Cooker

FIELD: domestic cookers to be used in tourism, hunting, in homes and working under field conditions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cooker has body made from combustible material which may be used both as fuel and device for its burning. This body is provided with at least two intersecting vertical slotted passages having common line of intersection inside body which is close to center of its upper base. Length, width and height of vertical slotted passages is dictated by possibility of continuous burning of inner surfaces of body forming vertical slotted passages; burning-out of device accompanied by forming of supports for cooking reservoir.

EFFECT: simplified construction; reduced consumption of labor; avoidance of preparation of fuel.

5 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to household appliances for cooking and can find application in tourism, hunting, and everyday life, and when working in the field.

In the prior art it is known foldable device for cooking (Copyright certificate on the invention of SU # 1551340, published in Bulletin No. 11, 1990), containing racks with pointed ends, provided with a cross member, the longitudinal elements, pivotally connected to the cross bars of the rack, plate elements, clamps, wherein the longitudinal elements are arranged to move along the racks crossbars, and plate elements pivotally connected to the uprights and crossbars can move along them. The disadvantage of this device is that it requires an additional source of heat for cooking.

Also known marching furnace (Patent SU # 1779284, published in Bulletin No. 44, 1992), comprising a housing with openings for the exit of flue gases in the upper part of its side surface, a hole for mounting the heat load and furnace. Its case is made of top mobile height-part locking position relative to the stationary lower part and the upper edge of the latter is in the form of flaps overlying the cross section of the holes for the gas outlet. The disadvantages of this furnace can be attributed and its excessive size and relatively high cost due to the need of use for its manufacturing of metal.

Closest to the claimed device is a tourist furnace (Patent RU No. 2000519, published in Gazette No. 33-36, 1993), which is selected as a prototype.

Tourist oven includes a housing, a container for cooking food, the combustion chamber and the flue, the combustion chamber is made of two tribes with doors, and in marching knee condition are located in the space between the furnace body and the capacity for cooking. In addition, the first knee of the combustion chamber may be provided with a perforated partition. The furnace is also equipped with four swivel supports, the length of which exceeds the height of the knee of the combustion chamber is not less than twice. The oven can be equipped with two U-shaped rotary bearings mounted on the bottom of the inner knee of the combustion chamber, fixing the furnace is in working position. The disadvantages of this device include the design complexity, redundant dimensions.

The technical result of the proposed device for cooking is simplifying the design, reducing the complexity in the manufacture and elimination of the need for firewood.

The technical result is achieved due to the fact that the cooking device includes a body of combustible material. This allows you to use it at the same time is as fuel, and as a device for burning. That is implemented by the presence in the body, at least two intersecting vertical narrow channels that have a common line of intersection inside the body, close to the center of its upper base. The length, width and height of the vertical slotted channels are determined by the possibility of ensuring the continuous combustion of the internal surfaces of the body, forming a vertical slotted channels, and the burnout of the device occurs with the formation of the pillars of the capacity for cooking.

Thus the body can be performed as part of a tree trunk, installed vertically, or in the form of logs of wood, installed vertically. For the implementation of best burning fuel upper base body can be made with intersecting vertical slots located at an angle relative to the vertical slot channels, and the inner surface of the upper part of the vertical narrow channels and/or vertical grooves of the upper base of the body may be impregnated with a flammable substance.

Figure 1-2 shows the design options proposed device for cooking. It consists of a body 1 made of a combustible material such as wood. The upper base 2 of the body 1 is made in the form of a flat horizontal square the ground, providing the ability to install her tank for cooking. In the body 1 has two vertical slotted channel 3, 4, whose dimensions (width, length and height) are determined by the possibility of ensuring the continuous burning of their inner surfaces. Vertical slotted channels 3, 4 are inside a common line of intersection, close to the Central part of the upper base 2. The angle of intersection of the channels may have any value.

The principle of operation is based on the creation of such combustion conditions, which provide for minimizing heat loss and effective supply of oxidizer (oxygen) to the combustion zone.

