Centralized heat supply system and method of its operation

FIELD: heat supply systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dispatcher control and servicing of centralized heat supply system with great number of local (peripheral) units. Proposed system contains central heat-generating unit to supply great number of local units with hat primary liquid. Each local unit includes heat exchanger and pipeline network. Pipeline network includes supply pipeline to transfer primary liquid from heat-generating unit into each local unit. Each local unit is connected with supply pipeline and is made for receiving primary liquid through primary side of heat exchanger designed to transfer heat of secondary liquid which flows through secondary side of heat exchanger. Each local unit includes first devices made for obtaining at least one primary parameter which is related with efficiency of heat transfer. Each local unit includes first communication device which is made for transmission of instantaneous value of first parameter into second device of communication system. System includes second devices interacting with second communication device and made for revealing local unit servicing of which is most required depending on instantaneous value of first parameter.

EFFECT: improved checking of efficiency of centralized heat supply system.

34 cl, 2 dwg

 

The present invention relates to Supervisory control and maintenance of the district heating system having a large number of local units, often called "peripheral" blocks, which include a heat exchanger. Under maintenance in this application refers to the repair, adjustment of the various elements of the local units, such as valves, pumps, sensors, etc.; cleaning of the various elements of the local unit, such as various channels of the heat exchanger for the primary and secondary fluids, valves, piping; replacement of components or the local unit as a whole, etc.

More specifically the present invention relates to the district heating system, including the Central district heating unit to provide hot primary fluid, a lot of local blocks, each of which includes a heat exchange device, and a network of pipelines, which includes the supply pipeline for the transfer of primary fluid from the district heating block to each local unit, each local unit is connected with the supply pipe and configured to receive the primary fluid through the primary side of the heat exchange device designed to transfer heat to the secondary fluid, which flows through the secondary side of the heat the exchanger, each local unit includes first means which is arranged to receive at least one first parameter associated with the efficiency of heat transfer.

The invention also relates to a method for district heating systems, including the Central district heating unit to provide hot primary fluid, a lot of local blocks, each of which includes a heat exchange device, and a network of pipelines, which includes the supply pipeline for the transfer of primary fluid from the district heating unit, and the method comprises the steps:

the hot primary fluid in the local units through the supply pipe to transfer heat to the secondary fluid flowing through the heat exchanger

receiving by the first means, at least one first parameter associated with the efficiency of the heat exchanger.

Traditionally, such a district heating system controlled by the operator for maintenance and repair, which in any order sequentially visits the various local units and record various parameters of the local blocks. Then these records are used, as a rule, at a later time to determine the status of the local unit and detecting whether the work maintenance such as cleaning or repair. Thus, the basis for such conclusions are previously obtained data. In addition, recordings are made at different points in time for different local units.

The report Svenska Fjarrvarmeforeningen, FVF 2000:03 AVKYLNINGEN I ETT FJARRVARMESYSTEM importance of all local units for the efficiency of the district heating system, i.e. for the proper cooling of the primary fluid flowing through the local unit. To control the cooling of the various local units are encouraged to register hourly average values or values that are averages over 24 hours, for the parameters, including the temperature of the primary fluid, which is supplied and output, respectively, from the local unit, the ambient temperature, the output power and the flow of primary liquid through the local block.

In the patent literature also describes Supervisory control for individual heating devices that are not part of the total district heating system. In GB-B-2171506 opened a separate heat exchanger having multiple sensors for measuring various parameters, including pressure and temperature. The sensors are connected with the microprocessor for displaying the efficiency of the heat exchanger. The microprocessor provides data retrieval alarms or the sending of signals based on the measured parameters. With this alarm, the user can obtain information that is necessary to clean the heat exchanger.

In DE-U-20003685 described a separate device for heating the house. The device is, for example, the device of conventional type oil burner. The device includes control equipment, and a storage device for storing data in intervals for maintenance, defects that may appear, and identification codes. These stored data can be transmitted using radio communication service unit to initiate maintenance, repair this device, and the like.

SUMMARY of INVENTION

The present invention is to improve control over the efficiency of the district heating system. More precisely, it is designed for simple and rapid determination of the local unit of the district heating system, which has the lowest efficiency and in greatest need maintenance.

This problem is solved by using the system described above, which is characterized by the fact that each local unit includes a first communication device that is configured to transmit the instantaneous value of the first argument into the second mouth is eusto communication system, and the system also includes second means, which interact with second communication device and configured to determine the local unit, which has the greatest need for maintenance, depending on the instantaneous value of the first parameter.

With this system you can easily ensure effective control of the functioning of the various local units in the district heating system. Since the instantaneous value of the first parameter of each local unit is available for the second means, it is possible to determine at each moment of the local unit, who at this moment works with most low efficiency, and which, therefore, requires maintenance in the form of cleaning, repair or adjustment of the various elements of the local block. These second means in such a system can be implemented in a simple way, for example, using a conventional computer, which receives the instantaneous value of the first parameter, for example, using any communication Protocol. All local units in this system are essentially the same operating conditions in relation to the ambient temperature, sunshine, precipitation, etc. Therefore, it is possible to reliably determine this block on the basis of only one instantaneous value of the first parameter. It is also who is one, even if the local blocks are not blocks of the same type. For example, they may be of different sizes and include a different number of heat exchangers. Various local units can also be from different time periods. Due to the fact that such determination may be made on the basis of only one instantaneous values obtained from the various local units, the system is not required to include a storage device with a large memory, for example, in the second means.

