Method for variation of aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicle and device for its realization

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: the device is designed for a flight vehicle having a fuselage, jet engine, fuel system, carrying planes and control sections. The device has a source of offtaken gas, which through sealed lines is connected to the zones of local blowing-out of gas to the boundary layer of air flow on the surfaces the flight vehicle. Each zone of local blowing-out of gas is made on the surface of the carrying plane or fuselage, or control sections with a penetrable porous insert with a cross-sectional area of the ducts in the porous insert within 50 to 60% of the area of the insert proper by 10-15 times less than the distance between the adjacent inserts, a flat rectangular slot for a break of the boundary layer is made before each insert and in parallel with it.

EFFECT: reduced drag force and fuel consumption.

10 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to aircraft and allows, in particular, to increase the lifting force of the bearing surfaces of supersonic aircraft.

Known supersonic aircraft (see "Design aircraft". Textbook for high schools/ S.M. Eger, Ms. V. Mishin, NICHOLAS Lysacek and other M: mechanical engineering, 1983, s, .V-25), for example supersonic passenger aircraft "Concord"that has swept wing, fuselage, four turbojet engine (turbojet), located directly under the wing tanks with fuel. The disadvantage of this technical solution is that it does not significantly change the lift force of the aircraft, in particular to significantly increase, which could at the same characteristics of the engines to increase the number of seats (commercial strain) or a cruising speed and maximum height and estimated range.

A device of the gas-dynamic blow-off steering surfaces of the aircraft (RF patent No. 2148179, publ. 27.04.2000 year). In the design of the device includes the engine, the intake channel, the channel exhaust gases of the engine, the steering surface, the extension pipe of the engine, which serves as a channel for supplying exhaust gases to the steering surface. However, the extension pipe organized supply is ozdoba with lower temperature, than the exhaust gases of the engine. The design of gas-dynamic airflow steering surfaces of the aircraft are not efficient enough for solving the problem of increasing the lifting force of a supersonic aircraft, as a cross-section (output section) of the exhaust nozzle of the engine is located at the rear edge of the wing, and the flow of gas flowing from the nozzle, it is difficult to deploy and to send the wing to the leading edge. It is also difficult to provide cooling to the large mass of exhaust gases. In addition, in a supersonic flow additional subsonic airflow at high altitudes will have no significant impact on the magnitude of the lifting force and the implementation of the airflow is impeded due to occur on the wing shock waves.

Closest to the claimed technical solution is the system changes the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft, including two jet engines, compressors each of which is the source of the selected gas, which is attached via regulatory elements sealed highway to the local areas of blowing on each wing (U.S. patent No. 4099691). The main disadvantage of this design is the relatively minor influence of the exhaust gas on the magnitude of the lifting force of the aircraft.

The invention is directed to solving the problem of change is of the lifting force of the aircraft within wide limits.

Technical result achieved is that the opportunity is almost instant increase in lifting force on all flight modes of the aircraft. In addition to increase the lift (lateral) forces bearing areas, you can create control points for the tail surfaces or control profiles without the use of complex mechanical or other systems of the rods, resulting in increased reliability and service life of various control profiles. The application of the technical solutions for the bow of the aircraft allows you to generate the force retarding the aircraft in all flight modes.

The technical result is achieved in that the device for modifying the aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft having a fuselage, at least one jet engine, fuel system, bearing plane and control profiles that contain at least one local area blowing heated gas in the boundary layer, each zone local blowing heated gas is performed on the surface of the carrying surface or fuselage or control profiles with permeable porous insert with cross-sectional area of the channels in a porous insert 50-60% of the area of the insert and the width of the insert 10-15 times less than the distance between the adjacent inserts, at the same time before each insert and parallel to it is made of a flat rectangular slot gap boundary layer.

In addition, each local area blowing heated gas is connected to the combustion chamber of a jet engine.

In addition, each local area blowing heated gas connected to the chamber of the gas generator.

In addition, each local area blowing heated gas is connected with the exhaust nozzle of the jet engine.

In addition, the device has at least two permeable porous insert, designed for placement along the span of each bearing plane rows, one after the other, perpendicular to the chord of the supporting plane and the direction of the incident flow.

In addition, before each permeable porous insert on the carrying surface is made of a rectangular slot which is parallel to the corresponding insert and is intended to divide the boundary layer.

In addition, the device has a screen-vacuum insulation, which is located with the option of reducing the flow of heat from the zone of local blowing heated gas in the boundary layer.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that in the method of changing the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft, which consists in blowing a heated gas at the border is CNY layer on the surface of the aircraft, for blowing the use of the device according to any one of the above features of the invention.

