Internal combustion engine and its valve timing
FIELD: mechanical engineering; piston internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed engine contains cylinder with piston connected with crankshaft by connecting rod. According to invention, with shutoff device of intake channel closed, part of channel forms space in which working medium enclosed in cylinder accumulates and burns cut. With shutoff device open, fresh charge of working medium passes into cylinder through said space. Outlet of said space into cylinder is channel which forms and directs flow of fresh charge. Piston device holding upper end of connecting rod in bottom dead center is cantilever in cylinder, and axle connecting upper end of connecting rod with its holding device is arranged on cantilever.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of engine in operation.
2 cl, 18 dwg
The invention relates to the field of engine development, in particular for internal combustion engines.
Trunk piston for internal combustion engines (ice) have different layout schemes . Such internal combustion engines contain the crankshaft, knee (crank) which by means of a connecting rod connected with a piston placed in the cylinder. The cylinder has intake and exhaust or just the intake box and covered with a lid, equipped with a relief valve and camshaft or without them, and antechamber (split combustion chamber) or not divided combustion chamber . The chamber - dead volume, placed in a cylinder and channels connected with the main combustion chamber. The main combustion chamber volume between the cylinder head and the piston, positioned at the top dead point. The piston and the top head of a rod make a straight reciprocating movement, the crankshaft - rotation of the lower cylinder, and a rod connecting rod is difficult. Extreme positions of the piston are called blind spots: the top (TDC) and bottom (BDC); the distance between the dead points is called the stroke S; stroke S is equal to two radii of the crank RK. Cycle - the process of conversion of heat into work from the beginning of the intake working fluid into the cylinder until the end of the exhaust from it; two stroke cycle dahta the fair internal combustion engine, four - stroke.
Two-stroke engine has a loop or straight-flow diagram of the gas exchange [2, p.65, 25]. When the loop circuit inlet and outlet ports is made in the cylinder and arranged such that are opened by the piston when the piston approaches BDC. The opening of the Windows begins the process of gas exchange, which will end after their overlap the piston as it moves toward TDC. In the case of purge flow in the cylinder is made only of the inlet window for intake of fresh charge, the issue is made through the valve and the passage in the cylinder head. Valve (shut-off device channel) is set at the level of forming the volume of the cylinder surface and is driven by a Cam shaft. In four-stroke internal combustion engine gas exchange is made through the channels and valves made in the lid of the cylinder. The piston has three zones [1, pp.118-119, RES, 73 and s, is]: flame zone is equipped with a combustion chamber or without it; o come with rings; guide (skirt) - holes for connection with the upper connecting rod eye. The guide belt is long (high) guide of the piston [1, p.129], which, being at TDC, leaves blocked the inlet and outlet ports located in the lower part of the working volume of the cylinder (bottom, closest to the axis of the crankshaft). Also the guide of the piston I which is a device secure the top head of a rod in a forward movement, and its outer surface and the inner surface of the cylinder compensate for normal (normally valid with respect to the axis of the cylinder) force N that occur in the top head of a rod [1, pp.61, 32]. The cooling of the piston is produced by splashing of lubricating oil on the piston from the inner side by the flow of oil under pressure through the rod of the connecting rod. However, with increasing diameter of the piston, the cooling process of the piston is complicated. The axis of the cylinder or axis of movement of the upper head of the connecting rod may be shifted relative to the axis of the crankshaft (desexualises CSM). The lower edge of the cylinder is installed close to the placed at TDC the crank (knee) crankshaft, eliminating their impact (grazing). Also excluded grazing rod through the lower edge of the cylinder at its maximum disconnection from the axis of the cylinder and the grazing of the piston elements of the crankshaft as it passes near BDC. This condition is observed when the ratio of the radius of the crank KK to the length of the rod LWless than zero point three-tenths, i.e λ<0,300, and the ratio of stroke to diameter S/D=0,8-1,3 . Other parameters of the cylinder and crank groups in the construction of trunk piston engine are not applied.
However, it is known that the most advanced ice - etidocaine engines with large values of S/D and λ [1, s], . However, due to poor cleaning of the cylinder from the products of combustion two-stroke trunk piston engine have low fuel efficiency and wide distribution't get it. The fuel efficiency of two-stroke cycle high at low-speed crosshead engine. Their efficiency is high, often two-stage supercharging and large values of S/D.