According to a variant of the invention the second means is arranged to compare the values of the first parameter for the local units and implementation of ranking the various local units in respect of the maintenance of the local blocks. This ranking can easily be implemented in the form of a list, for example, using the above-mentioned second computer means. Software required for obtaining such a list, a relatively simple, especially when the instantaneous value of the first parameter is converted to a value that can be compared to the respective local units. In addition, of course, within the framework of the present invention is the conversion of instantaneous values can be realized in the second means or to carry out partial processing of the data is x in the local units, and the final processing by other tools. After performing maintenance on the local unit on the basis of the new instantaneous value can be made a new definition of local unit requiring maintenance. Then can be easily installed, if it had a maintenance intended effect, i.e. whether still to this local unit maintenance. In addition, can be easily installed position of the local unit in the list, corresponding to its rank.

According to the following variant of the invention the first means is configured to continually receive the actual instantaneous value of the first parameter. Thus, the first means continuously measure the value of the first parameter and transmit, for example, it is through the communication device, when required by the second means. Then the first communication device of each local unit may preferably be performed so as to transfer the actual instantaneous values, essentially, any time. Moreover, each local unit may preferably include a digital computer, which at least partially covers the first means and arranged to transfer in automatic mode mcneven the th value of the first parameter in the second means via the communication device. The first means may be arranged to obtain the instantaneous values of the second parameter, which is related to the efficiency of the local unit, the digital computer of each unit is made with the possibility of processing the value of the second parameter in relation to local operating conditions to obtain the instantaneous values of the first parameter. For example, the first means may include one or more sensors that provide instantaneous values of pressure and/or temperature of the primary fluid and the secondary fluid, respectively, while the digital computer, based on these parameters, calculates the instantaneous value of another parameter, which can perform the function value to be compared with the other local units.

According to another variant of the invention the first means includes a first sensor that is provided to measure the temperature of the primary fluid when it leaves the heat exchange unit local unit, with the specified parameter refers to this temperature. The temperature of the primary fluid is a significant parameter in this regard, indicating the effectiveness of the work of the local block, i.e. the amount of cooling. In a simple embodiment, this temperature may be the first option. In more complex embodiments, this temperature is or may in the appropriate form to be part of the first parameter.

According to the following variant of the invention, the first means also includes a second sensor that is provided to measure the temperature of the primary fluid supplied to the heat exchange device of the local unit, with the specified parameter refers to this temperature. If you also consider the temperature of the primary fluid supplied to the heat exchange device, you get an even more accurate value of efficiency or cooling of the local block.

According to the following variant of the invention the first means includes a third sensor is provided for measuring the temperature of the secondary fluid when it leaves the heat exchange unit local unit, with the specified parameter refers to this temperature. Similarly, the first means can also include a fourth sensor, which is provided to measure the temperature of the secondary fluid supplied to the heat exchange device of the local unit, with the specified parameter refers to this temperature.

According to the following variant of the invention the first means is arranged to calculate the logarithmic average temperature difference based on the temperatures measured by the first, second, third and fourth sensors, with the specified parameters are calculated so the difference tempera is ur. This logarithmic average temperature difference is a common measure of the efficiency of heat exchange devices in the local unit in the district heating system.

According to the following variant of the invention the first means is made to calculate the number of temperature devices (units NTU)based on the temperatures measured by the first, second, third and fourth sensors, with the specified parameter applies to these values of NTU. Such values NTU can also be used to determine the effectiveness of various heat exchangers and, for example, in order to determine whether the heat exchanger is dirty and required cleaning. A heat exchanger having a large value of NTU, more efficient than a heat exchanger with a small amount of NTU.

According to the following variant of the invention, the pipeline network includes a return pipeline for transfer of primary fluid from the local blocks back to the Central unit, the system includes a sensor is provided to measure the temperature of the primary fluid return line, with the specified parameter refers to the temperature of the primary fluid. With this sensor it is possible to link the overall temperature of the primary fluid in the return pipe with the temperature measured by the first sensor. The difference mezhdutema temperatures of the primary fluid, recycled in the Central unit, determines whether the local unit is better or worse than the average temperature of the primary fluid emerging from the various heat exchange devices of the local blocks. Thus, comparing these various temperature differences for various local units, it is possible to rank the local blocks in the system by their cooling capacity.

According to the following variant of the invention the first means is arranged to receive the flow of hot primary fluid through the heat exchanger, with the specified parameter refers to the value stream. If the above temperature difference for each local unit is a multiple of the size of the stream, I get the parameter that determines the weight contribution of the local unit in the full temperature of the primary fluid flowing through the return pipe. By comparing these numbers to the various local units, it is possible to perform weighted ranking of local units in relation to cooling and to identify local blocks, which are the worst (most negative number), and local units, which are the best (largest positive number), that is, this parameter determines the amount of influence the local unit on the efficiency of the entire system centralized Teploenergo who I am.