In addition, portions of bearing surfaces adjacent to the local areas of blowing heated gas is cooled by liquid fuel from the tank of the fuel system of the aircraft.

In addition, in the boundary layer on the surface of the aircraft out of the heated gas in a mixture of air having a lower temperature.

Thus, localized supply products of combustion from the combustion chamber or the exhaust of a jet engine to the different surfaces of the aircraft significantly affect the amount of the additional lifting force and allows to change it within wide limits. The magnitude of this additional lifting force depends on the number and location of local areas of blowing gas, zone geometry blowing velocity (mass flow) and the temperature of the exhaust gas, and the speed (Mach number) flight of the aircraft, pressure, density and temperature corresponding to the height of the flight regime of gas flow near a streamlined surface, etc. while under the outer planes are the wings of the aircraft.

Figure 1 shows the diagram of a device that implements the specified method (side view of part of the supporting plane section), where a is racing seals, b d - boundary wall (boundary) layer, with a wave of rarefaction, e is a point of separation of the boundary layer, f is the area of the return flow, g - subsonic jet of gas, h is the boundary of the subsonic part of the boundary layer, the i - boundary subsonic gas jet.

Figure 2 shows a portion of the carrier plane containing the device and part of the fuselage (top view).

Apparatus for changing the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft includes: an intake channel 1 of the engine; a turbojet engine (TRD) 2; a combustion chamber 3 turbojet exhaust nozzle 4 TRD; sealed highway 5 for gas (combustion products) from the combustion chamber 3 or the exhaust nozzle 4 and submitting it to the bottom surface 6 of the bearing plane (wing) 7 through the internal volume of the bearing plane 7 and blowing in the oncoming external supersonic flow; regulatory elements 8 tight line 5, in particular reducer-pressure regulator, check valve, etc.; channel selection air 9 from the compressor turbojet engine; an air intake 10 (optional); permeable porous insert 11 for blowing gas through the surface of the carrier plane 6 in the incoming flow, the axis of which is perpendicular to a chord bearing plane 7 or parallel to the front edge of the bearing plane 7, and can also take an intermediate position between these two positions is s depending on the angle of sweep of the bearing plane 7, to avoid disruption of the air flow; flat slit 12 of rectangular shape, placed in front of the permeable porous inserts 11 and parallel to them at a given distance, which are designed to rupture and renewal boundary layer on the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7; channels with the developed heat exchange surface 13 for pumping fuel or other fluid for cooling the surfaces 6 of the bearing plane 7, adjacent to the permeable porous inserts 11; a pump 14 for supplying a coolant, in this case fuel, cooling channels plots the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7, adjacent to the porous inserts 11; structural elements 15 system management selection and blowing gas and the cooling area of the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7; screen-vacuum thermal insulation 16; fuel tank 17.

The device operates in cruise mode of flight supersonic aircraft, however, can effectively enough to work on the flight mode at subsonic flight speeds and climb.

At supersonic cruising flight mode the proposed method provides a significant increase in lifting force and, consequently, allows to increase the commercial load of the aircraft.

The device operates as follows.

Channel vozduhozabora is 1 and enables operation of the engine (TRD) 2, in the combustion chamber 3 and the exhaust nozzle 4 which receives the products of combustion (exhaust gases), and in the combustion chamber 3, the temperature and pressure of the gas is higher than in the subsonic part of the exhaust nozzle 4. Then carry out the selection of gas from the combustion chamber 3 or the exhaust nozzle 4, or from the gas generator, which is not shown (depending on which values of pressure and temperature exhaust gas is required, in a sealed highway 5 connecting the combustion chamber 3 or the exhaust nozzle 4 with the inner side of the bottom surface 6 of the bearing plane 7. In the same line 5 serves the air from the compressor of the turbojet 2 along the channel 9. After stirring cold, from channel 9, and heated from highway 5 components, the resulting gas-air mixture through the regulatory elements 8 comes to pronitsaemym porous inserts 11 on the bottom surface 6 of the bearing plane 7 on the inner side of this surface. Through the porous insert 11 produce blowing gas or gas mixture in the external incoming supersonic flow.

