Thin highly absorbing structure and method for manufacturing the same

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: thin, elastic, highly absorbing pad has high concentration of superabsorbing material uniformly mixed with fluffed-up cellulose pulp. Method involves subjecting absorbing pad to compaction to provide for high density, low thickness and high absorbing capacity thereof. Absorbing pad may be used in absorbing articles such as nappies, trunks, including swimming trunks, individual hygiene articles for women, and also articles for incontinence suffering people.

EFFECT: improved quality of articles using absorbing pads and wider range of usage.

22 cl, 12 dwg, 4 tbl, 5 ex

 

The SCOPE of the INVENTION

The present invention relates to a thin, flexible, highly absorbent absorbent pad. Absorbent pad can be produced by forming drum machine built into the process line.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

Many well-known absorbent composite materials that include a material having a high absorption capacity, contain this material with high absorption capacity, in relatively low concentrations. That is, many absorbent composite materials include cellulose fibers obtained by the aerodynamic method, and less than 30 wt.% material with high absorbency. This is due to several factors.

Many materials having a high absorption capacity, unable to absorb the liquid with the speed with which the liquid is supplied to the absorbent composite materials during their use. In this regard, in order to temporarily hold the liquid until the material of high absorbency can absorb it, the desired relatively high concentration of fibrous material. In addition, the fibers are used to separate particles of a material having a high absorption capacity, so that not happening is about blocking gel. Blocking gel refers to a situation in which particles of a material having a high absorption capacity, swelling deform and block the gaps between the particles or between particles and fibers, which prevents the flow of fluid through the gaps.

In U.S. patent US No. 5147343, issued September 15, 1992 (Kellenberger)described absorbent composite material, adapted to overcome the difficulties associated with blocking gel. In U.S. patent US No. 5147343 described the use of ultra-absorbent material that can absorb at least 27 ml of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride concentration of 0.9 wt.% 1 g ultra-absorbent material, when ultra-absorbent material is under a holding pressure which is 21000 Dyne/cm2. When ultra-absorbent material is in the form of discrete particles, at least about 50 wt.% ultra-absorbent material has a size greater than the average pore size of the porous fibrous matrix, which is in the wet state. Argue that described composite absorbing materials contain up to about 90 wt.% ultra-absorbent material.

The presence of relatively low concentrations of material with high absorption capacity and a relatively high concentration of fibrous material is riodic to the production of composite absorbing material, which becomes relatively thick. In some cases, the use of relatively thick absorbent composite material in a disposable absorbent product is acceptable. However, in recent years, it has become increasingly desirable to produce a composite absorbent materials that are thin compared to the more traditional composite absorbing materials, but which still have the same absorbency. Thin absorbent materials to give the product appearance, more like a piece of clothing, as well as greater freedom of movement when worn under clothing. The desire to produce a relatively thin absorbent composite materials has led to the desire to include in the composite absorbent materials more and more material with high absorbency. This is because the absorption capacity of such materials having a high wicking ability, being many times greater than the absorption capacity of fibrous materials. For example, fibrous matrix, made of fluffed wood pulp, can absorb about 7-9 grams of liquid (such as a salt solution of concentration of 0.9 wt.%) 1 g of fluffed wood pulp, whereas material with high absorption capacity is, can absorb at least about 15, preferably at least about 20, and often at least about 25 g of liquid, such as salt solution concentration of 0.9 wt.%, 1 g of material with high absorption capacity.

In U.S. patent US No. 5601542, issued February 11, 1997 (Melius and others)described absorbent composite material, comprising superficiali material contained in the means of retention. Superficiali material has a coefficient of absorption under pressure equal to at least 100, and the number extragenomic for 16 h substances, equal to less than about 13 wt.%;

the rate of pressure increase in the absorption equal to at least 100, and the time vortex processing equivalent to less than about 45; or the ratio of absorption under pressure, equal to at least 110. Superficiali material is contained in the means of retention in the amount of from about 30 to about 100 wt.% in the calculation of the total mass of the means of retention and superficiales material.

U.S. patent US No. 5149335, issued September 22, 1992, Kellenberger, refers to an absorbent structure containing superficiali material in relatively high concentrations. More precisely, in U.S. patent US No. 5149335 described using superficiales material possessing some characteristics of absorption, which is desirable for the sing superficiales material at relatively high concentrations. More precisely, described superficiali material with value 5-minute absorbency under load equal to at least 15 g/g, and duration of swelling in the free state, is equal to at least about 60 C.

When you desire to get thin absorbent composite materials often worsen other desirable characteristics, such as absorption capacity and elasticity. Very often in cases where the absorbent pads condense to give great absorbency in fine form in the pad formed by local seals, which leads to stiffness and heterogeneity of the absorbent material contained in the pads. On the other hand, if you make a thin pads with lower density, the pads can be flexible, however thin, low density pads have low absorbency. Low density and high absorbent pads, which are elastic, are usually thick and bulky, look at the user bulky and seem to be uncomfortable.

Known various methods of making absorbent pads. Absorbent pads, highly absorbent, usually made on a regular drum machine, forms the dominant absorbing materials held by forming the mixing chamber superficiales material and fluff pulp. High concentrations superficiales polymer and uniform mixing of the absorbent component can lead to difficulties in ensuring retention superficiales polymer during formation, and in the finished product. Loss superficiales polymer occurring during the formation of the pads, can lead to significant heterogeneity distribution superficiales polymer, inconsistent performance, a big waste of raw materials and violations of normal process conditions due to the load of the disposal system superficialis polymer.

Necessary or desirable absorbent pads that are thin, flexible and have a high absorption capacity.

Also necessary or desirable, the method of manufacturing a well mixed, homogeneous absorbing pads.

Also necessary or desirable method of making absorbent pads, which could minimize losses superficiales polymer.

BRIEF description of the INVENTION

The present invention relates to a thin, flexible, highly absorbent pad and method of manufacturing such absorbent pads. Absorbent pad in high concentrations contains superficiali polymer (SVP), uniformly p is lemesany with fluffed cellulose pulp. Alternatively, the SVP can be placed in the absorbent pad on the gradient scheme. Absorbent pad is subjected to compression to a high density, to obtain a thin, highly absorbent pad corresponding to the present invention. Absorbent pad include directly in an absorbent product. Absorbent pad has a thickness between about 0.5 and 3.0 mm, and wicking ability, measured by means described in the present invention tests the absorption capacity under a pressure equal to 0.5 lbs/inch, constituting between about 80 to 800 g of a solution of salt production company Ricca Chemical Company of Arlington, TX, with a concentration of 0.9 wt./vol.%. Compacted pad has good characteristics of lateral compression, providing convenience and acceptability to the user. Absorbing capacity of thin, highly absorbent pads are comparable with absorbent traditional, not so thin, low density absorbent pads. In the absorbent pad you can also add other components, such as synthetic fibers, particles of the material carrier and various chemical additives or therapeutic agent.

Thin, highly absorbent pad on the image the structure, you can make traditional integrated in a production line drum machine for forming absorbent materials held by forming chamber uniform mixing of large quantities of SVP and fluff pulp. Loss SVP can be minimized through the use of a woven polyester material, preferably having a pore size of about 300 microns, wrapped around a forming drum for closing the forming of the Sith. Alternatively, you can use micro-perforated forming a sieve with holes the size of about 300 microns or less. The holes in the material or the sieve should be sufficiently small to capture a large portion of particles SVP, while remaining large enough to provide a high permeability, sufficient for the formation of the pads. Unlike the case of using a standalone drum forming machine, when using a drum forming machine, built in a production line, in areas where the absorbent material is particularly necessary, you can apply an extra amount of absorbent material and make them more absorbent ability. For example, you can create a pad special forms, such as the shape of an hourglass and the like, or additional amount mater the Ala can be placed at a specific site by creating a deeper pocket in forming the sieve. At the top front of the forming chamber can accommodate special nozzle for dispersing the SVP, which will ensure uniform mixing of SAP with the fluff pulp. The pad can be placed on the fabric carrier, wrapping fabric or similar material. After forming absorbent pads it emerges from the forming chamber in a state with low density and then it must be sealed. Densification can be performed using conventional sealing roll or calender heated. Hydration of the composite material can improve the seal and to promote the low values of lateral compression or hardness. To reduce the stiffness can also be done by extrusion of a pattern.

With regard to the foregoing, a feature and advantage of the present invention is to provide a thin, flexible, highly absorbent pads. Another feature and advantage of the present invention is the provision of a method of manufacturing a well mixed, homogeneous absorbent pads, with which you can minimize losses superficiales polymer.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Figure 1 is a front view in perspective absorbent pads.

Figure 2 is a top view of the training pants for children in a partially disassembled, stretched PLO the com condition, showing the surface of the product, which when wearing the product facing the viewer and with portions cut out to show below plots absorbent pads.

Figure 3 is a top view of the device used for the manufacture of absorbent pads.

4 is a top view of the mixing nozzle used for uniform mixing superficiales material and fluff pulp.

5 is a chart describing the absorbtion time for various test absorbent pads.

6 is a chart describing the receipt time for 5 of the 8 different experience absorbent pads.