According to the following variant of the invention, each local unit includes a control valve to control the flow of hot primary fluid through the heat exchanger. Preferably, the specified parameter could also relate to the position of the control valve. In addition, this parameter gives the amount of flow through the heat exchanger of the local block.

According to the following variant of the invention the first means is arranged to obtain values of the pressure difference between the primary fluid injected in the local block, and the primary fluid coming out of the local unit, with the specified parameter refers to this pressure difference.

According to the following variant of the invention the communication device includes means for communicating over radio waves. Communication can also be carried out by the mobile phone network or the computer communication network, such as Intranet (Intranet)or the Internet. This solution offers communication over long distances using open communication protocols such as TCP/IP. In addition, it is possible that such communication devices include means for connection to the distribution network of electricity.

The problem can be solved using the originally specified method, which is characterized by the fact that transmit the instantaneous value of the first param is tra using the first communication device from each local unit to the second communication device system and determine by other funds of the local unit, who has the greatest need for maintenance, depending on the instantaneous value of the first parameter.

In one of the preferred variants of the method specified transmission includes an automatic transfer of the instantaneous values of the first parameter in the second tool, and the method can include the following steps:

get instantaneous value of the second parameter, which is related to the efficiency of the local block,

process this is the second parameter in relation to local operating conditions to obtain the instantaneous values of the first parameter.

The specified parameter may relate to a first temperature of the primary fluid when it leaves the heat exchange unit local unit, or the second temperature of the primary fluid supplied to the heat exchange device of the local unit, or to a third temperature of the secondary fluid when it leaves the heat exchange unit local unit, or the specified parameter may relate to a fourth temperature of the secondary fluid supplied to the heat exchange device of the local unit, as well as the logarithmic average temperature difference calculated on the basis of the first, second, third and fourth temperatures. In addition, this parameter can refer to a number of temperature devices, vacilando is based on the temperature, the measured first, second, third and fourth sensors, or to the value of the stream of hot primary fluid through the heat exchange device, and the position of the control valve designed to control the flow of hot primary fluid through the heat exchanger or to the pressure difference between the primary fluid injected in the local block, and the primary fluid coming out of the local block.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Now the present invention will be disclosed in more detail by describing different variants of its implementation and with reference to the accompanying drawings.

1 schematically describes a district heating system corresponding to the invention.

figure 2 describes in more detail the local unit of the district heating system, shown in figure 1.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION of VARIOUS embodiments of the INVENTION

Figure 1 describes the district heating system, which includes the Central district heating block 1 to provide hot primary fluid (fluid medium) set of local units 2. The Central unit 1 can include heating or combined heat and power, which provides power, for example, by burning petroleum products. However, the Central unit 1 can be any unit, to the which ensures the production of hot primary fluid (the fluid), for example, the waste heat from any industrial process.

In addition, the district heating system includes a network of pipelines, which forms a closed circuit and passes through the Central unit 1. Pipeline network includes a supply pipe 3 for supplying hot primary fluid in the local block 2 and the return pipe 4 for recirculation of the primary fluid in the main unit 1. Known network 3, 4 pipelines may include different subnet 3', 4', which are all included in a closed circuit. The district heating system can also include a secondary network (not shown), which are shorted and connected to the network of pipelines 3, 4 or subnet 3', 4' through the heat exchanger. Thus, the liquid in this secondary circuit is separated from the primary fluid. The district heating system also includes at least one pump 5 for circulating hot primary fluid through the network 3, 4, 3', 4' pipelines. Different subnet 3', 4' can also include a separate circulating pumps (not shown). Local blocks 2 can be connected to the most high in the hierarchy of the network 3, 4 pipelines or any subnet 3', 4'. In addition, the main unit 1 includes a conventional control means 6 for controlling various elements of the systems is, for example, the pump 5. In addition, the system includes a temperature sensor 7 for measuring the temperature of the primary fluid in the return pipe 4.

Figure 2 disclosed in more detail an implementation option of the local unit 2. It should be noted that in the scope of the present invention the local blocks 2 can be performed in many different ways. Local unit 2 includes a first secondary circuit 11 for heating and a second secondary circuit 12 for generating hot water. The first secondary circuit 11 connected to the network 3, 4 pipelines through the first heat exchanger 13. Secondary circuit 12 is connected to the network 3, 4 pipelines through the second heat exchanger 14. Thus, in the described embodiment, the heat exchange unit local unit 2 includes two heat exchanger 13, 14. However, it should be noted that in this heat exchanger may be included more or fewer heat exchangers. In the first secondary circuit 11 primary liquid from the network 3, 4 pipelines can be transported directly into the radiator 15. In addition, it is possible to provide the first secondary circuit 11 and/or the second secondary circuit 12 two successive heat exchangers to obtain the preheating and final heating of the secondary fluid in the respective secondary circuits 11, 12. The first secondary circuit 11 also includes, in addition to enter the mentioned radiator circulation pump 16 and the temperature sensor 17. The second secondary circuit 12 includes many editions of 18, i.e. different types of editions for hot water. Also there is the inlet pipe 19 for supplying tap water. In addition, the second secondary circuit 12 includes in the described embodiment, the circulation pump 20 and sensor 21, the temperature for measuring the temperature coming out of the secondary fluid. It should be noted that you do not want the secondary circuit 12 has been closed, i.e. there is no recirculation of the water through the pump 20.