When the local blowing a jet of hot gas in the cold incoming supersonic flow in accordance with the equation treatment effects (see Genarlow. Applied gas dynamics. M.: Nauka, 1969, s-189), there is intense deceleration of the flow, accompanied by povysheniya. In addition, subsonic jet of exhaust gas is an obstacle to supersonic flow. So before you jet occurs oblique shock wave, the transition through which the supersonic flow changes direction at a certain angle. As a result of this geometrical effect, an additional pulse pressure force which is transmitted to the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7. The pressure increase in the area of local blowing a heated gas, or in the field of local teplomassopotok causes longitudinal - along chord bearing plane 7 - positive pressure gradient, which leads to the separation of flow of a viscous gas in a streamlined surface and the formation of local regions of reverse current or local tear-off zone. The formation of this area leads to increased geometric effects on the main supersonic flow, further increasing the pressure and increase the duration of heat exposure on the main thread, the intensity of which increases braking. The resulting increase in pressure propagates downstream along the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7 and upstream along the subsonic part of the wall (boundary) layer (see Gchatting. theory of the boundary layer. M.: Nauka, 1974, p.85). Force apowersoft also increases due to the reaction force of the jet of exhaust gas. Arisen transverse force acting on the bottom surface 6 of the bearing plane 7, at a constant force of pressure on its upper surface and is caused only by the influence of incoming supersonic flow is significant and can be several times higher than the pressure force on the bottom surface 6 in the absence of local blowing gas. This, in turn, will increase the lifting force of the bearing plane 7, the retaining supersonic aircraft in flight.

In addition, due to the formation of local tear-off zones at the local blowing gas, in which gas moves in the direction opposite to the direction of the undisturbed flow (figure 1), reduced integral resistance force of friction, preventing horizontal movement of the aircraft.

For supersonic cruising flight mode channel 9, which connects the compressor turbojet engine with a sealed highway 5, may overlap, and the cold air enters the sealed line 5 via the auxiliary air inlet 10 if the pressure rises above the pressure of gas in the line 5. Additional air inlet 10 in the device may not be applied provided that the selection of the air in the air from the compressor turbojet engine does not cause unreasonable loss of power of the power unit (TRD) or used con is tractional surface material bearing plane 7 allows you to organize local blowing heated gas in the incoming flow without cold components air.

Structure of aluminum alloys allow short-term temperatures up to 150 degrees C. Therefore, permeable porous insert 11, through which is blown by the heated gas in the incoming flow, and the adjacent parts of the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7 shall be made of titanium alloys or titanium, a melting temperature of approximately 1600 degrees C. At the present time in the construction of jets widely used titanium to 30% of the mass of the aircraft, the density of which is slightly greater than the density of aluminum alloys, and strength characteristics substantially higher (see Precli. Analysis of the weight and strength of aircraft structures. M: Barongis, 1957, p.46).

In addition, ensure that the design of the bearing plane supersonic aircraft at the local blowing hot gas through the surface 6 provided with forced cooling area of the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7, adjacent to pronitsaemym porous inserts 11. For this along such sites posted by the channels 13 advanced compact surface, intensifying convective heat transfer, and through these channels pump 14 pumps the liquid fuel or any other coolant. This fluid removes excess t the PLA from areas of the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7, providing a desired temperature of the structure. Then the fuel fed into the combustion chamber 3 turbojet. If to use a different cooling liquid, after removal of her heat she served in a liquid-air heat exchanger where it is cooled to the initial temperature. Due to the cooling and due to the intensification of convective heat transfer it is possible to reduce the temperature of the surface sections 6 bearing plane 7 with 500-600 degrees Kelvin up to 300-350 degrees Kelvin.

Assuming that the area of the lower surface of the bearing plane 7 Skrsimilar to the case without the use of local blowing gas, it can be expected that there will be effects from the use of the proposed local blowing hot gas through the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7 in supersonic flow due to the fact that tight line 5 serves as a channel for supplying fuel combustion products, for example, from the exhaust nozzle 4 TRD to permeable porous inserts 11 on the bottom surface 6 of the bearing plane 7 with its inner side.

In addition, this device due to local blowing hot gas through the bottom surface 6 of the bearing plane 7 provides intense supersonic flow near the surface, accompanied by an increase of pressure in the area, the size of which is commensurate with the PLO is adyu bearing plane 7, since blowing the heated gas passes through several permeable porous inserts 11, arranged one after another along a chord or one beside the other along the span of the bearing plane 7. Moreover, before each foam insert 11 and parallel to its axis placed the slit 12 for a break and resume a thin wall or boundary layer, in which the most intensive processes of transfer of momentum, heat and mass, and the supersonic portion of the boundary layer is located near a streamlined surface.

Thus, the proposed solution enables the creation of additional lifting force and, as a consequence, the increase of payload at a constant altitude and speed of the aircraft, or leads to an increase in flight altitude of the aircraft at a constant speed. In this case, due to the lower density of atmospheric air decreases the force of drag, preventing the movement of the aircraft, defined by the formula;

where Cha- power coefficient of drag;

ρair density at a given altitude;

V- speed of flight of the aircraft.