7 is a chart describing the time of admission for 3 of the 8 different experience absorbent pads.

Fig is a top view of the absorbent pad, having a shaped form.

Fig.9 - type equipment to measure the ability to retain fluid absorbent structure.

Figure 10 - type of equipment to determine the absorbency under load (VSN) of the absorbent structure; and

11 and 12 types of equipment to determine the permeability of the layer of gel superficiales material.

DEFINITION

In the context of this description, all of the terms and phrases provided below, include a value or values.

"Drum forming the Ashina" represents equipment used for the manufacture of absorbent pads, and includes a rotary drum supporting a perforated membrane, through which the vacuum source is blown through the air. Raw materials such as fibers from the pulp or the SVP and other components, is directed to a perforated surface with air flow.

"Gradient" means a gradual change in the values of physical quantities, such as the number superficiales material placed on different parts of the absorbent pads, or other characteristics of the pads, such as mass, density, etc.

"High strength gel is a material having a value of gel strength in excess of 0.65, preferably in excess of 0.75 or preferably exceeding 0.85, and the strength of the gel is determined by dividing the value of VSN, multiplied by 0.9, the value of the holding capacity by centrifugation (ULC).

"Uniform mixing" refers to a homogeneous mixing of two or more substances contained in the composition, so that the value of the quantity of each of the substances remained essentially basically the same throughout the song.

"Layer" when used in the singular can have two values to indicate one element or multiple elements.

"Longitudinal" and "transverse" have its the mi, common values, as indicated by the longitudinal and transverse axes in figure 2. The longitudinal axis is in the plane of the product and generally parallel to the vertical plane, which when put on the product divides the body standing user in half on the left and right half. Transverse axis located in the plane of the product and essentially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. Shown in the drawing, the product in the longitudinal direction is longer than in the transverse direction.

"Removed from the melt fibers " means fibers formed by extruding molten thermoplastic material through a lot of fine, usually circular, the capillary channels of the extrusion head in the form of thin fibers or elementary fibers into converging high-speed streams of heated gas (e.g. air), Refine the elementary fibers of molten thermoplastic material to reduce their diameter, which may correspond to the diameter of microfiber. Then removed from the melt fibers are transferred high-speed gas stream and placed on the receiving surface with the formation material consisting of randomly dispersed removed from the melt fibers. This method is disclosed, for example, in U.S. patent No. 3849241 issued Butin, etc. Issued from the melt fibers are sabinecretella, which can be continuous or discrete, usually have Tonino equal to less than about 0.6 denier, and are essentially samoshvatyvayuscheysya when applied to the receiving surface. Issued from the melt fibers used in the present invention, are essentially continuous in length.

Built in a production line" means a built-in technological method, which is part of the method of manufacturing consumer absorbent products, usually starting from raw materials and ending with the absorbent article, usually in a Packed form.

"Polymer" includes homopolymers, copolymers, such as, for example, block copolymers, graft, statistical and alternating copolymers, ternary copolymers and the like and their mixtures and modifications, but are not limited to. In addition, if you do not put special restrictions, the term "polymer" shall include all possible geometrical configurations of the material. Such configurations include isotactic, syndiotactic and atactic structure, but are not limited to.

"Superficiale substance " or "superficiali material " means swelling in water, water-insoluble organic or inorganic material, which under the most favorable conditions can absorb the amount of aqueous solution, the content is the future of 0.9 wt.% sodium chloride, equal at least 15 times its weight, more preferably at least 30 times its weight. Superficiale material can be a natural, synthetic and modified natural polymers and materials. In addition, superficiale materials can be an inorganic material such as silica gels, or organic compounds, such as crosslinked polymers.

"Surface" includes any layer, film, woven, non-woven, laminated, composite material and the like, which is permeable or impermeable to air, gas and/or liquids.

In the remaining parts of this description of these terms can be given additional definitions.

A DETAILED DESCRIPTION of the PREFERRED IN the PRESENT embodiments

The present invention relates to a thin, flexible, highly absorbent absorbent pad. Absorbent pad can be produced by forming drum machine built into the process line, which can be combined with the method of manufacture of absorbent products. Absorbent pad according to the invention can appropriately be included in absorbent products. The term "absorbent article" includes (without restrictions) diapers, training pants, od is waiting for swimming, absorbent men's underwear, napkins for babies, products for those suffering from incontinence and personal hygiene products for women and medical absorbent products (e.g., medical absorbent garments, slip pads for patients, bandages, sheets, and medical wipes). When used in the present invention, the term "product for those suffering from incontinence" includes underwear for children, absorbent clothing for children and teenagers who need it, such as children with autism, and others who suffer from disorders of the bladder/bowel due to disability, as well as absorbing clothes for older adults suffering from incontinence, but are not limited to.

Referring to Figure 1, showing the absorbent pad 20, corresponding to the present invention. Absorbent pad 20 includes a top surface 22, which is attached to this configuration is that it was directed to the user and/or in contact with the user, the bottom surface 24 opposite the top surface 22, which is attached to this configuration, so that she was facing away from the user. Absorbent pad 20 may be made of such size and shape to fit almost any absorbent products. Examples of suitable form is oval, pramogos the Naya form and shape of an hourglass.

Absorbent pad 20 is generally compressible, taking the form of the body, not having irritation on the skin of the user and capable of absorbing and retaining liquids and certain allotment of the body. Absorbent pad 20 has a high content of superficiales polymer (SVP), uniformly mixed with fluff pulp pulp. In one embodiment, the mixture of SAP with the fluff pulp and the pulp is uniform throughout the absorbent pad 20. In another embodiment, SVP placed in the absorbent pad 20 gradient scheme. For example, at one end of the absorbent pads 20 may be more than a hovercraft than at the opposite end of the absorbent pads 20. Alternatively, along the upper surface of the absorbent pads 20 may be more than a hovercraft than along the lower surface of the absorbent pads 20. In yet another alternative embodiment, along the lower surface of the absorbent pads 20 may be more than a hovercraft than along the upper surface of the absorbent pads 20. Due to the presence of a gradient concentration of SVP in the absorbent pad 20 may vary in the amount of from about 0.01 to about 0.40 g/cm3or from about 0.05 to about 0.35 g/cm3or from about 0.15 to about 0.25 g/cm3.

Concentration supervet the covering material may be from 30 to 85 wt.%, preferably from 40 to 80 wt.%, more preferably from 50 to 75 wt.% the total mass of absorbent pads. Accordingly, the concentration of the fluff pulp can be from 15 to 70 wt.%, preferably from 20 to 60 wt.%, more preferably from 25 to 50 wt.% the total mass of absorbent pads. To obtain this thin, highly absorbent products corresponding to the present invention, high concentrations of SVP and the seal formed pads 20 to a high density.

Absorbent pad 20 is compacted to a thickness of from about 0.5 to 3.0 millimeters (mm), preferably from about 0.6 to 2.5 mm, more preferably from about 0.7 to 2.0 mm In the density of the absorbent pads 20 may be at least of 0.28 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). Preferably, the density of the absorbent pads 20 was at least 0,30 g/cm3. More preferably, the density of the absorbent pads 20 was at least 0.32 g/cm3.

Superficiali the material used in the absorbent pad 20 corresponding to the present invention must have the ability to absorb the liquid when the application loads. When used in the present invention is an absorbing way the spine under load (VSN) specific superficiale of the material is expressed in grams the amount of aqueous solution of sodium chloride (containing 0.9 wt.% sodium chloride), which 1 g superficiales material can absorb in 60 min at a given confining load.

Preferably the absorbent pad 20 according to the invention has an absorbent comprising from about 14 to 40 g of the solution salt concentration of 0.9 wt./vol.% 1 g of absorbent pads, alternative - at least 16 g/g, and as another alternative, at least 18 g/g Method, which is absorbent capacity, described in detail below. In addition, preferably the absorbent pad 20, corresponding to the present invention contains superficiali material with high strength gel.

Preferably fluffed cellulose pulp includes fluffed wood pulp. Fluffed wood pulp can replace synthetic, polymeric fibers, the fibers obtained by the blast from the melt or by a combination of fibres obtained by a blast from the melt, and natural fibers. Synthetic fibers are not required for absorbent pads 20 corresponding to the present invention, but may be included in minimum quantities. One preferred type of fluff material is the material under the trade designation CR1654 production company U.S. Alliance, Childesburg, Alabama, USA, and he is a bleached, highly Petawawa ability sulphate wood pulp, mainly containing fibers made of soft wood. Special densified pulp under the trade designation ND-416 production Corporation Weyerhaeuser company of Federal Way, Washington, USA, may provide some desirable characteristics of lateral compression. As noted above, the fluff pulp and the pulp is evenly mixed with SVP.

To better resist and absorb body exudates, evenly mixed fluff material and crushed superficiali material can be selectively placed in preferred areas with high concentrations. For example, the mass, consisting of evenly mixed fluff material and crushed superficiales material, can be adjustable to accommodate so that the front pads had a higher surface density than the rear pads.