On the primary side of the local unit 2 also includes means to control the operation of the local unit 2. These tools include two control valves 25 and 26. The control valve 25 is arranged to control the flow rate of the hot primary fluid supplied to the first heat exchanger 13. Such control may be effected by adjusting the position of the control valve 25. Thus you can control the effect on the first secondary circuit 11. Accordingly, the second control valve 26 is executed to control the amount of flow of primary fluid supplied to the second heat exchanger 14, by adjusting the valve position. Control valves 25, 26 and the pumps 16, 20 are connected with a control element 27. In the described embodiment, there are also sensors 29 and 30 for controlling the position of governors of Lupanov 25 and 26, respectively.

The position of the control valves 25, 26 alternatively may be determined directly in the control element 27 as a function of the control signal applied to the control valves 25, 26.

In addition, the local unit 2 may include sensors 31, 32 pressure for measuring the pressure of the primary fluid flowing in the local block 2, and the primary fluid exiting the local block 2, respectively. The sensors 31, 32 pressure accordingly is also connected with a control element 27.

The sensors 17, 21 temperature is also connected with a control element 27. In addition, the local unit may include a variety of additional temperature sensors, which are all connected to a control element 27. The sensor 33, the temperature is made to measure the ambient temperature. The sensor 34 and the temperature is made to measure the temperature of the primary fluid coming from the local unit 2, and two sensors 35, 36 temperature is made to measure the temperature of the primary fluid exits the first heat exchanger 13 and the second heat exchanger 14, respectively. Two sensors 37, 38 temperature is made to measure the temperature of the primary fluid at the inlet of the primary heat exchanger 13 and the inlet of the second heat exchanger 14, respectively. In addition, two sensors 39, 40 temperature is made to change the value of the temperature of the secondary fluid, served in the first heat exchanger 13 and the second heat exchanger 14, respectively.

Local blocks 2 also includes a device 50 which communicates, preferably in two directions, between the local blocks 2 and the receiving device 50 connected. Device 50 connection connected with the control element 27. The Central unit 1 can also include a device 50 which is connected with a schematically described by means of 6.

Devices 50, 51 communication can operate in accordance with known principles of communication, such as device 50 communication may include means for transmitting signals over radio waves. The device 50 can be also made to communicate through the mobile phone network. In this case, each local unit 5 may include a mobile phone.

Devices 50, 51 communication can also include means for communication over a computer network such as the Internet, or, for example, on any public or private Intranet (Intranet). In addition, the devices 50, 51 communication may include means for communication over a network designed for distribution of electricity. Communication can also be performed by one or more of these communication options.

Control elements 27 different local units 2 include a digital computer is EP, with the first block 52 for receiving signals from various sensors 17, 21, 29-40 and to control various functions of the local unit 2. In the described embodiment, the first block 52 of the control element 27 is made to control the control valves 25 and 26 and the pumps 16 and 20. Digital computer control device 27 may also include a second block 53 for processing signals from various sensors 17, 21, 29-40, and a communication unit, which comprises at least one part of the above mentioned devices 50 connected. In cases where the communication is carried out using any of the data Protocol, such as TCP/IP, the communication system 50 is made of a conventional communication boards with appropriate software and modem, ISDN-blocks, etc.

The system also includes second means by which local units 2 and the Central unit 1 communicate through devices 51, 50 communication. These latter means may consist of one or more individual blocks, as shown in figure 1, or to be a part of the Central unit 1. Second means in the described embodiment, includes a digital computer 61, which has a common base 62 data provided for receiving information from all local blocks 2 through the device 51 connected.

The second means also can include a digital computer 63, which receives the data b is PS 62 computer data 61 and executes the corresponding processing. The computer 63 is available to the user. The computer 63 may be directly connected to the computer 61 or, as shown in figure 1, may be made so as to communicate with the computer 61 through the device 64 communication over any network such as an Intranet or the Internet, by radio, by distribution networks of electricity, etc. the System can also include multiple computers 63 for several different users.

The system according to the invention can operate, for example, as follows. The sensors 7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40 each local unit to measure the instantaneous value of the corresponding parameter and pass this value in the first block 52 of the control element 27. Using the second block 53 adopted instantaneous values are processed in relation to local operating conditions and parameter is determined that is associated with the efficiency of the units.

Local working conditions may include, for example, ambient temperature, which is determined by sensor 33 or the value of the stream of primary fluid, which is determined by the sensors 29, 30, or by using the control signals supplied to the control valves 25, 26.