The decrease in the force of drag leads to a reduction of the required thrust is=X and, which is proportional to the mass flow of fuelTherefore, fuel can be reduced, and the commercial load is increased. At constant fuel increases the maximum range. At a constant traction motors can be increased maximum speed and reduced time to deliver passengers to their destination.

The possibility of deceleration of the supersonic flow near a streamlined surface when the local blowing heated gas stream is confirmed by certain experimental data, as well as the following.

The equation of the treatment effects is:

where Mthe Mach number of the undisturbed flow;

V is the velocity of the gas flow;

S is a sectional area of the stream;

m is the mass of the gas;

d V is the velocity increment of gas;

d S is the increment of the cross-sectional area of flow;

d m - additional mass is connected to the gas flow;

d Qdrug- an additional amount of heat supplied to the gas flow;

and is the speed of sound in the gas;

k is the adiabatic exponent of the gas.

This equation shows that when the cart mass (dm>0) and heat (d Qdrug>0) for supersonic flow (M>1) the velocity of the gas decreases (dV<0), the flow is decelerated and its pressure in accordance with the law with the wounds of energy increases.

In the case of local blowing gas through the permeable porous surface 11 is formed under-expanded subsonic jet, around which the supersonic flow occurs oblique shock wave. When passing through the surge flow is braked, and its pressure increases. Increasing pressure on the shock seals is estimated as follows:

where R1=p- pressure in the undisturbed flow;

p2is the gas pressure behind the shock wave;

β - angle jump of the seal to the direction of the velocity of the undisturbed flow.

Formula (3) shows that increasing the Mach number of the aircraft flight Mpressure p2for irregular compaction increases and this leads to an increase in the density of the gas in accordance with the equation:

where ρ1- gas density in the unperturbed flow;

ρ2- gas density behind the shock wave.

Thus, in a supersonic flow appears obstacle with greater density and mass, on which the main flow is decelerated more rapidly.

It is known (see Vfree, Vinceremos. Control and stabilization in aerodynamics. M.: Higher school. 1978, s, RES. and Pcgen. Control of flow separation. M: Peace. 1979, p. 203), is that when the local blowing a jet of gas into the supersonic flow occur enclosed areas reverse current, providing additional geometric effects on the flow, creating conditions for more intensive braking, increasing the pressure and decreasing the integral of the force of friction.

A certain contribution to the formation of shear forces and makes the strength of the reaction is vented through the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7 of the jet of gas, which is determined by the ratio (see Genarlow. Applied gas dynamics. M.: Nauka. 1969, 824):

where- mass flow rate of exhaust gas;

Vwith- the average flow rate of gas blown locally through the permeable surface 11.

However, the mass flow rate of exhaust gas is negligible. Performed estimates show that the total mass flow rate of exhaust gas with respect to the proposed method in case of using permeable porous inserts 11 on the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7 will be one per cent of the mass flow of the combustion products of one supersonic turbojet aircraft (see aircraft Design/ Textbook for high schools. Smeer, Vfei, NICHOLAS Lysacek and other Meters: machinery. 1983, s). Small values and has the speed of exhaust gas Vwith. Therefore, the reaction force of the subsonic jet Ppsmall.

These effects, as well as a number others, however, do not lend themselves to simple summation, as they are based on complex processes that are nonlinear in nature. When a certain combination of parameters of the main incoming supersonic flow and a flat jet of exhaust gas these processes can reinforce each other and lead to the formation of large cross, and therefore, the lifting force.

In addition, some experimental data have shown the possibility for a specific combination of parameters of the incoming supersonic flow and the jet of exhaust gas of the large pressure force (lateral force), which is 1.5-2 times greater than the force acting on the rigid surface 6 without local blowing gas. Similarly will increase the lifting force of the bearing plane 7 Ya. This improves maneuvering properties and stability of supersonic aircraft.

In addition, the magnitude of the transverse force acting on the rigid surface, increases with the speed and temperature of the exhaust gas.

An approximate relationship honey options hot gas taken from the exhaust nozzle 4 TRD cold air taken from a compressor or air intake 10 TRD component of the lifting force of the bearing plane 7 Yadue to high-speed power incident on the eye and component of the lifting force Y VDarising from local blowing heated gas mixture through the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7, as follows.

The parameters of cold air:

The parameters of the hot gas products of combustion TRD:

The parameters of the mixture:

The original heat balance equation is:

In (6)-(8), the following notation:

P1,- pressure cold air and hot gas, respectively;

ρ1,- density of cold air in the channel to supply pressurized line;

T1- the temperature of the cold air supply channel to a tight line and hot gas, respectively;

T2- the temperature of the heated gas in a sealed highway before mixing with cold air;

T is the temperature of the gas mixture in a sealed highway before blowing in the main thread;

- specific heat of cold air, hot gas, and the mixture, respectively;

second mass flows of cold air, hot gas, and the mixture, respectively.