Suitable superficiale materials can be selected from natural, synthetic and modified natural polymers and materials. Superficiale materials can be an inorganic material such as silica gels, or organic compounds, including natural materials such as agar, pectin, guar gum and the like, and synthetic materials such as synthetic polymers that form hydrogels. Such p is the materials, forming hydrogels include, for example, alkali metal salts and polyacrylic acids, polyacrylamides, polyvinyl alcohol, copolymers of ethylene with maleic anhydride, polyvinyl ethers, hydroxypropylcellulose, polivinilpirrolidon, polymers and copolymers vinylsulfonic acid, polyacrylates, polyacrylamides, polyvinylpyridine etc. To other suitable polymers include hydrolyzed grafted Acrylonitrile starch grafted acrylic acid starch and copolymers of isobutylene with maleic anhydride, and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the polymers that form hydrogels, was longevity highly crosslinked, to make the material is essentially insoluble in water. The stitching can be done, for example, by irradiation or by formation of covalent, ionic, van der Waals or hydrogen bonds. Superficiale materials can be in any form suitable for use in absorbent structures, including particles, fibers, flakes, beads, etc. In one embodiment, the present invention superficiali material includes particles hydrocolloid, preferably ion hydrocolloid.

Usually superficiali material capable of absorbing an amount of water equal to at least about 15 times its weight, it is preferable that he possessed sposobnostiami amount of water, equal to more than 25 times its weight. Suitable superficiale materials supplied by different vendors, such as Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan, U.S.A., and Stockhausen GmbH & Co. KG, D-47805 Krefeld, Germany. One specific AMS is suitable for use in the present invention, is a FAVOR® SXM 9543 production company Stockhausen GmbH & Co. This SVP provides good machinability and functional characteristics in the absorbent pad 20 corresponding to the present invention. Other suitable types superficialy materials described in U.S. patent US No. 5601542, issued February 11, 1997 Melius et al.; patent application U.S. No. 09/475829 filed in December 1999, the rights to which transferred Kimberly-Clark Corporation; and patent application U.S. No. 09/475830 filed in December 1999 and the rights to which transferred Kimberly-Clark Corporation; each of which is incorporated here by reference.

Superficiality materials suitable for use in the present invention are polyacrylate materials manufactured by the company Stockhausen under the designations FAVOR® SXM 77 and FAVOR® SXM 880, and polyacrylate materials manufactured by the Dow Chemical company, USA, under the designation DryTech 2035. Data on gel strength and permeability for these superficialy materials are shown in table 1. The strength of the gel superficiales material is more than 0,65, predpochtite the flax - more than 0.75, more preferably more than 0.85.

Table 1

The strength of the gel and permeability superficialy materials
Superficiali materialStrength gelPermeability (e-9cm2)
FAVOR® SXM 95430,9300
FAVOR® SXM 8800,780
FAVOR® SXM 770,615
DryTech 20350,440

Superficiali material may be in the form of particles, which in nedabujam state have a maximum diameter in the range from about 50 to about 1000 microns, preferably in the range from about 100 to about 800 microns, as determined by sieve analysis in accordance with test Method D-1921 American society for testing and materials (ASTM). It is clear that the particles superficiales material, the amount of which falls within the above ranges may include solid particles, porous particles, or may be agglomerated particles, including many smaller particles agglomerated into particles whose size is in the above ranges.

Absorbent pad 2 may also contain other components, such as artificial fiber or particulate filler, such as clay. Absorbent pad 20 may also contain a variety of chemical agents, or therapeutic agents, fillers or other additives, such as clay, zeolites and other odor absorbing material, for example, particles of activated carbon carrier or particles of active substances, such as zeolites and activated carbon. Absorbent pad 20 may also contain a binder fibers, such as bicomponent fibers, in an amount up to about 4% by weight absorbent pads. Absorbent pad 20 may be and may not be wrapped or surrounded by a suitable tissue wrap that maintains the integrity and/or shape of the absorbent pads.

Dense pads 20 have good characteristics of lateral compression, providing convenience and acceptability to the user. The way through which you can explore lateral compression, described in detail below. Absorbing capacity of thin, highly absorbent absorbent pads 20 are comparable with absorbent traditional, low density absorbent pads.

Figure 2 presents the training pants for children in a partially disassembled, stretched flat state, in which the absorbent pad p. the invention, and it shows the surface of the training pants that while wearing the product converted to the user. Absorbent base 14 forms a pair of transversely opposite side edges 136 and a pair of longitudinally opposite waist edges, designated as the front waist edge 138 and a rear waist edge 139. When the training pants are buttoned state (not shown), absorbing the base also forms a hole for the waist, located along the front waist edge 138 and rear waist edges 139, and two holes for the legs, which is located along the transversely opposite side edges 136. The base 14 also includes some rectangular composite structure 133, a pair of transversely opposite front side panels 134 and a pair of longitudinally opposite rear side panels 234. Composite structure 133 and the side panels 134 and 234 may be integrally formed or, as shown in figure 2, may include two or more separate elements.

Shows the composite structure 133 includes the outer coating 44, the lining 42, facing the body, which is connected with an outer coating by blending and absorbent pad 20 according to the invention, which is located between the outer surface 44 and lining 42, facing the body. Rectangular composite structure 133 is opposite to the linear end edges 145, forming parts of the front and back waist edge 138 and 139, and opposite linear or curvilinear side edges 147, forming parts of the side edges 136 absorbent base 14. For reference in figure 2 by the arrows 48 and 49 shows the orientation of the longitudinal axis and transverse axis, respectively, the training pants 20.

Moisture-permeable coating 42, facing the body, is shown overlaid on the outer coating 44 and the absorbent pad 20 (figure 2) and may, but need not necessarily have the same dimensions as the outer coating 44. Preferably the lining 42, facing the body is supple, soft to the touch and does not irritate the baby's skin. In addition, the lining 42, facing the body, can be less hydrophilic than the absorbent pad 20, so that the user is facing a relatively dry surface and so that the liquid can easily penetrate through its thickness. Absorbent pad 20 (Figure 2) is located between the outer surface 44 and lining 42, facing the body, and, as is well known in the art, these components may be connected to each other using any suitable means, such as adhesives.

Absorbent base 14 may also include other materials that are designed primarily to receive, temporarily holding the/or transmission fluid along the surface of contact with the absorbent pad 20, that brings up to a maximum absorbing capacity of the absorbent system. One suitable material is referred to as distribution layer (not shown) and may represent, for example, a material having a surface density equal to about 50 g/m2and including webs of carding, United through the weave in the air stream, consisting of a homogeneous mixture containing 60% of two-component fibers of tonnoy 3 denier consisting of a polyester core/polyethylene sheath, sold by the company KoSa Corporation, and 40% of polyester fibers Tonino 6 denier, sold by the company KoSa Corporation, Salisbury, North Carolina, USA. You can use other distributing songs, and some of the materials described in this invention.

Preferably the outer coating 44 includes a material that is substantially water resistant and can be elastic, stretchable or extensible. The outer coating 44 may be a single layer of moisture-proof material, but preferably includes a multilayer laminated structure in which at least one waterproof layer. For example, the outer coating 44 may include vlagopronitsaemym outer layer and a waterproof inner layer that are suitably connected to each other through hell is eseva for the formation of layered materials (not shown). Suitable adhesives for the formation of layered materials that can be applied in a continuous layer or as separate parts in the form of granules, by spraying, application of parallel spiral patterns, etc. can be purchased from the company Findley Adhesives, Inc., of Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, USA, or National Starch and Chemical Company, Bridgewater, New Jersey, USA. Moisture-permeable outer layer can be any suitable material and preferably a material that provides essentially tissue-like structure. One example of such a material having a surface density equal to 20 g/m2(grams per square meter), polypropylene spunbond nonwoven material production method. The outer layer may also be made of such materials lining 42, facing the body. Although it is not necessary that the outer layer was moisture-permeable, preferably, to provide a relatively tissue-like structure for the user.

The inner layer of the outer cover 44 can be the same as moisture-proof and vapor-proof or may be water resistant and vapor permeable. The inner layer is preferably made of a thin plastic film, although it is also possible to use other elastic waterproof material. The inner layer, or vlagonepronicaemah the second coating 44, if only one layer, prevents wetting of discharge products such as bed sheets and clothing, as well as the user and the caregiver. Suitable moisture-proof film for use as a waterproof inner layer, or a single layer of water-resistant outer coating 44 is a polyethylene film having a thickness equal to 0.02 mm, sold by the company Huntsman Packaging of Newport News, Virginia, USA. If the outer coating 44 is composed of a single layer of material, it is possible to crimp or materbate that in appearance he was more like fabric. As noted above, the moisture-proof material to prevent the passage of vapors from the interior of the disposable absorbent products and to prevent leakage of fluid through the outer coating 44. Suitable breathable material consists of a microporous polymer film or a nonwoven fabric, which is coated or he otherwise treated to give it the necessary degree of moisture resistance.

A suitable microporous film is a film material PMP-1, sold by Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Inc., Tokyo, Japan, or polyolefin film, HCO-8044 sold by the company ZM Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Other similar materials with different degree of vegatron is zeemote, are materials of the type (material spunbond method of production)/(material received by the blast from the melt), hydrophobic-type material (spunbond material mode of production)/(material received by the blast from the melt)/(material spunbond production method), uniformly shaped materials spunbond production method and two-component materials. The balance of tightness and permeability can be adjusted by selection of the size of the fibers and the surface density.