Then the instantaneous value of this parameter is automatically passed through the device 50, 51 communication in the computer 61 and the base 62 of the data. Thus, in the 62 data has mgnew the TES parameter value for all local units 2. These values are compared with each other and consists of a list according to their rank. From this list the user can identify the local block 2, which is the most bad and which, consequently, to the greatest extent required maintenance. The list can be set using the computer 61 and stored in the database 62 of the data. Consequently, the user can use the computer 63 to display the list and, thus, to obtain information about the local unit 2, which most require maintenance. The list can be updated essentially continuously as new instantaneous values of the parameter. The correctness of the list can be controlled in many different ways. For example, the base 62 of the data can simply save the instantaneous values of the parameter, the user displays the actual list using the computer 63. The user can also get the list directly from the computer 61, for example, in printed form or on the screen.

Each sensor 7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40 provided for obtaining such actual instantaneous value of the parameter on the merits in each moment of time. This value can then be transmitted to the computer 61 and base 62 data either continuously or when the computer 61 requests the value of the parameter is RA, essentially at random. You can also send the signal from the sensors 7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40 directly to the computer 61, and the parameter calculation can be performed centrally for all local blocks of 2 or more local units 2.

According to one variant of the invention, the signals from the sensors 34, 35, 36, which measures the temperature t'outprimary fluid when it leaves the heat exchangers 13, 14, is used either for each of the heat exchangers 13, 14 separately, or use the overall temperature of both heat exchangers 13, 14 downstream. This temperature t'outmay be a parameter that should be compared, and it gives the magnitude of the cooling efficiency of the heat exchangers 13, 14. In the preferred embodiment, this temperature t'outcan be installed depending on the sensor signal 7, i.e. the temperature of the primary fluid before it is fed to the Central unit 1 and when it is located downstream of the last local unit 2. The difference between the temperatures of the primary fluid, which recirculates in the Central unit 1, indicates whether the local unit 2 is better or worse than average. If this temperature difference is proportional to the magnitude of flow through the local unit 2, it is the parameter that determines the weighted contribution of block 2 will Olou the temperature of the primary fluid, flowing through the return pipe 4. Comparing these numbers to the various local units 2, you can get a weighted ranking of local blocks 2, local blocks, which are the worst (most negative) in relation to cooling and which are the best (largest positive number).

In addition, to determine the parameter signal from the sensor 37 and/or 38, which measures the temperature t'inprimary fluid supplied to the heat exchangers 13, 14. If you also considered the temperature t'inprimary fluid supplied to the heat exchanger, it is still rather get the value of efficiency or local cooling unit 2. The signals from the sensors 17 and 21, which measures the temperature toutthe secondary fluid when it leaves the respective heat exchanger 13, 14, and the signal from the sensors 39, 40, which measures the temperature tinthe secondary fluid supplied to the respective heat exchanger 13, 14, can also be used for determining the comparison parameter. Using these signals logarithmic average temperature difference for the corresponding heat exchanger 13, 14 can be calculated by the formula:

Using these temperature t'out, t'in, t"out, t"incan also be calculated so-called is elicina NTU. They can be expressed as

Theta1 = (t'in-tout)/lmtd

Theta2 = (tout-tin)lmtd.

Because Theta1 and Theta2 are compared for different heat exchangers 13 and 14, you also get the value of the efficiency of various heat exchangers 13, 14 different local units 2. It should be noted that comparisons Theta1, which refers to the primary side of the heat exchangers 13, 14 for the various local units 2, it is enough to rank the heat exchangers 13, 14 and their maintenance needs. Since the amount of flow of primary fluid through the heat exchanger 13, 14 are also taken into account, it is possible to determine whether these heat exchangers are dirty.

The invention is not limited to the described variants and may be varied and modified within the scope of the following claims.

1. The district heating system, including the Central district heating block (1) to provide hot primary fluid, a lot of local blocks (2), each of which includes a heat exchanger (13, 14), and network(3, 4, 3', 4') pipelines, which includes the supply pipe (3, 3') to transfer the primary fluid from the district heating block (1) in each local unit (2), each local unit (2) is connected with the supply pipe (3, 3') and the ability pickup is and the primary fluid through the primary side of the heat exchangers (13, 14)intended to transfer heat to the secondary fluid, which flows through the secondary side of the heat exchanger (13, 14), each local unit (2) comprises first means (7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40), which are made with the possibility of obtaining at least one first parameter associated with the efficiency of heat transfer, characterized in that each local unit (2) includes a first device (50) which is configured to transfer the instantaneous value of the first argument into the second device (51) communication system, the system includes second means (61-63), which interact with the second device (51, 64) connection and is configured to determine the local unit (2), in greatest require maintenance depending on the instantaneous value of the first parameter.

2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the second means (61-63) made with the possibility of comparing the value of the first parameter for the local blocks (2) and ranking local blocks (2) for their maintenance needs.

3. The system according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the second means (61-63) include a digital computer (61, 63).

4. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the first means (7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40) made with the possibility complianc the aqueous obtain the actual instantaneous value of the first parameter.

5. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the first device (50) each local communication unit (2) made with the possibility of transmission of the actual instantaneous values, essentially, any time.

6. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that each local unit (2) includes a digital computer (52, 53), which at least partially covers the first means (7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40) and performed with the transmission in automatic mode instantaneous value of the first parameter in the second tool devices (50, 51) of the connection.

