamic pressure of the stream.

Local perturbations created in the form of a continuous sequence of alternating positive and negative signals asymmetrical shape by alternating supply and selection environment in the local section of the managed area, nalo is the R on the stationary component of the pressure, being the ratio b/a=1.5 and 1.8, where

a time of pressure rise at positive values of the signal and a fall time of the pressure at negative values of the signal

b - fall time pressure at positive values of the signal and the rise time of the pressure when the negative signal values.

Local perturbations can be created in the form of a continuous sequence of alternating positive and negative signals asymmetrical shape by alternating supply and selection environment in the local section of the managed area, superimposed on a stationary component of the pressure, which is the ratio a/b=1.5 and 1.8, where

a time of pressure rise at positive values of the signal and a fall time of the pressure at negative values of the signal

b - fall time pressure at positive values of the signal and the rise time of the pressure when the negative signal values.

Local perturbations can be created in the form of a discontinuous sequence of positive signals asymmetrical forms by filing environment in the local section of the managed area, superimposed on a stationary component of the pressure, which is the ratio b/a=1.5 to 1.8, and "C" ranges from "b" to "b+a", where

a time of pressure rise,

b - fall time pressure,

in EMA the absence of pressure.

Local perturbations can be created in the form of a discontinuous sequence of negative signals asymmetrical shapes by selecting environment in the local section of the managed area, superimposed on a stationary component of the pressure, which is the ratio a/b=1.5 to 1.8, and "C" ranges from "b" to "b+a", where

a time of pressure rise,

b - fall time pressure,

with the absence of pressure.

Thus, the formed single vortices directed at an angle to the direction of flow, which are destroyed in nacrylic, located either at the base or in the Central part of the wing or on its end.

Possibly generated in the direction of flow vortices to send in nacrelli located in the airframe and at the end of the wing.

Vortices may form on the upper and on the lower surface of the wing and send in nacrelli and arches.

Examples of specific performance.

As in the patent proposes a method, not its technical implementation, it was only the check of possibility of implementation of the method. For this purpose we have used a primitive wind tunnel.

As a working element of a primitive wind tunnel was used for ventilation of the domestic fan heater. While this model Proc. of the BA in cross section have the form of rectangular boxes. The wing had a profile is highly elongated drops with zero angle of attack. The selection of values of signal amplitude on the lower surface of the wing created a sequence of Taylor vortices desired dimensions, the direction of rotation which coincides with the direction of flow.

On the upper surface of the wing created a unidirectional sequence of vortices moving in the direction of nakrylo. As in the studied case, the flow moves relative to the fixed wing, the vortices must roll on the reflecting boundary, sliding on the surface of the wing. Removable acrylic had the shape of a segment of an ellipsoid.

This ventilation of the domestic fan heater had two functions: wind tunnel, cooling model of the wing, and traction installation. The flow of air for the formation of vortices created by motor compressor. To smooth out fluctuations in pressure of the compressor used a small receiver.

Installation in the vertical or horizontal axis fastened on the lever, the greater the leverage with which the corresponding counterweight was attached to a spring. The use of vertical or horizontal mounting allowed to investigate the presence or lifting force or tractive effort. Specially selected springs were not trinovantes, and not filmed quantitative ha is acteristic investigated forces. Tested only in principle possible to create a lifting force and traction.

Under the same conditions, the use of ydqrylb increased the magnitude of the lifting force, which was reflected in the increase in the tension of the spring holding the wing model in a stationary position. The traction of the fan is also increased when the operation of the device, creating vortices Taylor on the lower surface of the wing and unidirectional vortices on its upper surface, collapsing in nacrylic.

Technical and economic efficiency. The application of the method will dramatically reduce the energy costs of organizing the movement of aircraft in the environment. The use of ydqrylb will receive a lifting force even at zero angle of attack. The use of ydqrylb will reduce the area of the plane of the wing (in comparison with the existing method of reception) when creating a lifting force of the same magnitude. In the experiment, the displacement resistance of the environment on the surface of the wing was reduced by about an order that at the same traction force generated by traction installation, in real flight conditions will increase the speed of flight.