The lining 42, facing the body, can be manufactured from a wide range of materials such as synthetic fibers (e.g. polyester or polypropylene fibers), natural fibers (e.g. wood or cotton fibers), a combination of natural and synthetic fibers, porous foams, reticulated foams, apertured plastic films, etc. For the strip 42, facing the body, you can use various woven and nonwoven materials. For example, the gasket facing the body may consist of vented from the melt or received spunbond method webs of polyolefin fibers. Lining facing the body, may also be a material of carding, made from natural and/or synthetic fibers. Lining facing the body, can the state shall be of essentially hydrophobic material, and the hydrophobic material may be treated with surface-active substance or processed in any other way to give it the necessary level of wettability and hydrophilicity. For example, the surface of the material can be processed with a surface-active substance concentration of around 0.28 wt.%, sold by the company Rohm and Haas Co. under the trade designation Triton X-102. Other suitable surfactants are sold by the company Uniqema Inc., the division of ICI of New Castle, Delaware, under the trade name Ahcovel and the company Cognis Corporation of Ambler, Pennsylvania, a company located in Cincinnati, Ohio, and sold under the trade name Glucopon 220. Surfactant can be applied by conventional methods such as spraying, printing, brush application, etc. Surfactant can be applied to the entire lining 42, facing the body, or it can be selectively applied to specific areas of the lining facing the body, such as the average land located along the longitudinal centerline.

Suitable moisture-permeable gasket 42, facing the body, is a two-component non-woven material with a surface density of about 27 g/m2. Two-component non-woven material may be a two-component non-woven spunbond material production method or two is componentry nonwoven carding. Suitable bicomponent staple fibers include polyethylene/polypropylene bicomponent fiber, manufactured by CHISSO Corporation, Osaka, Japan. In this particular two-component fiber polypropylene forms the core and the polyethylene forms the sheath of the fiber. Other orientations, such as multiple, parallel, island etc., While the outer coating 44 and the gasket 42, facing the body, can include elastomeric materials, for some embodiments it may be desirable that the composite structure was largely inelastic, so that the outer coating, lining, facing the body, and absorbing node included materials, which generally are not elastomeric.

As noted above, presents the training pants 20 may have a front and back side panels 134 and 234 located on each side of the absorbent base 14 (Figure 2). These opposite in the transverse direction of the front side panels 134 and the opposite in the transverse direction of the rear side panels 234 can be constantly connected to the composite structure 133 absorbent base 14, or may be released by image are connected through a system 80 of the fastening. More specifically, as best shown in figure 2, the front side panels 134 can b is to be constantly connected to the linear side edges 147 composite structure 133 along the connecting lines 69 and continue in the transverse direction for them, and rear side panels 234 can be constantly connected to the linear side edges of the composite structure along the connecting lines 69 and continue in the transverse direction for them. Side panels 134 and 234 can be attached using fastening means known to experts in the art such as adhesive, thermal or ultrasonic link. Side panels 134 and 234 may also be formed in the form of a land component of the composite structure 133, such as the outer coating 44 or lining 42, facing the body.

Each of the side panels 134 and 234 may include one or more separate, different pieces of material. For example, in a particular embodiment, each of the side panels 134 and 234 may include first and second side panels that are connected by a seam, and at least one portion includes an elastomeric material (not shown). As another alternative, each individual side panel 134 and 234 may include one piece of material which is folded along an intermediate fold line (not shown).

The side panels preferably include an elastic material capable of stretching in a direction essentially parallel to the transverse axis 49 of the training pants 20. In specific embodiments, the implementation of each of the front and rear Bo the new panels 134 and 234 may include an inner section 78, located between the remote edge 68 and the corresponding front or rear Central panel 135 or 235. In the embodiment, in Figure 2, the inner sections 78 are located between the remote edges 68 and side edges 147 of the rectangular composite structure 133. The elastic material of the side panels 134 and 234 can be positioned in the inner sections 78 to make the elastomeric side panels in the direction, in General parallel to the transverse axis 49. Most preferably, each of the side panels 134 and 234 elastomer is from the waist end edge 72 to the leg end edges 70. More specifically, separate samples of the material with the side panel taken between the waist end edge 72 and the leg end edge 70 parallel to the transverse axis 49 and having a length from a connecting line 69 to the remote edges 68 and a width of about 2 cm, are elastomeric.

Suitable elastic materials, as well as one describes how to enable elastic side panels in training pants, are described in the following U.S. patents: 4940464, issued July 10, 1990 (Van Compel et al).; 5224405, issued July 6, 1993 (Pohjola); 5104116, issued April 14, 1992 (Pohjola), and 5046272, issued September 10, 1991 (Vogt et al.; all of them are included in the present invention by reference. In specific embodiments, the implementation of flexible material includes a thermally RA is theveny layered material (STL), layered material, formed with an exhaust hood in the neck (NBL), layered material, reversible stretch in the neck or layered material, formed with an exhaust hood (SBL). Methods of making such materials are well known to experts in the art and described in U.S. patent US 4663220, issued may 5, 1987 (Wisneski et al.; in U.S. patent US 5226992, issued July 13, 1993 (Morman); and European patent application no EP 0217032, published April 8, 1987 (Taylor et al).; all of them are included in the present invention by reference. Alternatively, the material of the side panels may include other woven or nonwoven materials, such as those described above as suitable for the manufacture of a coating 44 or lining 42, facing the body, or tensile, but not elastic materials.

As specified in the present invention, the various components of the training pants 20 can be made in one piece with the use of various types of suitable connecting means, such as adhesive, ultrasonic and thermal connection or combinations thereof. The resulting product is an absorbent garment 20 includes a thin, flexible, highly absorbent pad 20. Similar to briefs absorbent garment 20 may be of any size and may be constructed so as to be p is egodram for use in a variety of ways, such as diapers, training pants, clothing for swimming, products for those suffering from incontinence, etc.

Absorbent pad 20 according to the invention can be manufactured using conventional integrated in a production line drum machine 26 for forming absorbent materials, shown in Figure 3. More specifically, SVP and fluff pulp can evenly mix in the forming chamber 28 of the drum forming machine 26. As already noted, SVP and fluff pulp also can be mixed artificial fibers or particles of the medium. To minimize losses SVP when forming the forming drum 32 drum forming machine 26 can be wrapped porous material 30, such as woven polyester material with a pore size of about 30 μm, so as to close forming a sieve 34 forming drum 32. Alternatively, instead of the traditional form of the sieves 34, you can use a sieve with small pores or micro-perforated forming sieves. As another alternative, a thin layer compositing material enriched fluff pulp, can be used for forming the sieve 34 before the composite material with a high content of SVP will go on forming sieves 34 in the forming chamber 28. In any case, the effective size of the openings on the surface of the sieve extending t is less than 300 μm. The permeability of the forming surface should be sufficiently high to form a homogeneous pad, and forming the surface should be durable. This combination of characteristics leads to the fact that the pore size should be from 75 to 300 μm. Forming sieves 34, traditional or comparatie may constitute or flat screens, or curly sieves, intended for the manufacture of shaped absorbent systems, divided into zones.

Unlike the case of the Autonomous production of absorbent pads 20, when using a drum forming machine 26 that is built into the process line, the additional amount evenly mixed superficiales material and fluff pulp can be sent in at least one region of the absorbent pads, where additional absorbent material will be most useful.

Special nozzle 36 for SVP presented in figure 4, can be placed in the upper front position of the forming chamber 28. The nozzle 36 includes a flattened and stretched tube 50, which forms a slit 52 and a cap 54, partially protruding over the end of the hole 56 of the nozzle 36. This nozzle 36 disperses SVP and provides uniform mixing SVP and fluff pulp, or it can be positioned in such a way that it was created in podosek the gradient composition.

Formed pad 20 exits the forming chamber 28 in a state with a low density, namely less than 0.1 g/cm3and it must be sealed. Pads are placed on the conveyor or tissue carrier 35. In the present invention requires that the pads were subjected to compression to a density of at least 0.28 g/cm3preferably at least 0,30 g/cm3more preferably at least 0.32 g/cm3. As shown in Figure 3, the sealing can be performed by a conventional sealing roll or, more preferably, the calender heated to 38. The calender heated preferably heated to a temperature equal to from about 80 to about 150°C. it is Possible to make pads with a surface density equal to from about 80 to about 1000 g/m2, preferably from about 100 to about 800 g/m2more preferably from about 120 to about 750 g/m2. After sealing pads have a thickness equal to from about 0.4 to about 3.0 mm, preferably from about 0.5 to about 2.5 mm, more preferably from about 0.6 to about 2.0 mm

In the process of forming a mixture of SAP with the fluff pulp can be dampened to improve the seal of the obtained absorbent pads 20 and the possible provision of a smaller number of lateral compression and stiffness. The use of heating and HC is Armenia in the process of sealing an absorbent composite material is described, for example, in U.S. patent US 6214274, issued April 10, 2001 (Melius et al.), which is included in the present invention by reference. In addition, the absorbent pad 20 may be pressed a certain pattern, which can also reduce the stiffness.