To ensure the continuous burning of the solid fuel material is necessary that the amount of heat produced in the conditions of the exothermic oxidation reaction of fuel with oxygen in the air was equal to its losses. The channels of the heat loss is mainly the following: conduction, convective transport, and radiation.

In the proposed design, in terms of stationary combustion process, i.e. when the reaction involved all internal surfaces of the channels, is provided to minimize heat loss due to radiation and conduction. Fuel region facing each other and mutually include each other, and they are protected against heat loss by mater the crimson body. thermal conductivity of ordinary combustible materials, usually low. Heat losses occur only through a relatively narrow open areas of narrow channels with radiation and by convection of hot gases.

The amount of heat produced during combustion is proportional to the amount involved in this process matter. Since the thickness of the layer of burning for solids is approximately constant (numerical value - units of millimeters), we can assume that the dissipation is proportional only to the square of the inner surface of the groove - Smountains. Under the assumption of identical width and height both narrow channels we find:

Smountains.=4·L·h,

where L is the length of the gap junction channel;

h - the height of the gap junction channel.

In the conditions of the earth's atmosphere in convective mode, the supply air temperature of the combustion reaction of ordinary combustible materials is of the order of 1000K. At these temperatures the main channel of the heat (over 90%) is radiation. In this design, heat loss due to radiation can only go through the open areas of narrow channels. They are in first approximation proportional to the total area of these sections:

Sthe sweat.=2·a·L+2·a·h=2·a·(L+h)

where a is the width of the gap junction channel.

From the condition of balance of heat flows can SFOR is to wirawati requirements provides the possibility of continuous combustion of the internal surfaces of narrow channels in the form of ratios:

Smountains.≥·Sthe sweat.,

where K is a numerical coefficient that takes into account many additional conditions specific experimental situation. He, in particular, includes parameters such as:

- the speed of combustion of substances in the body, which depends on its porosity, relative humidity, direction of fibers for the fibrous material, etc.;

is the specific heat of combustion, such as wet and dry wood which is 8 MJ/kg and 15 MJ/kg, respectively;

- rate the supply of oxidizer to the combustion zone, i.e. the rate of convective air flow in the channel and having its blowing, for example due to wind;

- numerical values of physical constants, in particular the Boltzmann constant (1,38·10-23J/K), coefficient dullness of the surface, and others;

- actual values, and the temperature distribution on the surface of the channels and other parameters.

From the obtained conditions, substituting the expressions for the squares, we obtain an explicit upper limit on the width of the gap junction channel:

Due to the diversity of the real conditions of the manufacture of the device to theoretically obtain the value of K does not seem prob is mportant. Experimental testing has shown that with a sufficient degree of accuracy to achieve a workable design its numerical value you can select is equal to the unit.

The physical meaning of this expression is that when the channel width of most shows, even if will be provided with the initial burning of all internal surfaces of the channels, for example through application of flammable substances, combustion reaction itself will cease, because the outflow of heat will exceed its production. It is a well known phenomenon observed in the kindling of a fire.

In addition to the heat balance to maintain combustion in a relatively narrow channel must be provided and the condition of sufficiency of the supply of the oxidant (in this case air) to the combustion zone. The required air flow rate should be not less than that required to sustain combustion over the entire area. It is proportional to the sum of the stoichiometric coefficients of the formation of oxidation products and the amount involved in the process of starting substances of the body. For reliable operation of the device for cooking it is important to determine a functional relationship between the flow and design of the device. This can be done using the formula described for the second volumetric flow rate Vsin round tubes [M. Jaworski. HAD TLF. The Handbook of physics. Science, M.: 1965]:

where r is the hydraulic radius of the pipe,

η - kinematic viscosity,

l is the length of the pipe,

Δp is the pressure difference between the ends of the pipe.