Crosshead engine [1, s, RES] contains the crankshaft, coupled with placed in the cylinder by the piston with the rod and the connecting rod. The rod and rod jointed to each other via a crosshead, the crosshead which is placed in the guide. The rod is rigidly connected with the piston and crosshead. Different crosshead engine from a trunk piston having piston rod and crosshead site. This device allowed us to improve the ratio S/D to two or more units, i.e. crosshead engine S/D≥2 [1, s]. Crosshead node contains the crossmember with slider (sliders), placed in the guides [1, s, RIS]. Crosshead node performs functions which are in trunk piston engine performs the guide of the piston, namely holds the top head of a rod in a forward movement, and the surface of the slide and guide compensate for the normal force N that occur in the top head of a rod. Such a device is allowed to use a shorter rod with length LW in the 3.5-4 times the crank radius RK[1, s].
The piston engine with a loop diagram of the gas exchange in addition to the head (the flame and the sealing zone) has a greater length of the guide part of the HH=(1,2-1,4)D, which overlaps the inlet and outlet ports in the cylinder when the piston position at TDC. The cooling of such pistons is lubricating oil under pressure through the connecting rod and rod ejection after cooling through the piston skirt [1, p.131]. Engines with direct-flow valve-slot-circuit gas exchange, and a loop circuit of the gas engine, the exhaust pipe which is installed spool device [1, s, RES], have relatively short piston, consisting of a head with height HG=0,5D . Its cooling is done by water through the stem inlet and outlet through the telescopic device [1, s]. The process of gas exchange in the cylinder enfolds :
1. The free release is when the motion of the piston to BDC at the end of the expansion process opens the exhaust valve or outlet ports, with the exhaust gases, having a gauge pressure, flow freely from the cylinder.
2. Blowing - filling and forced the issue proceeds for both schemes of gas exchange in the same manner; the fresh charge enters the cylinder through the inlet window, pushing the exhaust gases through the exhaust window reviewscell valve.
3. An additional issue and recharging; for the loopback circuit without additional issue can not do, because the piston is moving toward TDC, overlaps the first inlet window (the fresh charge is stopped), then the exhaust (before their closing proceeds additional issue). For direct-flow diagrams gas closing valve provided in a constructive way. The valve closes inlet or later Windows (additional issue)or prior to the closing of the inlet window during movement of the piston to TDC (will be recharging of the cylinder).
The combustion chamber is formed between the cylinder head and the piston when placing the piston at TDC.
Two-stroke crosshead engine have long lifespan and high fuel efficiency. However, they are slow, slow, have a lot of weight and height. The presence of the inlet ports in the body of the cylinder in the path of movement of the piston determines the high consumption of lubricating oil. All this makes impossible the use of such a motor, for example, in road transport.
The closest technical solution to the stated is the internal combustion engine, containing a rod fastened to the crankshaft, cylinder, covered with a lid, equipped with an outlet channel and its locking device, when closed, the locking device of the intake channel portion of the channel is bands who followed, which accumulates in the upper dead point of the piston is burned within the cylinder of the working body, and when you open the shut-off device, the inlet port through the cavity in the cylinder receives a fresh charge of the working fluid, and exits the cavity in the cylinder is a channel that forms and directs the flow of fresh charge (France application No. 2662745, IPC F 02 B 19/08, publ. 06.12.1991).
The disadvantage of this engine is the low efficiency of its work.
The technical result is to increase the efficiency of the engine.
This object is achieved in that the internal combustion engine, containing a rod fastened to the crankshaft, cylinder, covered with a lid, equipped with an outlet channel and a shut-off device according to the invention with a closed shut-off device of the intake channel portion of the channel is a cavity, in which is accumulated in the upper dead point of the piston is burned within the cylinder of the working body, when you open the shut-off device, the inlet port through the cavity in the cylinder receives a fresh charge of the working fluid, and exits the cavity in the cylinder is a channel that forms and directs the flow of fresh charge, and holding the upper connecting rod head the device at the bottom dead point is a console in the cylinder, with the axis of connection top the th head of the connecting rod with retaining its device placed on the console, and on the distributor shaft has a fully integrated speed controller.
The task is achieved by the fact that at the bottom dead point of the console holding the upper head of the connecting device may take under the cylinder place in the top dead point is the knee (crank) of the crankshaft.
1. In known internal combustion engines continuous guiding of the piston in the bottom dead point is placed in the cylinder of the console, with the axis of connection of the upper head of the connecting rod with the piston located on the cantilever part of the piston and the cylinder guide of the piston provides the responsibilities of the known piston internal combustion engine, i.e. holds the top head of a rod in a forward movement and compensates for the normal force.