1. The way of organizing the flow of the environment on the wing of the aircraft, which consists in replacing periodically generated is collapsing on its upper surface a coherent system of vortices with the axis of rotation, directed flow, single vortices, the axis of rotation which is perpendicular to the flow, by creating a managed segment of the local perturbations in the form of a sequence of signals asymmetric shape, and the amplitude and frequency of signals functionally related to the intensity of the flow and characteristics of its environment, and the amplitude of the signals does not exceed half the value of the dynamic pressure of the stream.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the local perturbations created in the form of a continuous sequence of alternating positive and negative signals asymmetrical shape by alternating supply and selection environment in the local section of the managed area, superimposed on a stationary component of the pressure, which is the ratio

b/a=1.5 and 1.8,

where a is the time of pressure rise at positive values of the signal and a fall time of the pressure when the negative signal values;

b - fall time pressure at positive values of the signal and the rise time of the pressure when the negative signal values.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the local perturbations created in the form of a continuous sequence of alternating positive and negative signals asymmetrical shape by alternating supply and selection environment in the local section control is imago plot superimposed on the stationary component of the pressure, which is the ratio

a/b=1.5 and 1.8,

where a is the time of pressure rise at positive values of the signal and a fall time of the pressure when the negative signal values;

b - fall time pressure at positive values of the signal and the rise time of the pressure when the negative signal values.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the local perturbations created in the form of a discontinuous sequence of positive signals asymmetrical forms by filing environment in the local section of the managed area, superimposed on a stationary component of the pressure, which is the ratio b/a=1.5 and 1.8, and is in the range from b to b+a,

where a is the rise time of the pressure; b - decay time pressure; - the absence of the pressure.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the local perturbations created in the form of a discontinuous sequence of negative signals asymmetrical shapes by selecting environment in the local section of the managed area, superimposed on a stationary component of the pressure, which is the ratio a/b=1.5 and 1.8, and is in the range from b to b+a,

where a is the rise time of the pressure; b - decay time pressure; - the absence of the pressure.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that f is reroute single vortices, directed at an angle to the direction of flow, which are destroyed in nacrylic, located either at the base or in the Central part of the wing or on its end.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that formed in the direction of flow vortices are sent to nacrelli located in the airframe and at the end of the wing.

8. The method according to claim 6 or 7, characterized in that the vortices are formed on the upper and on the lower surface of the wing and sent in nacrelli and arches.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: aeronautical engineering; rocketry and space engineering; technology of control of flow around flying vehicle.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in delivery of gas to incoming flow in front of nose section of flying vehicle. Density of this gas is lesser than density of medium; gas is fed to points of aerodynamic drag of flying vehicle where porous coat is formed; pores of this coat are open to surface; scale of these pores is lesser than that of vortex generation. Gas is delivered at periodicity of generation of turbulent vortices to turbulence generation zone at phase shifted by 45-135 degrees. In realization of this method coat may be formed at points where shock wave is formed. It is good practice to feed gas to porous coat from reservoir containing sorbent separating gas till gas desorption temperature has been attained. Gas is mainly fed to upper edge of wing. It is good practice to make coats from catalytically active heat-accumulating material and to realize endothermic process during passage of gas through it. Front surfaces of wings and nose sections of flying vehicles may be covered with coats of low electron emission energy from the following series: barium oxide, titanium carbide, zinc oxide, copper oxide rare-earth metal oxide and n-semiconductors.

EFFECT: possibility of changing aerodynamic properties in turbulence generation zone.

16 cl

Engine // 2270785

FIELD: devices for creation of aero- or hydrodynamic forces for transport facilities with the aid of rotating members.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine has housing and two cones with surfaces rotating in opposite directions. Rotating surfaces are provided with cells in form of tooth spaces and teeth. Teeth on surface of front cone are bent in way of flow around the cell and teeth on surface of rear cone are bent towards incoming flow which is circular in shape and is caused by rotation of surfaces of cones. Surface of each tooth space has form of question-mark in section. As a result, reduced pressure is built-up in cells of rotating surface of front cone and increased pressure is built-up in cells of rotating surface of rear cone, thus creating the thrust along axis of rotation of cones.

EFFECT: extended field of application of thrust creating devices for various vehicles running in air and water media.

6 dwg

FIELD: rocketry and space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has nose section 1 and central and additional aerodynamic needles 3 made in form of thin cylindrical rods which are stowed in special passages made in nose section of flying vehicle. One passage is located along axis of symmetry and other passages are located at some distance from axis of symmetry smoothly over circumference whose center lies at axis of symmetry. Each passage is provided with mechanism for delivery of aerodynamic needles towards incoming flow; provision is made for extension of each needle through definite length for forming special configuration of set of needles which is necessary for their joint operation in airflow control.