During the transition to our case according to the laws of similarity hydraulic radius equal to the size of 2A, the length of the pipe can be taken equal to the channel length L, and the pressure drop in terms of convective flow is proportional to the temperature difference and the height of the channel h. If you enter a numeric factor M, which includes the stoichiometric ratio of the combustion reaction, the rate of the volume of combustion of the material body, numerical factors, temperature and parameters of the kinematic viscosity, the original equation can be written in the form:

Hence we obtain a functional relationship to define the lower limit of the width of the vertical gap junction channel:

Because of the variety of physical implementations of the proposed device to estimate the numerical value of the coefficient M and the volume flow rate of air is extremely difficult. Experimental studies have shown that for the majority of practically important cases, the value ofcan be taken equal to 2.

Thus, the General expression for determining the Oia width of narrow channels, describing the conditions for continuous burning their inner surfaces, has the form:

The resulting expression imposes a limitation on the initial sizes of narrow channels depending on body size and condition, when the combustion process involved the entire inner surface of the channels. However, when the ignition device of the conditions of the heat loss is worse than in the case of stationary combustion, and this leads to the complicated start-up of the product. To overcome this difficulty can be applied to the inner surface of the vertical slot of the channel layer flammable substances, such as stearin or tar.

The most productive and acceptable design is shown in figure 2. It consists of a cylindrical body made of a cut tree trunk, installed vertically. In the body perform four mutually orthogonal vertical slotted channel having a common line of intersection, which is close to the Central part of the upper base 2 of the body 1. On the line side of the upper base 2 perform additional vertical slots 5, 6 shallow angle to the vertical slot channels. They are used to facilitate ignition device for cooking.

When using cylindrical body with x the characteristic dimensions of 300 mm in diameter, 500 mm length and height of the TV 400 mm in accordance with the above expression, the width of the channels should be in the range of from 1.57 to 218 mm Almost easily attainable size of the channel width is 4-6 mm, which can be obtained with the help of a saw.

To run the device on the line of intersection of the vertical narrow channels is inserted into the igniter, made for example from a piece of paper, and ignited. Due to the presence of additional vertical grooves increases sharply available to the fire area with a slight increase in heat losses. After the start of combustion, fire spread down the vertical slot channels and covers the entire inner surface. This is because this process leads to the improvement of conditions for the reaction of combustion. The increase in the number of narrow channels increases the capacity of the device by increasing the volume of material, both involved in the combustion. On the other hand, this leads to a reduction of the time of continuous operation of the device due to the limited supply of fuel.

As the practice shows the device structure shown in figure 2, is optimal. In this embodiment, the device has the best ratio of heat capacity and duration of combustion in relation to the purpose of its use. For the enter the characteristic size of the device, made from dead wood of pine, the time of continuous operation is about 3 hours. Yet, the food you want to cook, set in appropriate containers on the top surface of the device. As the combustion body in its middle part is formed a cavity surrounded by four pillars, formed by parts of the body not involved in the combustion. They support a container of food over the fire. Thus, the closer executed line of intersection of the vertical slot channels to the center of the upper base of the body, the more uniform thickness remain bearings.

The body of the device for cooking can be made in the form of a parallelogram, e.g. made of wood, installed vertically.

The cooking device has a simple construction, cheap and easy to manufacture and does not require additional firewood.

1. The cooking device containing a body made of combustible material, which allows to use it both as fuel and as a device for burning, which is implemented by the presence in the body, at least two intersecting vertical narrow channels that have a common line of intersection inside the body, close to the middle part of the upper base, and the length, width and height of the vertical is real narrow channels are determined by the possibility of ensuring the continuous combustion of the internal surfaces of the body, forming a vertical slotted channels, and the burnout of the device occurs with the formation of the pillars of the capacity for cooking.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the body is executed as part of a tree trunk, installed vertically.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the body is made in the form of logs of wood, installed vertically.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the upper base body made from intersecting the vertical grooves arranged at an angle to the vertical slot channels.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner surface of the upper part of the vertical narrow channels and/or vertical grooves of the upper base body impregnated with a flammable substance.



 

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