It is known that a large value of S/D depends on the interference of the rod of the connecting rod through the lower edge of the cylinder when the deviation from the axis of the cylinder during rotation of the crank. It should be noted that the greater the distance between the axis of the connection of the upper head of the connecting rod with the piston and the lower edge of the cylinder, the greater the value of S/D can be obtained.
Thus, by changing the distance between the bottom edge of the cylinder and the axis of the connection head of the connecting rod with the piston in a known internal combustion engines achieve the desired ratio S/D, and the absence of rod and to the of accepta reduces the weight and height of the engine, to reduce the weight of the translational moving parts CSM, which opens up the possibility of forcing the engine to speed.
2. The console portion of the piston has a symmetrical sections of the side surface and the bottom dead point is placed in the area (on site), periodically alienated by the crank of the crankshaft during the placement of the crank at top dead center.
This event is held for known internal combustion engine with uniflow or loopback circuit gas exchange, open cylinder which overlap the guide part of the piston to avoid the flowing exhaust gas or working fluid.
It is known that moving in padzilinata space near TDC, the crank of the crankshaft alienates a certain area, which is periodically with each rotation of the crankshaft. Therefore, fixed (stationary) engine parts cannot be accommodated in this zone. But, when the crank passes near BDC, under the cylinder are the balances (cheeks) of the crankshaft, which alienate already another zone (zone), in parallel with which (between them) without touching is the console piston having side sections.
Thus, the approximation of the lower edge of the cylinder to the crankshaft has allowed to reduce the length of the rod, and also to reduce the height and weight of the engine. In turn, the smaller the length of the rod is ceteris paribus increases the duration of the purge cylinder per cycle.
3. In a cylinder of known internal combustion engine with uniflow scavenging is executed inlet channel is equipped with an inlet valve (or other locking device) and the cavity dual purpose. The cavity inlet port when valve is closed combustion chamber, with an open - intake channel directional. I.e. the channel forming flow entering the cylinder fresh charge and directs it to the side of the piston. The output of the cavity may have a different shape. This event is organized by the loopback circuit gas exchange in two-stroke engine. As in the cylinder no Windows, lubrication of the cylinder and the cooling of the piston is carried out as in trunk piston engine.
The lower edge of the cylinder is also as close as possible to the area periodically occupied (alienated) in padzilinata space the crank when passing near TDC, and the geometric shape of the restraint (e.g. [1, s, Riv]) allows him NMT to accommodate between balances (cheeks) of the crankshaft without interference. When this restraint is placed in one cylinder with a piston and together with the piston holds the top head of a rod on the axis of its straight movement and compensates for the normal force N.
The gas in the cylinder is made through the valves, made in the lid of the cylinder through the opening (closing) clap the new or other locking devices, installed in the channels. Work (open, closed) of the valves from the influence of the Cam shaft.
4. On the drive shaft installed all speed control speed (for example ).
Since the geometry of the Cam of the camshaft is set in a constructive and constant, the rotation angle of the crankshaft provided for gas exchange, will be unchanged (figure 4 and 5 indicated "gas exchange"). At nominal operation mode of the engine, the rotation angle of the crankshaft is provided for compression and expansion, will be, for example, are the same. When the load increases, the number of revolutions of the camshaft and crankshaft. Then react all speed control, and the angles given to the contraction and expansion will change (Fig.7 and 8).
Figure 1 shows a diagram of a known internal combustion engine.
Figure 2 - diagram of the internal combustion engine console location of the piston in the cylinder.
Figure 3 - location console of the piston between balances (cheeks) of the crankshaft.
Figure 4 is a longitudinal section.
Figure 5 - the pattern is placed in a cylinder cavity dual-use (combustion), the purge cylinder filling, the layout of the crosshead in one cylinder with a piston.
Figure 6 - section a-a figure 5.
Figure 7 - diagram of the dependence of the occupancy of the piston on the angle of rotation of the crank in the beginning of the opening of the exhaust valve.
On Fig the same, at the end of the opening of the outlet valve.
Figure 9-13 depict embodiments of the internal combustion engine.
On Fig-17 presents diagrams of the valve timing of the claimed engine.
The described internal combustion engine includes (see figure 2) accommodated in the housing 1 crankshaft 2, the crank 3 which by means of a connecting rod 4 is connected with the piston 5, consisting of a head and the guide part (position not defined), NMT posted by console in the cylinder 6 with Windows 7. When this axis 8 connection top head of a rod 4 with the piston 5 is placed on the cantilever part of the piston 5.