If we assume that and note that

then from (9) we obtain:

whence follows:

Relationship WithP1/Spdiffers little from unity, so close entry (11) takes the form:

Because T>T1andthen the expression (12) is always positive.

Included in (12) temperature have the following order: T1˜300 K;˜1100 K; T˜500 K. Substituting these values in equation (12), we obtain the inequality:

Therefore, the mass flow rate of cold air coming from the compressor turbojet or through the inlet 10, there will be more mass flow of hot gas coming from the exhaust nozzle 4 or the combustion chamber 3 turbojet engines.

Expressions (11) and (12) at a known temperature T1,T and velocity V(M) allows to obtain, for example, the required cross-sectional area of the intake's for a device that implements the proposed method is the increased lift of the aircraft, from the known composition:

where ρ1is the density of air on the eye in front of the air intake;

V- air velocity equal to the velocity of the aircraft.

The same ratios are used to determine the cross-sectional area of the channel for supplying air from a compressor turbojet and sealed highway 5. In the first case it is:

where ρkis the density of air at the compressor outlet;

VVK- air velocity in the channel;

SVK- the cross-sectional area of the channel.

The parameters of air at the outlet of the compressor turbojet engine are determined by well-known methods (see Vpecatoci. Air-breathing engines for supersonic multi-mode aircraft. M: Engineering. 1975, p.132).

The total flow of the gas mixture Moscow, is vented through the surface 6 of the bearing plane 7 in the oncoming supersonic flow, is determined by the expression:

where n is the number of permeable inserts 11 for blowing gas;

Sn- the total cross-sectional area of the channels (ERP) for blowing gas;

VSP- the average velocity of the gas stream which is vented through the permeable porous insert 11;

ρ - the density of the exhaust gas-air mixture.

The required value of the velocity VSPand the density of the mixture ρ determined on the basis of experimental data. The velocity VSPthe choice is moved so that to the mass flow rate of mixturedo not exceed ˜ 1% of the mass flow of the combustion products of the fuel jet. Density ρ is determined by the pressure of the air flow near the bottom surface 6 of the bearing plane 7, which depends on the degree of deceleration of flow blowing a jet of gas.

The cross-sectional area of the channels in a porous insert 11 Spmay constitute 50-60% of the area of the insert having the shape of a rectangle. The width of the insert 11 to the local blowing gas should be 10-15 times less than the distance between the inserts, for example along a chord bearing plane 7.

Thus, using the relations (10), (11) and (16), we can estimate the mass flows of cold airand hot gassupplied in a sealed highway 5 from the exhaust nozzle 4 turbojet engines.

Costs of mechanical energy to organize the movement of heated gas and air through the channels (trunks) is minimal, since TRD is located directly under the bearing plane of the aircraft, and the magnitude of the pressure in the combustion chamber 3 and at the outlet of the compressor turbojet make tens of kgf/cm2.

Experimental and calculated data show that in the presence of the permeable porous inserts on the bottom surface 6 of the bearing plane 7, p is five on each side of the fuselage, with the two adjoining cooled areas on each side of the insert 11 in the width of the channel with a developed surface ˜ 0.1 m, the distance between the channel walls ˜ 0.005 m and the speed of movement of the coolant, in this case fuel, not exceeding 0.1 m/s, its volume flow is 600-1000 cm3/s (0.6 to 1 l/s).

If the coolant is used TRD fuel, after its pumping from the heated areas of the bearing plane 7 it can be directed directly into the combustion chamber 3 turbojet engine that eliminates the use of additional heat exchangers.

To reduce the flow of heat from a permeable porous inserts 11 in the design of the bearing plane 7 at the contact surface between them the screen-vacuum thermal insulation 16.

Evaluation of the increment values of the lifting force of the bearing plane of the aircraft through the use of local blowing subsonic jet of heated gas through the surface of the supporting plane at supersonic incoming flow can be produced as follows.

The lifting power of Yacreated the bearing plane, will emerge from component Ycoredue to the speed the pressure of the main flow, and component YSSarising from local blowing a jet of gas:

Using the General formula for the aerodynamic forces (see Nfree, Vinceremos. Control and stabilization in aerodynamics. M.: Higher school. 1978, S. 14), we obtain the ratio:

where CWasnthe lift coefficient of the supporting plane when the flow velocity V (Mach number M);

WithUdopthe increment in lift coefficient of the supporting plane at the expense of local blowing a jet of gas through the bottom surface 6 of the bearing plane 7 in supersonic flow.