EXAMPLE 1

In this example, using the built-in process line forming drum machine PULL-UPS® for the manufacture of disposable training pants are made of eight different samples of absorbent pads. The pads have a different composition and density and subjected to investigation to determine the time of absorption and time of use. Use different types SVP, including SVP of high strength gel, marketed under the trade designation FAVOR® SXM 9543 company Stockhausen GmbH & Co. KG, D-47805 Krefeld, Germany, and polyacrylate material, produced by the company Stockhausen under the trade designation FAVOR® SXM 880. Use different types of fluff pulp, including bleached, highly absorbent sulfate wood pulp, manufactured under the trade designation CR1654 company U. S. Alliance, Childesbwg, Alabama, USA; bleached pulp of soft wood trees of southern rock, marketed under the trade designation NB-416 company Weyerhaeuser Corporation of Federal Way, Washington, USA; the pulp of soft wood trees of southern rock, which clicks the nerd cold caustic soda and is available under the trade designation AL9401 company Rayonier Incorporated, Stamford, Connecticut; and special reinforced pulp, produced under the trade designation ND-416 company Weyerhaeuser Corporation. The composition and density of all the samples are shown in table 2.

Table 2

The composition and density of the samples
SampleCompositionDensity (g/cm3)
Code 150% FAVOR® SXM 9543, 50% CR16540,32
Code 250% FAVOR® SXM 9543, 50% NB-4160,32
Code 350% FAVOR® SXM 9543, 50% AL9401/NB-416 (mix ˜ 1:1)0,33
Code 440% FAVOR® SXM 9543, 60% AL9401/NB-416 (mix ˜ 1:1)0,28
Code 550% FAVOR® SXM 9543, 50% ND-4160,34
Code 650% FAVOR® SXM 880, 50% CR16540,35
Code 744% FAVOR® SXM 880, 56% CR16540,22
Code 850% FAVOR® SXM 880, 50% CR16540,21

Samples are made by cutting out a piece of 6×4.5 inch from each of the formed pads. Then record the mass and volume of each sample.

With each sample absorbent pads investigated four different types of distribution layers. These distributions is the following layers are non-woven cloth of carding, United through the weave in the air stream, comprising a two-component fiber and polyester fiber. First distributing material contains 60 wt.% component fibers of the T-256 Tonini of 2.8 denier production company KoSa and 40 wt.% polyester fibers T-295 Tonino 6 denier production company KoSa. Second distributing material contains 60 wt.% fibers T-256 Tonini of 2.0 denier and 40 wt.% polyester fibers Tonini of 3.0 denier production company KoSa. All distribution layers had a width of 62 mm Four different types of distribution layers include distributing layer with a surface density equal to 55 grams per square meter (g/m2)made the first distribution of the material, the distribution layer with a surface density equal to 85 g/m2made from the second distributing material distributing layer with a surface density of 100 g/m2made from the first distributing material, and distributing layer with a surface density of 100 g/m2made from a second distribution of the material.

A sample of each material IDs 1-8 unite with each of the four distribution of words of length 5 inches, each distributing layer are examined separately, with the lining material, length 10 inches, and polymer plank is th length of 10 inches. The lining material is a spunbond material production method with a surface density equal to 0.6 osy (osy - ounce per square yard), treated with 0.3% Ahcovel production company Kimberly-Clark Corporation. Used polymer film was a polyethylene film with a thickness of 0.75 mil production company Edison Plastics. On the entire surface of each piece of the polymer film was spraying a small amount of adhesive is a hot melt, namely Ato Findley 2525A production company Ato Findley, and the sample of absorbent material was placed in the center of the polymer films on coated by spraying the surface. Then after another spray a small amount of adhesive in the center of absorbent material secured distributing layer. After that distributing layer was placed a strip with the formation of the compound with the polymer film around the absorbent material.

Then in the center of each sample, at a distance from each end equal to about 3 inches, mark the point of receipt of a portion of the liquid. Then determine and record the mass of the dry sample.

To determine the time of absorption for each sample each sample examined without distributing layer, as well as with distribution layer with a surface density equal to 55 g/m2. The test sample is placed between the hard pairs of relname plates of plexiglass. In the upper plate there is located in the center of the cylindrical hole with a diameter of 1 inch, which is placed over the point of receipt of a portion of the liquid and is used to direct fluid into the product. On the bottom plate there is located in the center of the protruding section 4.5×4.5 inch. The top plate creates equal to 385 g load absorbing material area 20,25 inch2located on vystupayushchimi the area of the lower plate. In point of receipt liquid portion of each sample was poured in about 35 ml of salt solution having a concentration of 0.9 wt./vol.%, and the solution is considered dissolved when visually discover that all the liquid has passed through the surface of the absorbent material, and at this point, record the time of receipt. In point of receipt liquid portion of each sample re-pour out a portion of the liquid volume of 35 ml and then record the time of absorption of the second portion of the liquid. Finally, at the point of receipt liquid portion of each sample was poured third portion of the liquid volume of 35 ml and then record the time of absorbing a third portion of liquid. Intervals between emptying portions of liquid equal to 15 minutes the Results of this survey for codes 1-8 are shown in the diagram presented on Figure 5. Results pre is presented at Figure 5, show that with the introduction of three portions of liquid, regardless of whether there is or is not a distributing layer, FAVOR® SXM 9543 has overall better performance than the equivalent in composition and density FAVOR® SXM 880. In addition, all materials having a high density, except for the material code 6, on the working characteristics of the equivalent control materials with codes 7 and 8, low density, or surpass them.

To determine the time of receipt for each sample each sample examined with each of the four distribution layers using the just described procedure, in which in each sample served three portions of the fluid volume in 35 ml. the Results of this survey for codes 1-5 are shown in the chart presented on Fig.6, and the results of this survey for codes 6-8 are shown in the chart presented on Fig.7. As can be seen in Fig.6 and 7, is constantly less time income is observed for the samples fabricated using the above-described distributing layer having a surface density of 100 g/m2and the time of receipt for all samples are in good agreement with each other. Comparison of samples produced using three other distributing the x layers, shows that the sample with the highest content SVP, namely the sample code is 4, the performance is superior to the other samples.

EXAMPLE 2

In this example, the absorbent pads are made with built-in technological line forming drum machine PULL-UPS® for the manufacture of disposable training pants. Car given this configuration, to absorbent pads can be collected from the production line directly in front of their connection with other components using Assembly operation of the product. This allows you to explore the formed pads in place without disassembly of the finished product. In this study, use has a rectangular shape and a constant depth forming sieves with micro-perforated holes in the sieves, manufactured by FT&D, located in Helen, Georgia.

Micro-perforated sieve capable of preventing the passage of SVP in the inner part of the forming drum in a similar way that provides a wrapping cloth, in which there are openings of small size. This provides a constant mass of absorbent material even at concentrations SVP, greater than 65%. The regularity and volume of air flow is maintained in the normal range and lead to a good formation of the pads.

Doba is of moisture in small amounts in absorbent pad is desirable as a means of reducing pressure, required to achieve densities greater than 0.3 g/cm3. To provide a more uniform distribution of moisture through the thickness of absorbent material instead of spraying moisture absorbing material selected blowing moist air through the pad. For supplying hot air into the hood, mounted above the vacuum conveyor between the forming drum, and a device designed to pre-reduce the volume, use the heating element and the blower motor. Filtered tap water combine with compressed air (20 lbs/inch2and by using a thin nozzle atomization, with a hole diameter 0,028 inch, is introduced into the streams of warm air in the form of thin air dispersion. In the air stream at a temperature of 120°creates a relative humidity of approximately 40%. After ensuring the best characteristics of the humidity made of absorbent pads. Using this technique, a pillow adds about 1% of water; this number is determined by the weight change pads. Held in this way, the hydration enables you to make the clearance between the sealing rolls equal to 5 mils, while ensuring the same thickness absorbent pads.

The use of heated sealing rolls also reduces the force required for the Platania absorbent composition, relevant to the present invention. However, the following examples listed in table 3, are intended to demonstrate some of the features of the present invention, obtained without the use of heat and moisture.

Table 3

Comparison of ultrathin absorbent materials with a standard absorbent material
SampleSurface density (g/m2)Content SVPPulpWeight SVP (g)The mass of pulp (g)SU (d)Thickness (mm)Density (g/cm3)Description
1715 in front; 525 rear44%CR165

4
1316,55804.8 inch in the front; 2.6 inch in the rear0.15 in front of; 0.2 in the rearPULL-UPS®, the coarse sieve
267060%NB41614,89,94901,80,37STV
367060%NB41614,89,94801,8 0.37CTB wet
451060%NB41611,37,53951,40,36STW low absorbency
526030%NB4162,96,71500,70,37STV SVP with low surface density
620050%NB4163,73,71400,60,33STV with a high content of SAP with a low surface density
767060%ND41614,89,94751,80,37pulp ND416 STV

As indicated in Table 3, the mass of the sample 1 have an adjustable manner, so that in front of the sample surface density was greater than at the rear. Use different types of pulp, including CR1654, NB-416 and ND-416, each of which is described above in Example 1. Absorbent capacity (AC) means the mass of the sample at saturation. Ultra-slim absorbent materials (CTV) in samples 2-7 compare with standard training cowards in the sample 1

All samples STV obtained using superficiales material FAVOR® SXM 9543. Sample 1 obtained using superficiales material FAVOR® SXM 880 production company Stockhausen and manufactured using standard forming the coarse sieves (not micro-perforated) on the machine PULL-UPS® for the manufacture of disposable training pants. It is known that high-quality pads with low surface density is often difficult to manufacture using the method using the forming drum machine built into the process line, however, the samples with low surface density, i.e. the samples 5 and 6 are flexible and homogeneous in one pad, and between the pads.