7. The system according to claim 6, characterized in that the first means (7, 17, 21, 27 29-40) made with the ability to obtain instantaneous values of the second parameter, which is related to the efficiency of the local unit (2), the digital computer (52, 53) each local unit (2) configured to handle the values of the second parameter in relation to local operating conditions to obtain the instantaneous values of the first parameter.

8. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the first means (7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40) include a first sensor (34-36), which is provided to measure the temperature of the primary fluid, she's out of heat exchangers (13, 14) local unit (2), the parameter refers to this temperature.

9. The system of claim 8, characterized in that the first means (7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40) comprises a second sensor (37, 38), which is provided to measure the temperature of the primary fluid that is in heat-exchange device (13, 14) local unit (2), if this parameter is associated with this temperature.

10. System according to any one of p and 9, characterized in that the first means (7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40) includes a third sensor (17, 21), which is provided to measure the temperature of the secondary fluid when it exits the heat exchangers (13, 14) local unit (2), this parameter refers to this temperature.

11. The system of claim 10, characterized in that the first means (7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40) includes a fourth sensor (39, 40), which is provided to measure the temperature of the secondary fluid which is fed into the heat exchanger (13, 14) local unit (2), this parameter refers to this temperature.

12. System PP-11, characterized in that the first means (7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40) is arranged to calculate the logarithmic average temperature difference based on the temperatures measured by the first, second, third and fourth sensors (17, 21, 34-40), this parameter refers to the thus calculated temperature difference.

13. The system of item 12, characterized in that the first means (7, 17, 21, 27, 29-40) made with the possibility computed the I number of temperature devices, on the basis of the temperatures measured by the first, second, third and fourth sensors (17, 21, 34-40), this parameter refers to this number of temperature devices.

14. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the network(3, 3', 4, 4') pipelines includes the return pipe (4, 4') to transfer the primary fluid from the local units (2) back to the Central unit (1), the system includes a sensor (7), which is provided to measure the temperature of the primary fluid in the return pipe (4, 4')and the parameter refers to the temperature of the primary fluid.

15. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the first means (29-32) configured to receive the flow of hot primary fluid through the heat exchanger (13, 14), this parameter refers to the magnitude of this flow.

16. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that each local unit (2) includes a control valve (25, 26) to control the flow of hot primary fluid through the heat exchanger (13, 14).

17. The system of clause 16, characterized in that the first means (27, 29-32) is arranged to obtain data about the position of the control valve (25, 26), this parameter refers to the data about the position of the valve.

18. System according to any one who from the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the first means (31, 32) is arranged to obtain values of the pressure difference between the primary fluid supplied to the local unit (2), and the primary fluid coming out of the local unit (2), this parameter refers to this pressure difference.

19. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the device (50, 51, 64) include communication means for communication using radio waves.

20. The system according to claim 19, characterized in that the device (50, 51, 64) include communication means for communication by the mobile phone network.

21. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the device (50, 51, 64) include communication means for communication over a computer network.

22. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the device (50, 51, 64) include communication means for communication on the Internet.

23. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the device (50, 51, 64) include communication means for communication over the network distribution of electricity.

24. Method for district heating systems, including district heating Central unit to provide hot primary fluid, a lot of local blocks, each of which includes warm the exchange device, and the pipeline network that includes the supply pipeline for the transfer of primary fluid from the district heating unit, and the method includes the following steps: served hot primary fluid in the local blocks of the supply pipe to transfer heat to the secondary fluid flowing through the heat exchange device is obtained using the first data, at least one parameter that is associated with the efficiency of heat transfer, characterized in that the transmit instantaneous value of the first parameter using the first communication device from each local unit to the second communication device system and determined by the second means a local unit that has the greatest need for maintenance, depending on the instantaneous value of the first parameter.

25. The method according to paragraph 24, characterized in that the transmission includes an automatic transfer of the instantaneous values of the first parameter in the second tool.

26. The method according A.25, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: receive instant value of the second parameter, which is related to the efficiency of the local block, and handle it the value of the second parameter in relation to local operating conditions to obtain the instantaneous values of the first parameter.

27. The method according to any one of p-2, characterized in that the parameter refers to the first temperature of the primary fluid when it leaves the heat exchange unit local unit.

28. The method according to any one of p-26, characterized in that the parameter belongs to the second temperature of the primary fluid supplied to the heat exchange device of the local block.

29. The method according to any one of p-26, characterized in that the parameter belongs to a third temperature of the secondary fluid when it leaves the heat exchange unit local unit.

30. The method according to any one of p-26, characterized in that the parameter refers to the fourth temperature secondary fluid supplied to the heat exchange device of the local block.

31. The method according to any one of p-26, characterized in that the parameter refers to the logarithmic average temperature difference calculated from the first, second, third and fourth temperatures.

32. The method according to any one of p-26, characterized in that the parameter refers to the number of temperature instruments, calculated on the basis of the temperatures measured by the first, second, third and fourth sensors.

33. The method according to any one of p-26, characterized in that the parameter refers to the value of the stream of hot primary fluid is STI through the heat exchange device.

34. The method according to any one of p-26, characterized in that the parameter refers to the position of the control valve designed to control the flow of hot primary fluid through the heat exchange device.