EFFECT: possibility of obtaining constant coordinate of center of pressure of hypersonic flying vehicle; reduced force of drag; possibility of forming control forces and moments for manoeuvring in atmosphere.

4 dwg

FIELD: reduction of vortices behind aircraft.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft has starboard and port wings for forming lifting force; wings are provided with landing flaps for forming considerable lifting force. Vortex generator for forming controllable disturbance vortex is made in form of additional flap whose base is located in area of 10-% semispan to the right and to the left from external end of landing flap and beginning at 60% of depth of lifting wing profile. During flight, additional flap is kept in extended position; it may be retracted in wing when not in use. Controllable vortex is formed with this device.

EFFECT: reduction of vortices behind aircraft at landing approach.

15 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: aircraft.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises vortex pipe with a scroll for supplying and accelerating air and cold and hot end sections. The cold end section of the vortex pipe is provided with a ring plate. The diameter of the inner opening in the plate should be chosen to allow it to be fit on the vortex pipe with interference for increasing the area of the face of the cold section. The vortex pipe can be mounted in the guiding member which defines the inclination of the vector of the propulsion to the horizon. The hot section of the vortex pipe should be provided with a valve.

EFFECT: improved design.

3 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to the field of aviation

The invention relates to the field of aviation

The invention relates to the field of air transport

Wing // 2207967
The invention relates to the field of aviation

The invention relates to aviation

Lifting surface // 2294300

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aerodynamic lifting surface has both sides which are wavy in span in form of humps and cavities. Parameters of waviness: waviness period h=5-30% of chord, relative doubled amplitude f=1-5% of chord, length of wavy surface section along chord g=15-85% beginning with front edge; the remaining surface is smooth. Humps and cavities on both sides of lifting surface relative to profile chord coincide in phase.

EFFECT: improved aerodynamic efficiency.

4 cl, 3 dwg

Aircraft // 2288137

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, engines, control cabin, landing gear and tail unit. Chute-type wings are mounted underneath the fuselage. Turbo-jet engines are mounted on front upper surface of wings; during operation of these engines maximum amount of waste gases is passed through wings forming rarefaction inside them and lift force from beneath.

EFFECT: formation of additional lift force.

3 dwg

Transport aircraft // 2287454

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, two half-wings, jet engine, vertical and horizontal stabilizers and landing gear. Each half-wing has through passages of rectangular section which are parallel relative to each other along half-wing span. Each through passage has lower passage whose inlet hole is located on lower surface of half-wing; upper passage is narrower as compared with lower passage and its outlet hole is located on upper surface of half-wing.

EFFECT: increased lifting force of half-wing.

8 dwg

Transport aircraft // 2284948

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, two half-wings, jet engine, vertical and horizontal stabilizers with rudder and elevator and landing gear. Each half-wing has Y-shaped passages inside it which are located in parallel relative to each other along span of half-wing; each passage has main passage of rectangular section mounted vertically; its inlet opening is located on lower surface of half-wing. In upper part main passage is branched-off into two blind passages of the same section.

EFFECT: possibility of forming additional lifting force on half-wings.

10 dwg

FIELD: aeronautical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in taking preheated gas from gas source and bringing it to flying vehicle surface followed by blowing-out jet of preheated mixture of air and combustion products of engine plant at subsonic velocity through local blowing-out zones on lower and/or upper surfaces of flying vehicle wing into external incoming air flow. Besides that, air is taken from air intake or from engine plant compressor and is fed over hermetic mains through adjusting members at supersonic velocity through supersonic nozzles which are flat in configuration from leading edge of wing over lower surface in way of wing chord, thus overlapping the subsonic gas jets escaping from local blowing-out zones by high-velocity air flow at Mach number more than 0.7. Device proposed for realization of this method has fuselage, power plant, engine plant, fuel system, wing and control profiles. Engine plant is connected by hermetic lines with local blowing-out zones located on surfaces of wing and control profiles. Mounted on leading edge of wing lower surface are supersonic nozzles whose external surfaces are located at level of wing surface.

EFFECT: increased lifting force.