Then, using (17) and (18) and the expression for the lift force, get:

After transformations we obtain:

From expressions (18) and (20) it follows that

In formulas (19)-(21) through S and SVDrespectively indicated:

S - typical area of the aircraft (the area of the bearing plane in the plan);

SVD- part of the area of the bearing surface, which corresponds to the region of high pressure, resulting from local blowing a jet of heated gas in a supersonic flow.

In approximate calculations it is possible to take

Received or given as a function(3), (4), (5), (11) or(12), (14) -(16), (21) allow, along with particularly the mi experimental data, to determine the required value of the second mass flow rates of heated gas selected from TRD cold air, gas mixture; area additional inlet or channel for supplying air from a compressor turbojet engine; the amount of heat transferred from the heated surface area of the carrier plane; the flow rate of the coolant, as well as with the known dependencies for pressure losses, evaluate the cost of power for pumping fluid.

In addition, it is possible to estimate the lift coefficient of the supporting plane WithYa(see formula (21)) using the results of mathematical simulation or experimental data on the integral strength of the pressure on the surface of the supporting plane at the local blowing a jet of gas in a supersonic flow for known values of the parameters of the unperturbed flow ρ, RV, M, k, Tspray gas VSP, T; areas supporting plane S, SVD, Swith- cross-sectional area of the jet of exhaust gas.

As an example, we give the relation between expenditures m and m2when used on supersonic aircraft turbojet engine, which T2≈1100 K. Taking T1=300 K and T'=600 K, we get the following relationship for the second costs Ho is one of air and hot gas (see equation (12)):

In the formula (21) the parameters S and CWasnfor this type of supersonic aircraft is known, the area of SVDand the coefficient CUdopestimate approximate dependencies view(3)-(5), (17)-(19) and the results of mathematical simulation of supersonic flow past a surface flow of a viscous heat-conducting gas at the local blowing flat transverse subsonic jet of hot gas, and then specify the experimental data, in particular results in a supersonic blowdown wind installation.

We obtained the following results. When M=2,35, the flight height H=16 km, low subsonic velocity gas which is vented through the surface, the width of the permeable porous insert 15 times smaller length surface area, streamlined sverkhzvukovym flow, the temperature of the exhaust gas 600 K, length, surface area ˜ 1.5 m, width of the plot is 1 m, the magnitude of the lateral force is 2.2-2.5 times more than in the absence of blowing a jet of heated gas.

The proposed solution to increase the lifting capacity of the aircraft is implemented on supersonic flight regimes. However, existing aircraft of this type can achieve supersonic flight mode for a time not exceeding 5-10 second is after take-off (see Design of aircraft/ Textbook for high schools. S.M. Eger, Ms. V. Mishin, NICHOLAS Lysacek and other Meters: machinery. 1983, s) note that the local blowing gas into the supersonic flow at low altitudes are more effective than large ones.

In the case of a transition to subsonic flight regimes to compensate for the reduction in shear forces can be used short-term boost engines (war emergency power) and other measures, such as local blowing hot gas through the upper surface of the supporting plane in subsonic flow. This forced cooling surface area of the carrier plane is not required, since subsonic flight regimes and in this case short.

The proposed solution can be used to increase management effectiveness steering control surfaces or profiles of the aircraft, intended for creation of control points.

In this case, the heated gas is selected from TRD down to one of two sides of the control profile (left or right for keel - rudder; the upper or lower side of the flap or elevon) and blow away in the oncoming supersonic flow. The principles and conditions for the formation of the control effort applied to the steering surface remain the same as for the bearing surface (wing), but the oils gas organize in such places the steering surface, to ensure maximum control moment. There is no need to use complex mechanization to discard the tail surfaces, which is especially important at high supersonic and hypersonic flight speeds.

The proposed solution can be applied for the formation of effort, braking the aircraft, if the blowing gas selected from a gas generator, to perform in the nose of the aircraft. The pressure acting on the outer surface of the bow increases, and the integrated pressure force is directed opposite to the velocity vector of the movement of the aircraft, i.e. you are braking force. At the same time, the gas generator is necessary because the propulsion system is located, as a rule, in the aft part of the aircraft, and tanks with fuel placed close enough to the bow.