35. The method according to any one of p-26, characterized in that the parameter refers to the pressure difference between the primary fluid injected in the local block, and the primary fluid coming out of the local block.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: heat supply systems.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying fluid from the additional collector interposed between the fluid source and the system of the auxiliary supplying collector. The supplying auxiliary collector is made of cylindrical dropping supplying device with inlet port, outlet port, and freely moving plunger that can close the inlet port providing small passage for outflow. The heating system is connected with the source of fluid under pressure through the dropping device.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

13 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating plants.

SUBSTANCE: heating plant system has central unit 1 for producing heat and providing hot primary fluid, set of local units 5 any of which has heat exchange device 13, 14 and circuit of pipelines 2, 2' drawn inside circulation system from unit 1. Any local unit intends for getting hot primary fluid through unit 13, 14 of heat exchanger. First and second local units 5 have corresponding control 27. Control unit has first aid 17, 21, 27, 29-32, 33-40, 62 and 63 for providing at least one parameter relating to need of corresponding local unit 5 in hot primary fluid. Second aid 16 performs operation of corresponding local unit 5. Second aid has at least member 25, 26 for acting on flow by hot primary fluid through local unit 5. Local unit 5 has first secondary circulation system intended for heating. Heat exchanger unit has second heat exchanger 14 for second secondary circulation system 12 for producing hot water. Control unit 27 has communication device 50 providing info transmission on mentioned parameter 17, 21, 27, 29-32, 33-40, 62, 63 from at least second local unit to first local unit 5. Control unit 27 of first local unit 5 intends for controlling operation of local unit 5 correspondingly to parameter relating to second local unit 5. There are also descriptions of local unit of heating plant system, control unit for local unit of heating plant system and method of operation of heating plant system.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of control of heating plant system.

38 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: device has indicator panels which number is equal to time period of indication.

EFFECT: simplified design.

13 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to a control device for nozzles thermostatic valve, comprising a housing that has a first surface forming a support surface

The invention relates to a heating installation

The invention relates to the field of power engineering, in particular to devices heating

The invention relates to the field of water supply and heat and can be used in systems backbone networks water and heating

The invention relates to a power system and heat, and can be used in district heating systems of buildings with insufficient differential pressure immediately before the thermal node

The invention relates to control systems for water heating, automatic control systems Autonomous heating blocks

The invention relates to a power system and is intended for use in closed heating systems with dependent circuit accession heating system

FIELD: temperature control.

SUBSTANCE: control effect on executing systems is distributed between executive systems on basis of condition for receiving necessary power with minimal costs for energy consumption by these systems with consideration of cost of energy for each of them. Control effect is formed on basis of solution of problem of optimal control synthesis with check connection by integral square criterion, including both value of deviation of real temperature in room from setting temperature, and energy cost on support of given temperature mode.

EFFECT: lower costs, higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating systems; liquid heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: under-ceiling non-evaporating widening tank of heating system has solid casing in form of a canister with level-metering pipe, widening space communicating with heating system and air space separated hermetically from widening space by soft membrane. Air space communicates with environmental air. Membrane is made inform of air bag. Neck of bag is withdrawn out of neck of casing and is connected hermetically with the neck. Plug provided with air hole is tightly inserted into neck of casing. Plug is fastened by screwed cap provided with air hole which is not aligned with hole in plug. Method of detecting of slow leaking of water from heating system is based upon the fact that temperature graph of the system is built in summer without heating. For the purpose values of water level in level-metering pipe of the tank at steady temperature are put along abscissa and values room temperature are put along ordinate; received calibrated curve is subject to calibration. The graph is taken as averaged temperature calibration graph and steady values of outside temperature are drawn above corresponding values of level. When taking subsequent measurements, the averaged temperature is determined again and if the value of level get lower it is assumed that water loss takes place because of leakage or evaporation of water caused by disturbance in leak-proofness of the air bag.

EFFECT: simplified design of tank; better degree of protection of membrane.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: methods of central and local heating; production of infrared heaters.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the area of heating and may be used for local heating. The method includes a source of an infrared heating using a wavelength from 0.5 up to 7 microns, placed in a reflector. At a stationary height of a heater suspension they determine the heat flows along a local surface of heating: - a heat flow from a source of the IR-heating, - a heat flow from an infra-red heater, - a heat flow from a reflector as a difference between the heat flow of the infra-red heater and the heat flow from the source of the IR-heating depending on the height of(a face) an effective surface of a reflector, they determine the a maximum of a heat flow of a reflector depending on the corresponding to it height of (a face) an effective irradiated surface of the reflector, determine an optimal height of (a face) the reflector corresponding to a maximum of a heat flow. At that at an optimal height of a face of a reflector they determine dependence of a heat flow of a reflector on a change of an angle between a perpendicular to an irradiated surface and a height of (face) a lateral surface of a reflector at the thermal insulation of its external surface, for example, by a material with coefficient of thermal conductivity of 0.05 - 0.15 W/m·K with a degree of blackness of full normal radiation of 0.02 - 0.3, and the optimal value of an angle for a reflector choose corresponding to a maximum of a heat flow of IR-radiation. The technical result of the invention is assurance of a level of optimal intensity in the field of a local heating provided, that the necessary height of a suspension of the source of irradiation and the uniform heating of the surface will be observed.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the optimal level of intensity of a local heating provided, that the necessary height of a suspension of the source of irradiation and the uniform heating of the surface will be observed.