In the manufacture of sample 2 feed rate superficiales material increase, so as to obtain a composition with a concentration SVP, equal to 65%. Variants of samples 6 and 7, having a high density is produced by increasing the supply SVP and fibers from the pulp on the forming drum, which increases the surface density of the formed absorbent pads. Variant of the sample 6 having a high density is made such that it has a surface density equal to 490 g/m2thick, equal 0,86 mm, and a density equal to or 0.57 g/cm3. Variant of the sample 7, possessing the th high density, has a surface density of approximately 795 g/m2thickness equal to 1.39 mm, and a density equal to or 0.57 g/cm3.

Products containing the received location ultrathin absorbent pads, based on the sample 2, is made to conduct large-scale trials on their use by consumers. The results of this test for use by consumers, not resulted in the detection of statistically significant differences in flow characteristics between products containing obtained on the spot ultrathin absorbent pads, and marketed disposable training underwear PULL-UPS®.

EXAMPLE 3

Industrial machine tested for production of ultrathin absorbent pads and products containing ultrathin absorbent pads. Forming sieves 34 shaped, such as shown in Fig were wrapped polyester net fabric. These formative sit also has a front pocket, i.e. in-depth plot, allowing it to accommodate a greater amount of absorbent material on the site products, which receives a portion of the liquid. Products manufactured using the shaped absorbent pads in the front half of which is approximately 60% of the absorbent material. Pads and products manufactured at the speed of techno is logicheskoi line, in excess of 600 ft/min

EXAMPLE 4

In this example, the absorbent pads are also made using the built-in process line forming drum machine PULL-UPS® for the manufacture of disposable training pants. Car given this configuration, to absorbent pads can be collected from the production line directly in front of their Association with other components using Assembly operation of the product. This allows you to explore the formed pads in place without disassembly of the finished product. In this study, use has a rectangular shape and a constant depth forming sieves with micro-perforated holes in the sieves, manufactured by FT&D. Absorbent pads include 60% superficiales material FAVOR® SXM 9543 40% pulp ND-416 manufactured by Weyerhaeuser company. The thickness of absorbent materials is maintained constant and equal to approximately 1.9 to 2.0 mm, the feed Rate of the pulp and superficiales material altered in order to obtain products with surface densities that are in a certain range, which leads to products with densities in some range. Investigated lateral compression of these products and comparison with compression for standard absorbent composition contained in ognore the new training pants PULL-UPS® (44% superficiales material FAVOR® SXM 880 production company Stockhausen, 56% of the pulp CR1654 production company US Alliance, density ˜0.20 g/cm3). The results in table 4 show that materials relevant to the present invention, have the compression characteristics similar to the characteristics used in the present absorbing composition in the range of densities much higher than those currently in use patterns. By using smaller incremental moisture, heated sealing rolls, the application of sealing rolls carrying out embossing, or any combination of these methods it is possible to achieve even lower values of the energy of compression.

Table 4

Comparison of compression ratio
TrackSurface density (g/m2)Density (g/cm3)Energy compression by 50% (g-cm)
44% SVP, 56% pulp8460,1912373,1
60% SVP, 40% pulp770,50,412967,3
60% SVP, 40% pulp757,60,3972740,9
60% SVP, 40% pulp756,90,373 3614,8
60% SVP, 40% pulp795,70,3743068,9
60% SVP, 40% pulp742,70.3732726,3

EXAMPLE 5

Ultra-slim absorbent pad was manufactured on site at a ratio of 50/50 superficiales polymer FAVOR® SXM 9543 and fiber from the pulp CR1654, 16 grams of each material, and had a theoretical absorption capacity equal to 608 g of the solution salt concentration of 0.9%. The pad is divided into zones, so that the area from the back of lastovica to the front of the pads has a surface density equal to 875 g/m2and the rear half of the pads has a surface density equal to 700 g/m2. Density is made equal to 0.27 g/cm3for the front area and 0.33 g/cm3for the rear. Type pads on the top presents on Fig. The pad had a length of 450 mm width, 120 mm in the front and 70 mm in the centre and 95 mm at the rear.

These results show that the method described in the present invention, when used as an integral part of the processing for consumer product allows you to produce a shaped absorbent structure with the zonal location of the absorbing substance (i.e. located in a selected area of the structure), which is thin and has sun is mi other features of the present invention. This is a desirable combination, because there are made offline thin absorbent materials (i.e. cooked before processing of the product), but they cannot be given a different absorption capacity in different areas, whereas conventional methods of forming the absorbent materials on the production line can produce a structure with the zonal location of the absorbing substance, but usually do not allow you to get optimal fine structure.

The method of determining ability to retain fluid

The ability to retain fluid is determined as follows. The study material that has a moisture content equivalent to less than about 7 wt.%, weighed and at room temperature (about 23° (C) immersed in an excess amount of an aqueous solution of the salt concentration of 0.9 wt.%. The analyzed material left submerged for about 20 minutes After a twenty-minute immersion material is recovered and, as shown in Fig.9, put on made of fiberglass sieve 134, covered with material TEFLON™ and having holes about 0.25 inches (0.6 cm) (sold by the company Taconic Plastics Inc., Petersburg, NY), which is placed in a vacuum chamber 130 and a flexible rubber sheet material 132. Using, for example, vacuum valve 136 and the vacuum pump 138 in a vacuum is the Amer for a period of time, approximately 5 minutes, create a vacuum pressure of approximately 0.5 pound-force/inch2(about 3.5 kPa). Then the material is removed from the sieve and weighed. The amount of liquid held by the material, determined by subtracting the mass of the material in dry condition from the mass of material in the wet state (after exposure to vacuum) and given as the absolute value of the ability to retain fluid, which is expressed as grams of liquid retained. If desired, using the density values of the investigated liquid mass of liquid retained can be counted in the volume of liquid and to Express the ability to retain fluid in milliliters of liquid retained. For comparison, this is the absolute value of the ability to retain fluid can be divided into the mass of material 131 in a dry condition and to obtain the specific ability to retain fluid, expressed in grams of liquid retained per 1 g of the material under investigation. If located in a vacuum chamber material, such as forming a gel polymer material or the fiber is pulled through made of fiberglass sieve 134, use a sieve with smaller holes. Alternatively, between the material 131 and sieve 134 you can put a piece of paper used for the manufacture of portioned bags of tea, or analogs which ranks the material and the final value to correct for the amount of liquid held by the paper or similar material.

The method of determining the absorbency under load (VSN)

The ability superficiales material to absorb the liquid under load is determined as follows. Use figure 10 presents a Demand Absorbency Tester (DAT) (a device for determining the absorbency), which is similar to GISW (gravimetric measuring system for determining the absorbency) manufactured by M/K Systems, Danners, MA, as well as with the system that was described by Lichstein et al. on page 129 - 142 work INDA Technological Symposium Proceedings, March 1974. Use porous plate 112, which are the channels 114, located on a plot of 2.5 cm in diameter, on which is placed the device 116 to determine the absorbency under load (VSN). For measuring fluid flow, the incoming particles superficiales material 120 applied electric scales 118. Used in this study, the liquid is an aqueous solution containing 0.9 wt.% sodium chloride, which is used at room temperature (approximately 23°).

A special device for determining VSN used to contain the particles superficiales material, includes a cylinder 122, made of a thermoplastic tube with an inner diameter of 1 inch (2.54 cm)subjected to a small m is a mechanical processing to ensure concentricity. For holding the sample and its fine material to the bottom of the cylinder 122 with an adhesive attached wire mesh 124 100 mesh, made of stainless steel. Alternatively, wire mesh 124 100 mesh, made of stainless steel, can be soldered to the bottom of the cylinder 122 by heating wire mesh incandescent flame, after which the cylinder is pressed against the grid to its cooling. If the solder fails or if the seal is broken, then to prepaymania you can use a soldering iron. Must be careful that the bottom remains flat and smooth and the interior of the cylinder is not deformed. From the solid material (for example, Plexiglass™), 1 inch diameter made piston 126 weighing 4.4 g, which obtochuyut so that it fits close to the cylinder 122, but did not stick to it. The piston 126 is used to create a bounding load equal to 0.01 pound-force/inch2. To create more significant limiting load use the load 128. As noted above, the more significant limiting load equal to 0.29, of 0.57 and 0.90 lbs/inch2. In accordance with this to create a corresponding limiting loads are loads of 100, 200 and 317 g (in addition to the piston 126 weighing 4.4 g). To determine VSN use education the EC superficialy particle of mass of 0.60 (± 0.005 g). The sample is withdrawn from the granules, which are pre-screened so that they pass through a standard U.S. sieve of 30 mesh but retained on a standard U.S. sieve 50 mesh (300-600 μm). In the study of the particles have a moisture content equivalent to less than about 5 wt.%.