1. Apparatus for changing the aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft having a fuselage, at least one jet engine, fuel system, bearing plane and control profiles containing the source of the selected gas, which is attached to a sealed road to the local areas of blowing heated gas in the boundary layer of air on the surfaces of the flying apparatus is ATA, characterized in that each local area of the blowing gas is performed on the surface of the carrying surface or fuselage, or control profiles with permeable porous insert with cross-sectional area of the channels in a porous insert 50÷60% of the area of the insert, 10÷15 times less than the distance between adjacent inserts, thus before each insert and parallel to it is made of a flat rectangular slot gap boundary layer.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that each local area of the blowing gas is connected to the combustion chamber of a jet engine.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that each zone local blowing gas connected to the chamber of the gas generator.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that each local area of the blowing gas is connected with the exhaust nozzle of the jet engine.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it has at least two permeable porous insert, designed for placement along the span of each bearing plane rows, one after the other, perpendicular to the chord of the supporting plane and the direction of the incident flow.

6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that before each permeable porous insert on the carrying surface is made of a rectangular slot which is parallel to the corresponding stawk and is intended to divide the boundary layer.

7. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it is provided with a screen-vacuum insulation, which is located with the option of reducing the flow of heat from the zone of local blowing gas in the boundary layer.

8. The method of changing the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft, which consists in blowing the heated gas in the boundary layer on the surface of the aircraft, characterized in that for use blowing device according to any one of claims 1 to 6.

9. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the sections of the bearing areas adjacent to the local areas of blowing heated gas is cooled by liquid fuel from the tank of the fuel system of the aircraft.

10. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the boundary layer on the surface of the aircraft out of gas in mixture with air having a lower temperature.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: aeronautical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes bleeding part of preheated gas from gas source followed by delivery of bled gas to control surfaces of rudder, upper and lower surface of flying vehicle elevator.

Then, air bled from air intake or air compressor of engine plant is fed via hermetic mains through control members to supersonic nozzles which are flat in configuration from leading edges of said planes in way of chord of each rudder and elevator shutting-off local subsonic gas jets escaping from local blow-off zone in takeoff and landing modes by supersonic air flow. Turn and inclination of flying vehicle are performed by control of subsonic gas jets through local blow-off zones of rudder surfaces. Device is designed for surfaces of flying vehicle including the fuselage, engine plant, fuel system, lifting surfaces, control profiles in form of rudder and elevator; it includes local blow-off zones located on lateral surfaces of rudder, lower and upper surfaces of elevator which are connected with engine plant by means of hermetic mains. External surfaces of blow-off zones are located at level of surface of respective planes of rudders and elevators; mounted on leading edges of rudder and elevator are supersonic nozzles which are flat in configuration.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of control surfaces.

11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heavier-than-air flying vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed flying vehicle is provided with jet power plant located in center of flat wing round in plan. Power plant includes turbocompressors 13, bypass valves 14, receiver 15, adjusting valves 16 and four-section jet engine used for forming circular radially diverging air jet. Sections 17 of engine are designed for independent control during operation and are separated from one another by receiver. Upper part of body is designed for performing function of wing round in plan.

EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency and reliability.

3 cl, 4 dwg

The invention relates to techniques for aircraft

Mover // 2120396

Aerodynamic profile // 2086468
The invention relates to the field of aeronautical engineering and can be used in the layout of the wing

The invention relates to aircraft and can be used when creating new aircraft vertical takeoff and landing

The invention relates to aircraft construction, rocket technology, transport and power engineering

FIELD: heavier-than-air flying vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed flying vehicle is provided with jet power plant located in center of flat wing round in plan. Power plant includes turbocompressors 13, bypass valves 14, receiver 15, adjusting valves 16 and four-section jet engine used for forming circular radially diverging air jet. Sections 17 of engine are designed for independent control during operation and are separated from one another by receiver. Upper part of body is designed for performing function of wing round in plan.

EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency and reliability.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: aeronautical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes bleeding part of preheated gas from gas source followed by delivery of bled gas to control surfaces of rudder, upper and lower surface of flying vehicle elevator.

Then, air bled from air intake or air compressor of engine plant is fed via hermetic mains through control members to supersonic nozzles which are flat in configuration from leading edges of said planes in way of chord of each rudder and elevator shutting-off local subsonic gas jets escaping from local blow-off zone in takeoff and landing modes by supersonic air flow. Turn and inclination of flying vehicle are performed by control of subsonic gas jets through local blow-off zones of rudder surfaces. Device is designed for surfaces of flying vehicle including the fuselage, engine plant, fuel system, lifting surfaces, control profiles in form of rudder and elevator; it includes local blow-off zones located on lateral surfaces of rudder, lower and upper surfaces of elevator which are connected with engine plant by means of hermetic mains. External surfaces of blow-off zones are located at level of surface of respective planes of rudders and elevators; mounted on leading edges of rudder and elevator are supersonic nozzles which are flat in configuration.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of control surfaces.