11 dwg

FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant contains heat generator, main line heat batteries and valve. Heat generator is made in form of housing accommodating cycle, brake, bypass branch pipe and pump, and it is connected through valve on main line with heat batteries. Several heat generators of one type are united and connected in series to each other to form common plant through two closed systems, heat exchanger and tank for water, and plant is furnished with electrolyzer. Small closed system includes several one-type heat generators, heat exchanger, water line and tank for water. Heater. Heat exchanger is connected with and electrolyzer reservoir through vacuum pump, condenser reservoir and electromagnetic valve. Condenser reservoir is connected with tank for water. Water vapors can be taken out of heat exchanger and tank for cooling and getting of condensate and delivering the latter into electrolyzer reservoir for electrolysis and into tank. Large closed system is furnished with coils arranged in reservoirs of condenser and heat exchanger, being interconnected and connected with heat batteries by means of water line and pump and made for circulation of water heat carrier for heating rooms. Electrolyzer is furnished with interchangeable batteries of different design. Said batteries are made up of stainless steel electrodes installed in parallel to each other at definite interval being connected through dielectric plates by bolts, nuts and spring washers. Electrodes can be made in form of plates, gauzes, corrugated or perforated plates, brushes or cellular honeycomb or cellular rib or tubular shape. They can be made on vacuum die casting machines or stamped out. Outlet pipes-gas pipes of electrolyzer and arranged at different levels being connected with burner by means of vacuum pumps, sections of accumulator and reducers being made for extraction of hydrogen and oxygen in process of electrolyzing, separating them in vacuum and directing into burner by means of vacuum pumps along different gas lines. Reservoir of electrolyzer is connected with liquid alkali container through metering devices provided with solenoid and time relay. Electrolyzer reservoir is furnished with vacuum regulator to maintain preset low pressure and operate vacuum pumps. Subsonic or ultrasonic generator can be arranged on bottom of electrolyzer reservoir to create elastic waves for accelerating splitting of water and increasing capacity.

EFFECT: improved reliability and increased service life, enlarged operating capabilities at water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen and use of gaseous fuel for domestic purpose.

2 cl, 6 dwg

The invention relates to the field of power engineering, in particular to devices heating

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in industrial livestock and poultry

The invention relates to the field of energy, in particular solar energy, and can be used for heating water and hot water supply and heating of buildings by solar energy to conserve fossil fuels and improve the environment through the elimination of emissions the combustion of fossil fuels

The invention relates to automatic control systems of a heat supply

The invention relates to household heating systems and can be used for heating of domestic and industrial premises, private homes, garages, summer houses, as well as in agriculture for heating greenhouses, farms and cottages

FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant contains heat generator, main line heat batteries and valve. Heat generator is made in form of housing accommodating cycle, brake, bypass branch pipe and pump, and it is connected through valve on main line with heat batteries. Several heat generators of one type are united and connected in series to each other to form common plant through two closed systems, heat exchanger and tank for water, and plant is furnished with electrolyzer. Small closed system includes several one-type heat generators, heat exchanger, water line and tank for water. Heater. Heat exchanger is connected with and electrolyzer reservoir through vacuum pump, condenser reservoir and electromagnetic valve. Condenser reservoir is connected with tank for water. Water vapors can be taken out of heat exchanger and tank for cooling and getting of condensate and delivering the latter into electrolyzer reservoir for electrolysis and into tank. Large closed system is furnished with coils arranged in reservoirs of condenser and heat exchanger, being interconnected and connected with heat batteries by means of water line and pump and made for circulation of water heat carrier for heating rooms. Electrolyzer is furnished with interchangeable batteries of different design. Said batteries are made up of stainless steel electrodes installed in parallel to each other at definite interval being connected through dielectric plates by bolts, nuts and spring washers. Electrodes can be made in form of plates, gauzes, corrugated or perforated plates, brushes or cellular honeycomb or cellular rib or tubular shape. They can be made on vacuum die casting machines or stamped out. Outlet pipes-gas pipes of electrolyzer and arranged at different levels being connected with burner by means of vacuum pumps, sections of accumulator and reducers being made for extraction of hydrogen and oxygen in process of electrolyzing, separating them in vacuum and directing into burner by means of vacuum pumps along different gas lines. Reservoir of electrolyzer is connected with liquid alkali container through metering devices provided with solenoid and time relay. Electrolyzer reservoir is furnished with vacuum regulator to maintain preset low pressure and operate vacuum pumps. Subsonic or ultrasonic generator can be arranged on bottom of electrolyzer reservoir to create elastic waves for accelerating splitting of water and increasing capacity.

EFFECT: improved reliability and increased service life, enlarged operating capabilities at water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen and use of gaseous fuel for domestic purpose.

2 cl, 6 dwg

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