The test begins with the premise on the plate 112 paper 130, made of glass fibre GF/A, diameter 3 see the paper Size is selected such that it was larger than the inner diameter and smaller than the outer diameter of the cylinder 122, which provides good contact, but excludes evaporation through the channels 114 of the device DAT 110 and then provides the establishment of saturation. Particles 120 are weighed on paper for weighing and placed on a wire mesh 124 on the bottom of the device 116 to determine the VSN. The device 116 is shaken for leveling particles 120 on a wire grid 124. It is necessary to observe punctuality, so that the particles will not adhere to the cylinder wall 122. After careful, no pressure, premises particles 120, located in the cylinder 122, the piston 126 and, optionally, cargo 128, device 116 to determine VSN placed on filter paper 130, made of fiberglass. The amount of the effluent (in grams) as a function of time is measured manually using a tape recorder or transmit the results directly into the system for processing data is x or on a personal computer.

Quantity (in grams) leaked for 60 min fluid divided by the mass of dry sample (0,160 g)represents the value VSN, expressed as the number of grams of leaked fluid on 1 g of the sample (g/g). It is also possible to measure the rate of leakage of fluid. To ensure the accuracy of the final instantaneous values, you can perform two checks. First, the height of the piston 126, multiplied by the cross sectional area of the cylinder 122, should equal the amount of leaked fluid. Secondly, the device 116 to determine the VSN can be weighed before and after the study, and the difference of the masses have almost exactly equal to the mass of leaked fluid. To get the value VSN for this material are at least three definitions and the average results.

Research methodology lateral compression

The technique, which can be used to investigate lateral compression (BS), described below. Cut out a piece of absorbent material size 2x12 inch (5,1×30.5 cm) so that its length coincides with the longitudinal direction of the product or raw material. Determine the mass of the sample. The thickness of the material is determined at a load equal to 0.2 pound-force/inch2(of 1.38 kPa). Material formed into a cylinder having a height equal to 2 inches (5.1 cm), so that the two ends overlap at 0-0,125 inches (0-3,18 mm) and the material fasten three what kubkami. One bracket set near the middle of the width of the product, and the other two near each edge along the width of the material. To minimize the influence of the brackets on the result of the study, the brackets have a circumference of the resulting cylinder.

Use the device for determining the tensile strength, such as sold by MTS Systems Corporation, Eden Prarie, MN, which is provided with the lower platform and the clamping plate, which is larger than the diameter of the circumference of the sample, and is parallel to the underside of the platform and attached to the head, creating a compressive load, which is in an inverted position. The sample is placed on a platform under the plate. The plate is brought into contact with the sample and the sample is compressed at a rate of 25 mm/min Record the maximum force generated by compression of the sample to 50% of its width (1 inch) (2.54 cm). If the material is subjected to longitudinal bending, it corresponds to the maximum force generated before the sample is compressed by 50%. For products with a length of absorbent material less than 12 inches (30.5 cm), characteristics of the BS can be determined as follows. A detailed discussion of the forces occurring at the lateral compression is carried out in the book " the Handbook Of Physical And Mechanical Testing Of Paper And Paperboard. Richard E. Mark editor, Dekker 1983 (Vol. 1). On the basis of theoretical models describing the voltage under longitudinal bending, in this configuration, the lateral compression force at the longitudinal bending proportionally Et2/(N2), and the coefficient of proportionality is a function of H2/(Rt)where E is the elastic modulus, H is the height of the cylinder, R is the radius of the cylinder and t is the thickness of the material. If we Express the force as force divided by the surface density, it is possible to show that N2/R is a parameter that must be maintained constant. Therefore, for a sample of length less than 12 inches (30.5 cm) it is necessary to make the largest possible ring, and its height (the width of the cut sample) should be done such that N2/Was equal to 2.1 inches (5.3 cm).

Methods of determining the thickness and density

The monitoring of the absorbent pads are placed under a load equal to 0.2 pound-force/inch2and on this site register thickness of absorbent material. Size subjected to compression area must be greater than 2 square×2 inches (5.08×5.08 cm). A suitable device for measuring the thickness of the absorbent material is a device for measuring the thickness of the type Starret, which has made of brass bearing that creates a load equal to 0.2 pound-force/inch2. If omitted compressible support site, under support, mark the perimeter of the support. The support is removed from the marked area with the help of the device, such as cutting knife, cut out a square of size 2×2 inches. Fabric located on the absorbent pad, and remove the square piece is weighed. The density is determined using the following equation: density=(mass of absorbent material in grams)/(5.08 cm)2× (thickness in cm).

The method of determining the holding capacity by centrifugation (ULC)

When used in the present invention holding capacity by centrifugation (ULC) is a measure of the absorbency superficiales material after centrifugation under controlled conditions. The sample superficiales material taken from superficiales material, which is pre-screened so that it passed through a standard sieve U.S. 30 mesh but retained on a standard U.S. sieve size of 50 mesh. So superficiali material has a particle size equal to between 300 and 600 microns. The particles can be pre-sifted manually or automatically.

The ULC can be defined by placing 0,200 g sample of the material with moisture content less than 5 wt.%) in permeable package, in which the sample is contained, when the sample will be given the opportunity to absorb the test solution (0.9% NaCl). For most cases is suitable thermally head of ivemy material, made of portions teabags (brand 542 sold by Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Neenah, WI). The package is made by folding in half a piece of such material, size 5×3 inches and heat the brewing two open ends receiving rectangular bag size 2.5×3 inches. Expansion joints should be located at a distance from the edges of the package, equal to about 0.25 inches. After placing the sample in the bag remaining open edge of the bag is also brewed. Also make empty packages that explore together with packages with samples and used as control. For each superficiales material examined three sets of samples.

Brewed packages placed between two sieves made of fiberglass, coated with TEFLON material™ and having a hole size of 1/4 inch (Taconic Plastics, Inc., Petersburg, NY), and immersed in a tank of 0.9% NaCl solution at a temperature 73,4±2°F, omitting the sieve until the packages will not be completely soaked with water. After wetting the samples are left in the solution for 30 min, and then removed from solution and temporarily placed on a non-absorbent flat surface.

Then wet the packages are placed in the drum of a suitable centrifuge, which can affect sample impact force equal to 350 g. (Is suitable centrifuge Clay Adams Dynac II, model#103, which has a drum for collecting water, digital sensor number of revolutions and machined drain drum, which can be flat packages with samples and from which water can drain.) To balance the drum during rotation of the samples should be placed in opposite positions. Packages centrifuged for 3 min at a given speed of 1,600 rpm, but in the range of 1500-1900 rpm (specified power equal to 350 g). Packages removed and weighed, and at first weighed empty (control) packets, then the packets containing superficiali material. The amount of fluid absorbed and retained superficialis material, taking into account the liquid retained by the material of the package, is the holding capacity by centrifugation superficiales material, expressed as the number of grams of liquid per 1 g superficiales material.

Research methodology permeability layer gel

The device is suitable for studies of the permeability of the layer of gel (PSG) and consisting of a piston and cylinder, represented at 11 and 12. Referring to 11, the device 220 comprises a cylinder 222 and piston generally indicated by the position 224). Figure 11 presents the piston 224 consists of a cylindrical shaft 226 made of LEXAN®in which there is a concentric C is lindrical hole 228, drilled along the longitudinal axis of the shaft. Both ends of the shaft 226 machined for the formation of the first and second ends 230, 232. The first end 230 is cargo 234, which has a cylindrical hole 236 drilled through its centre. The second end 232 worn round the head of the piston 240. Piston head 240 has a size that enables its movement within the cylinder 222 in the vertical direction.

As shown in Fig, at the head of the piston 240 includes inner and outer concentric rings, consisting respectively of seven and fourteen cylindrical holes with a diameter of about 0.375 inch (0.95 cm) (generally denoted by arrows 242 and 244). Each concentric ring of holes are drilled from the upper to the lower side of the piston head 240. In the piston head 240 also has a cylindrical hole 246 drilled in its centre and is designed for insertion of the second end 232 of the shaft 226.

To the lower end of the cylinder 222 attached wire mesh 248, size 400 mesh, made of stainless steel, which is to consolidate subjected to biaxial stretching to provide tension. To the lower end of the piston head 240 attached wire mesh 250, 400 mesh, made of stainless steel, which is to consolidate subjected to biaxial stretching to provide tension. Sample vitp the covering material 252 is based on a grid 248.

The cylinder 222 is carved from a transparent rod, made of LEXAN® or equivalent material, and has an inner diameter of 6.00 cm (surface area equal of 28.27 cm2), a wall thickness of approximately 0.5 cm, and a height equal to approximately 5,0 see piston Head 240 machined from a rod made of LEXAN®. It has a height equal to about 0.625 inch (1,59 cm)and a diameter such that it was part of the cylinder 222 with a minimum clearance between it and the wall, but move freely. In the center of the piston head 240 includes an aperture 246 of diameter equal to 0.625 inch (1,59 cm) threaded (18 turns/inch)used for the second end 232 of the shaft 226.