The cylinder 6 and the piston 5 is close to the crankshaft 2 (see figure 3 and 4). The length of the connecting rod 4 is reduced, and the BDC of the piston 5 is placed between the balances (cheeks) 9 of the crankshaft 2, which on the side of this piston part is made sections 10, with the angle of rotation of the crank 3, provided for gas exchange increases. (Figure 3 by the dotted line shows the angle of the gas exchange with the long rod.)
In the cover 11 of the cylinder (see figure 5) along with the exhaust channel 12 and the exhaust valve 13 is the inlet channel 14 and the inlet valve 15. The channel 14 has a cavity 16 dual-purpose, equipped at the outlet in the cylinder channel 17, which provides the direction of movement coming into the cylinder the flow of fresh charge.
As the cylinder is E. there are no inlet and outlet ports (see 5), the guide of the piston 5 is made short and using stem (plate, cylinder, etc.) 18 rigidly connected to the device 19 that secure the top head of a rod in a forward movement. In BDC the piston and a small portion (height) of the restraint placed in the cylinder 6, as part of the restraint is cantilevered from the cylinder and is placed between the counterweight 9. On the console posted axis 8 of the connection device with the top head of a rod 4. Height located in the cylinder 6 of the piston 5 and of the device provides resistance to overturning in position NMT.
While the total height of a short piston rod and the restraint not more than the height of the piston with a high guide part.
Under the pressure of the gases formed in the cylinder 6 after the combustion mixture, the piston 5 moves from TDC to BDC. From the piston 5 through the connecting rod 4 and the crank 3, the force is transferred to the crankshaft 2 by rotating it. With the crankshaft 2 is removed from power.
Upon reaching the crank 3 point a (see figure 2 and 3) open up the exhaust, then the inlets in the cylinder undergoing the process of gas exchange, which will end when the crank is held NMT and will come to the point C. In this case, the gas exchange channels are closed, starts the compression of the working fluid. Upon reaching the crank 3 TDC in the cylinder 6 is Gorenje mixture and the cycle repeats.
For a layout diagram of the internal combustion engine is depicted in figure 5, 12 and 13, the gas exchange is made through the channels and valves made in the lid of the cylinder. The opening and closing of the valves is made from the impact of the Cam shaft (not shown). Upon reaching the crank 3 points And open first outlet 13, and then the inlet valves 15. Between the opening of the exhaust and intake valves is free exhaust.
Fresh charge in the cylinder flows through the inlet channel 14 through the open intake valve 15 pass into the cavity 16, and then into the channel 17, then into the cylinder 6. Channel 17 directs the flow of fresh charge, for example, in the direction of the piston 5. After the opening of the intake valve 15 exhaust gases are forced out of the cylinder 6 through the open valve 13 and the channel 12. Is flushing and filling of the cylinder. Upon arrival of the crank at a point in the valve closes. The process of gas exchange is over, and begins compressing the fresh charge (as necessary may be a delay or advance of the closing of the exhaust valve). Compressed fresh charge accumulates in the channel 17 and the cavity 16, which when closed, the intake valve 15 create a single volume and are the combustion chamber. Upon reaching the crank TDC fuel mixture is burned, the gases force the piston 5, which moves through the connecting rod 4 rotates the crankshaft. The loop is torayca.
The angle of rotation of the crank provided for gas exchange, is defined structurally by the geometry of the Cam shaft and remains constant, and the angle of rotation of the crank is provided for compression and expansion, will change controls the operation mode of the internal combustion engine (not shown). If the angle given to the expansion, more means less angle allotted for compression, and Vice versa (see Fig.7 and 8). Thus, a long-stroke two-stroke internal combustion engine, a gas which does not affect the consumption of lubricating oil.
Sources of information
1. Aselin, MG Kruglov. Internal combustion engines. Design and strength calculation of piston and combined engines. M: mechanical engineering, 1984, p.9.
2. Mshah. Automotive engines. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1977, s, RES, str, RES.
3. Aigulin, Vpemya. Calculation of automobile and tractor engines. M.: Vysshaya SHKOLA, 1980, p.74 and s-117.
4. A.S. eagles and other Design and calculation of piston and combined engines. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1977, p.26.
5. Aselin, Mggrav. Internal combustion engines. Theory piston and combined engines. M: mechanical engineering, 1983, p.50.
6 Aselin, Mggrav. Internal combustion engines. System piston and combined engines. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1985, s, the Annex is f 4.