11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: the device is designed for a flight vehicle having a fuselage, jet engine, fuel system, carrying planes and control sections. The device has a source of offtaken gas, which through sealed lines is connected to the zones of local blowing-out of gas to the boundary layer of air flow on the surfaces the flight vehicle. Each zone of local blowing-out of gas is made on the surface of the carrying plane or fuselage, or control sections with a penetrable porous insert with a cross-sectional area of the ducts in the porous insert within 50 to 60% of the area of the insert proper by 10-15 times less than the distance between the adjacent inserts, a flat rectangular slot for a break of the boundary layer is made before each insert and in parallel with it.

EFFECT: reduced drag force and fuel consumption.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: aeronautical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in taking preheated gas from gas source and bringing it to flying vehicle surface followed by blowing-out jet of preheated mixture of air and combustion products of engine plant at subsonic velocity through local blowing-out zones on lower and/or upper surfaces of flying vehicle wing into external incoming air flow. Besides that, air is taken from air intake or from engine plant compressor and is fed over hermetic mains through adjusting members at supersonic velocity through supersonic nozzles which are flat in configuration from leading edge of wing over lower surface in way of wing chord, thus overlapping the subsonic gas jets escaping from local blowing-out zones by high-velocity air flow at Mach number more than 0.7. Device proposed for realization of this method has fuselage, power plant, engine plant, fuel system, wing and control profiles. Engine plant is connected by hermetic lines with local blowing-out zones located on surfaces of wing and control profiles. Mounted on leading edge of wing lower surface are supersonic nozzles whose external surfaces are located at level of wing surface.

EFFECT: increased lifting force.

11 cl, 4 dwg

Transport aircraft // 2287454

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, two half-wings, jet engine, vertical and horizontal stabilizers and landing gear. Each half-wing has through passages of rectangular section which are parallel relative to each other along half-wing span. Each through passage has lower passage whose inlet hole is located on lower surface of half-wing; upper passage is narrower as compared with lower passage and its outlet hole is located on upper surface of half-wing.

EFFECT: increased lifting force of half-wing.

8 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering and ship building.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to apparatuses moving in air or water. Proposed apparatus comprises aerodynamic section wheel with top convex surface, fluid medium high-pressure source communicates with high-pressure jet generator arranged above the wing convex surface. Six design versions of proposed apparatus are distinguished for by the design of aforesaid high-pressure jet generator. Method of generating thrust consists in using high-pressure jet generator arranged above the wing convex surface. Five versions of the method are distinguished for by the design of aforesaid high-pressure jet generator.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

11 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device to vary aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic aircraft comprising airframe, engine, fuel system, planes and control surfaces incorporates bled gas source connected, via sealed pipelines, to permeable porous inserts intended for local gas blow-off into boundary layer of airflow. Cross section area of channels arranged in permeable porous inserts makes 30% to 60% of insert area. Distance between adjacent inserts is 6 to 10 times larger than insert width. Said permeable porous inserts are connected, via sealed pipelines, to low-temperature gas source representing a vortex tube. Proposed method consists in bleeding gas from gas source and feeding it to permeable porous inserts arranged on aircraft surfaces, using above described device, bled gas temperature being other than that of ram airflow.

EFFECT: higher lift.

14 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to aircraft engineering. Steam generator comprises water tank 5, electrically-driven valves 4, 10, check valves 3, throttle 9, jacket 6, tank 2 and safety valve 1. Water flows from tank 5 via opened electrically-driven valve 4, check valve 3 and throttle 9 into jacket 6 to convert into steam. The latter flows via check valve 3 to tank 2 and, via safety valve 1, to jets on aircraft wing 7. Method of generating steam for blowing aircraft wing surface consists in using steam generator.

EFFECT: increased lifting capacity of aircraft.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed flap 11 incorporates stall affecting device arranged on flap side edge with wing sections 13 extending along wing span to form air passages for incoming air to pass there through. High-efficiency flap comprises channel extending onto flap side edge through which compressed air may be fed into noise-generating vortex. Stall affecting device comprises compressed air feed device, side edge outlet channel and jointing element.

EFFECT: reduced noise.

18 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl

Aircraft wing // 2465172

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft wing comprises inner bearing carcass, top and bottom envelopments, flap and aileron. Said wing represents a flat plate with thickness equal along the profile and sharpened front tip. The wing has staggered in plan through channels which are covered by top envelopment elements in the form of semicones. Through channels provide airstream portion flowing from bottom wing envelopment onto top envelopment. Envelopment elements in the form of semicones split upper airstream into separate jets.

EFFECT: invention is focused on increasing lifting force.

4 dwg

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