The shaft 226 machined from a rod made of LEXAN®and has an outer diameter equal to 0,875 " (2.22cm), and the inner diameter of 0.250 inch (0,64 cm). The second end 232 has a length of approximately 0.5 inch (1.27 cm), and it made the thread corresponding to the thread in the hole 246 in the cylinder, the piston 240. The first end 230 has a length of approximately 1 inch (2.54 cm)and a diameter equal 0,623 inch (1,58 cm), and forms an annular ledge for supporting cargo 234 made of stainless steel.

Ring cargo 234 made of stainless steel, has an inner diameter equal to 0.625 inch (1,59 cm)so that it fits over the first end 230 of the shaft 226 and the op is builds on existing annular ledge. The total mass of the piston 224 and cargo 234 is approximately 596 g, which for a space equal of 28.27 cm2that corresponds to a pressure of 0.30 lbs/inch2(20685 Dyne/cm). When the liquid flows through the device, consisting of a piston and cylinder, the cylinder 222 is typically left on the hard base mesh to 16 mesh, made of stainless steel (not shown) or equivalent material.

To measure the distance between the underside of the cargo and the upper part of the cylinder piston and the load is placed in the empty cylinder. This measurement is carried out with the help of Vernier caliper with a multiplier of 0.01 mm This value lower will be used to calculate the height of the layer of the sample of absorbent material 252. It is important to measure for the cylinder, not containing the sample, and to maintain constant the distance traveled by the piston and the load. The same piston and the load should be used when measuring using the bulked sample of absorbent material.

Absorbing layer used to define the PSG, get, exposing the swell of about 0.9 g of the sample of absorbent material in the cylinder of the device to determine PSG (dry absorbent material should be evenly distributed mesh cylinder before swelling) in a liquid, typically an aqueous solution of NaCl concentration of 0.9% (wt./vol.), during the period in which Erno 15 minutes The sample of absorbent material selected from portions of absorbent material, which is pre-screened so that it passed through a standard sieve U.S. 30 mesh but retained on a standard U.S. sieve 50 mesh. Therefore, the size of the particles of absorbent material is from 300 to 600 μm. The particles can be pre-sifted manually or automatically, for example using a mechanical sieve shaker device Ro-Tap Model sold by W. S. Tyier, Inc., Mentor, HE USA.

After a 15-minute period of time the cylinder is removed from the fluid and the sample of absorbent material is placed a piston system/cargo. The thickness of the swollen sample of absorbent material determined by measuring with a micrometer distance from the lower end of the cargo to the upper end of the cylinder. The value obtained when carrying out such measurements with the cylinder, not containing the sample, is subtracted from the values obtained after swelling of the sample of absorbent material. The resulting value represents the height of the layer of the swollen sample of absorbent material, N.

The definition of PSG start adding in the cylinder 222 fluid, while the height of the liquid layer above the bottom end of the sample of absorbent material 252 becomes equal to 4.0, see the time of the survey the height of the liquid constant support. The time dependency to the number of liquid, transmitted through the sample of absorbent material 252, measured by gravimetric method. The experimental values determined at one-second intervals during the first two minutes of the study and at intervals of two seconds in the time remaining. Post-build time dependency for the amount of fluid that has passed through the sample of absorbent material, a specialist in the art it is clear, when it reached a constant velocity.

To calculate the flow rate using only the data obtained at a constant flow rate. The flow rate, Q, through the sample of absorbent material 252 is expressed in g/s and is determined by using the method of least squares approximation of the dependence of the quantity (expressed in grams) of liquid that has passed through the sample of absorbent material, the time (expressed in seconds). Permeability, expressed in cm2is determined by the following equation: K=[Q·H·μ)]/A·ρ·P], where K = permeability of the layer of gel (cm2); Q = flow rate (g/s); H = height of the layer of the sample of absorbent material (cm); μ = viscosity of the fluid (P); A = cross-sectional area of fluid flow (cm2); ρ = liquid density (g/cm3) and P = hydrostatic pressure (Dyne/cm2) (usually ravnomerno 3923 Dyne/cm 2).

It should be clear that the details of the descriptions of the above embodiments are illustrative only and should not be considered as limiting the scope of the present invention. Although described in detail only a few typical embodiments of the present invention, specialists in the art will easily understand that in typical embodiments of you can make many changes without significant deviations from the provisions and benefits of the present invention. In accordance with this it is assumed that all such modifications are included in the scope of the present invention, which is defined by the following claims and all equivalents. In addition, it should be clear that many possible options for implementation that do not achieve all of the advantages of some embodiments, particularly preferred embodiments, and the lack of specific benefits does not necessarily mean that such an implementation option is not included in the scope of the present invention.

1. Single-layer absorbent pad containing a single compacted layer comprising between 30 and 85 wt.% superficiales material uniformly mixed with the fluff pulp in an amount of from 15 to 70 wt.%, and superficiali the material has the strength of the gel is at least 0,65; while the single-layer absorbent pad was compressed to a density greater than about 0.28 g/cm3and thickness between 0.5 and 3.0 mm, and it has an absorbent capacity of between 14 to 40 g of the solution salt concentration of 0.9 wt./vol.% 1 g of absorbent pads and the energy of lateral compression between 2726,3 and 3614,8 up to 50% compression.

2. Absorbent pad according to claim 1, where the absorbent pad has a density in excess of 0.30 g/cm3.

3. Absorbent pad according to claim 1, where the absorbent pad has a density greater than 0.32 g/cm3.

4. Absorbent pad according to claims 1-3, where the absorbent pad contains 40 to 80 wt.% superficiales material.

5. Absorbent pad according to claims 1-3, where the absorbent pad contains 50 to 75 wt.% superficiales material.

6. Absorbent pad according to claim 1, additionally containing many synthetic fibers.

7. Absorbent pad according to claim 1, additionally containing many particles of the medium.

8. Absorbent pad according to claim 1, where the absorbent pad has a thickness of from 0.6 to 2.5 mm

9. Absorbent pad according to claim 1, where the absorbent pad has a thickness of from 0.7 to 2.0 mm

10. Absorbent pad according to claim 1, where the absorbent pad has an absorbent capacity, component of at least 18 grams of salt solution per 1 g of absorbent pads.

11. Itatiaya the pad according to claim 1, in which superficiali material has the strength of the gel is equal to at least 0.75 in.

12. Absorbent pad according to claim 1, in which superficiali material forms a gradient inside the absorbent pads.

13. Absorbent pad according to item 12, in which the absorbent pad includes more superficiales material at the first end than the second end opposite the first end.

14. Absorbent pad according to item 12, in which the absorbent pad includes more superficiales material along the first surface than along the second surface opposite the first surface.

15. Absorbent pad on PP-14, in which the concentration superficiales material varies along the gradient from 0.05 to 0.35 g/cm3.

16. Absorbent pad according to any one of claims 1 to 14, further containing a wrapping material surrounding the absorbent pad.

17. Absorbent article containing the absorbent pad according to any one of claims 1 to 15.

18. Absorbent product according to 17, in which the absorbent product is selected from the group consisting of diapers, training pants, clothes for swimming and feminine hygiene products.

19. Method of making absorbent pads according to any one of claims 1 to 15, providing for stage

uniform mixing superficiales material and fluff pool is dust in the forming chamber forming drum machine, built in a production line;

wraps porous material for forming the sieve on the forming drum drum forming machine;

forming absorbent pads from a uniformly mixed superficiales material and fluff pulp, when evenly mixed superficiali material and fluff pulp out of the forming chamber for forming a sieve; and compression absorbent pads to a density of greater than 0.28 g/cm3after unloading absorbent pads forming a sieve.

20. The method according to claim 19, further providing for the assignment of additional weight evenly mixed superficiales material and fluff pulp to at least one region of the absorbent pads.

21. The method according to claim 19, further providing for stage moisture evenly mixed superficiales material and fluff pulp.

22. The method according to claim 19, further providing for stage applied on the absorbent pad of the extruding pattern.

Priorities:

20.12.2000 - claims 1, 2, 4-10, 16-22;

24.08.2001 - PP, 11-15, item 1 in terms of values of gel strength of at least 0,65.



 

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20 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

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15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

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12 cl, 13 dwg

Hygienic layer // 2285514

FIELD: production of absorbing articles.

SUBSTANCE: hygienic layer has substantially flat and elongated main body defining two longitudinally extending side edges of greater length. Body is provided with outer layer made from liquid impermeable material and facing underwear piece, covering layer made from liquid permeable material and facing user's body, absorbing central portion inserted into body between outer and covering layers, and two protruding flexible wings substantially extending to the outside from each of said longitudinal side edges of hygienic layer body, said wings being substantially transparent and/or semi-transparent. Such structure of hygienic layer makes it practically invisible in usage.

EFFECT: improved quality and reliable fixing of hygienic layer on underwear.

2 cl, 4 dwg

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