11 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: motion in air medium at subsonic speed; subsonic flying vehicles, high-speed ships, trains and trucks.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in change of state of boundary layer of transport facility by smoothly heating of at least 70% of surface of transport facility at permissible temperature gradient of ±20°C to temperature not below 60°C connecting the engine plant of transport facility, air intake or compressor by means of mains with passages adjoining from the inside to external skin of transport facility. According to one version of method, heated mixture of air and combustion products is additionally locally blown out through permeable porous inserts on surfaces of transport facility into air flow around it at definite velocity of this flow. Device proposed for realization of this method includes body of transport facility, engine plant 1 and system for change of state of boundary layer formed by air intake or compressor connected with engine plant of transport facility by hermetic mains 5 provided with passages adjoining from the inside to external skin 9 of transport facility body. According to other versions, mains are also brought to porous inserts 11 of skin 9.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

14 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: creating of lifting force and thrust and supercharging under pressure.

SUBSTANCE: proposed latticed-and-slotted system contains several working members-wings or blades or vanes which are fastened together and are connected with article by means of coupling components. relative position of working members in space is dictated by their successive forward and upward shifts in way of motion in medium and angle of turn around longitudinal axis, angle of attack beginning with first lower component. Parameters of relative position of each working member may be similar or different from member to member; they may be rigidly fixed by coupling members or may be changed by means of drive in case of considerable change in motion modes: takeoff, landing, acceleration and deceleration; provision is made for mechanically changing the angler of attack relative to medium of motion. Profiles and geometric sizes of each working member are similar or are partially different or different. Working members may be arranged in sections in one row or in modules consisting of two and more sections.

EFFECT: enhanced operational efficiency.

4 cl, 19 dwg

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: the device is designed for a flight vehicle having a fuselage, jet engine, fuel system, carrying planes and control sections. The device has a source of offtaken gas, which through sealed lines is connected to the zones of local blowing-out of gas to the boundary layer of air flow on the surfaces the flight vehicle. Each zone of local blowing-out of gas is made on the surface of the carrying plane or fuselage, or control sections with a penetrable porous insert with a cross-sectional area of the ducts in the porous insert within 50 to 60% of the area of the insert proper by 10-15 times less than the distance between the adjacent inserts, a flat rectangular slot for a break of the boundary layer is made before each insert and in parallel with it.

EFFECT: reduced drag force and fuel consumption.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: aeronautical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes bleeding part of preheated gas from gas source followed by delivery of bled gas to control surfaces of rudder, upper and lower surface of flying vehicle elevator.

Then, air bled from air intake or air compressor of engine plant is fed via hermetic mains through control members to supersonic nozzles which are flat in configuration from leading edges of said planes in way of chord of each rudder and elevator shutting-off local subsonic gas jets escaping from local blow-off zone in takeoff and landing modes by supersonic air flow. Turn and inclination of flying vehicle are performed by control of subsonic gas jets through local blow-off zones of rudder surfaces. Device is designed for surfaces of flying vehicle including the fuselage, engine plant, fuel system, lifting surfaces, control profiles in form of rudder and elevator; it includes local blow-off zones located on lateral surfaces of rudder, lower and upper surfaces of elevator which are connected with engine plant by means of hermetic mains. External surfaces of blow-off zones are located at level of surface of respective planes of rudders and elevators; mounted on leading edges of rudder and elevator are supersonic nozzles which are flat in configuration.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of control surfaces.

11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: rocketry and space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has nose section 1 and central and additional aerodynamic needles 3 made in form of thin cylindrical rods which are stowed in special passages made in nose section of flying vehicle. One passage is located along axis of symmetry and other passages are located at some distance from axis of symmetry smoothly over circumference whose center lies at axis of symmetry. Each passage is provided with mechanism for delivery of aerodynamic needles towards incoming flow; provision is made for extension of each needle through definite length for forming special configuration of set of needles which is necessary for their joint operation in airflow control.

EFFECT: possibility of obtaining constant coordinate of center of pressure of hypersonic flying vehicle; reduced force of drag; possibility of forming control forces and moments for manoeuvring in atmosphere.

4 dwg

FIELD: control of flying vehicle boundary layer.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has layer of active material located on outer skin of flying vehicle and intended for generation of mechanical vibrations. Novelty of invention consists in availability of current-conducting film applied over layer of piezo-active material by spraying or painting. Piezo-active material is applied on surface of outer metal skin of flying vehicle. Located on surface of current-conducting film are sensors of parameters of turbulent motions of flow whose signals are used for control of mechanical vibrations of piezo-active material in phase or in anti-phase relative to vibrations in boundary layer. Layer of piezo-active material may be made from piezo-ceramics. Layer of piezo-active material may be polarized at angle 135 deg. for compensation for turbulence and at angle of 45 deg. for reduction of effect of break-down of flow.

EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency.

3 cl

Up!