1. The internal combustion engine and its distribution, containing a rod fastened to the crankshaft, cylinder, covered with a lid, equipped with an outlet channel and its locking device, characterized in that when closed, the locking device of the intake channel portion of the channel is a cavity, in which is accumulated in the upper dead point of the piston is burned within the cylinder of the working body, when you open the shut-off device, the inlet port through the cavity in the cylinder receives a fresh charge of the working fluid, and exits the cavity in the cylinder is a channel that forms and directs the flow of fresh charge, holding the upper head of the connecting device at the bottom dead center is a console in the cylinder, with the axis of connection of the upper connecting rod end with retaining its device placed on the console, on the distributor shaft has a fully integrated speed controller.
2. The internal combustion engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the bottom dead point of the console holding the upper cylinder rod of the device is under the cylinder place in the top dead point is the knee (crank) of the crankshaft.
FIELD: automotive industry.
SUBSTANCE: rod-piston unit comprises sectional piston and connecting rod coupled with the piston through the piston pin. The sectional piston is composed of two main members: top member and bottom member. The top member is made of the piston bottom provided with the zone of grooves for piston pin and two half cylindrical bosses for piston pin, which are provided with the solid baffle from the outer side of the piston. The space between the bosses has groove. The top member of the piston is provided with threaded dummy holes. The bottom member is made of the piston skirt with two half cylindrical bosses for the piston pin. The bottom member of the piston has through openings for passing fastening members. Both of the members are assembled by means of screws. The connecting rod is pivotally connected with the piston.
EFFECT: decreased sizes and weight and enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle gearbox control devices.
SUBSTANCE: proposed piston unit contains cylinder with axle-rod on end of which smaller type-size piston is rigidly secured. Intermediate ring piston is installed on piston of smaller type-size coaxially to inner diameter of cylinder. Grooves are made on outer and inner surfaces of intermediate piston in which sealing members are placed. Grooves are made with displacement relative to axis of intermediate piston and are connected with lower pressure zone. Piston of smaller type-size and intermediate piston are installed for displacement together with sealing members within the limits of thrust bead made on smaller piston and stop ring installed in cylinder.
EFFECT: simplified design, increased service life of piston unit.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion piston engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed adiabatic engine increases absolute efficiency by 15-25% owing to increased amount of heat converted into mechanical work. Proposed adiabatic engine contains crankcase 1 with fitted-on cylinder 2 cooled by water jacket 4. False cylinder 6 with intake valve 7 and exhaust valve 9 and nozzle 8 is secured on cylinder 2 through heat insulating gasket 5. False cylinder 6 with false piston 10 feature low thermal conductivity and form variable volume hot chamber 11. Compensating clearance 12 is left between cylinder 2 and false piston 10. Heat insulating gasket 14 isolates hot false piston 10 from cold piston 15 carrying compression rings 16. Cold piston 15 interacts with cold cylinder 2 and provides compression in chamber 11 by means of compression rings 16. Piston 15 conveys mechanical work to consumer by means of connecting rod 17 and crankshaft 18. Low thermal conductivity of false cylinder 6 and false piston 10 and no cooling of false cylinder and false piston provide adiabatic thermal expansion process in chamber 11.
EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to more complete conversion of heart energy into mechanical work.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method of manufacture of piston, insert is preliminarily made with ring groove for split seal and then insert is connected with piston. Said insert is made of at least two parts, on one of which sealed plane of groove is made in contact with plane of seal. Prior to connecting parts of insert, solid ring is fitted between parts is ring groove and then insert is connected with piston. Use of solid ring precludes passing of combustion products into ring space in groove behind the seal. So, use of solid ring in sealing system of piston machine provides considerable reduction of mechanical losses in cylinder-piston pair, and proposed method of manufacture by simple operations and means makes it possible to install solid ring in ring groove of piston which, in its turn, solves problems in piston machines associated with considerable mechanical posses in cylinder-piston pair.
EFFECT: reduced mechanical losses, improved reliability of engine.
12 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; piston machines.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in piston machines for converting reciprocation of piston into rotation of shaft and conversion of rotation of shaft into reciprocation of piston in engines or compressors. Working chamber of piston machine is formed by piston crown and at least one cavity in cylinder head, or cylinder head and at least one cavity in piston crown, or at least two cavities, one in piston crown and the other, in cylinder head. Walls of chamber for each version are made mirror-like to reflect wave action, and cavities are made in form of pyramid, truncated pyramid, conical, truncated cone, hemisphere, spherical segment, paraboloid, stepped in longitudinal section of working chamber, or in form of spiral or ring groove in cross section of working chamber.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of conversion pf kinetic energy of working medium into useful work, increased power output and efficiency.
120 cl, 82 dwg