Field equipment and mode of seismic monitoring
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of seismic research and may be used at studying seismic field of natural or artificial origin.
SUBSTANCE: notified mode of seismic monitoring, in the algorithm of which an operation of calculating energy of seismic waves is additionally introduced with following registration of calculation results in the point of measuring for some beforehand installed interval of time chosen in dependence of frequency band of registered signals and prolongation of fading of a seismic wave to the background level at impulse impact. For carrying-out this function an additional energy calculating block is introduced in the field seismic registering equipment.
EFFECT: increases efficiency of transmission of seismic data to the collecting and processing post and increases duration of work of field registering apparatus in autonomous regime.
3 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to the field of seismic surveys and can be used in the study of seismic fields of natural or artificial origin.
It is known that seismic monitoring is a method that provides control of the characteristics of seismic vibrations from various sources of natural or artificial origin . The object of seismic monitoring of the spatial distribution of changes of properties of the studied environment over time. Variations of the medium parameters, such as those associated with the periodic change of the stress state of rocks, as a rule, are adequately displayed in the parameters and the structure of the wave field of the object of study, what is the geological basis of monitoring. From the point of view of physics based monitoring is the high sensitivity of rocks to movements of various kinds associated with structural features, texture, cracking, etc. In the study of geodynamic processes associated with seismicity or seismic emissions monitoring provides information on the stress sensitivity of the environment on the distribution of the stress field. Current seismic monitoring in the areas of oil and gas development, because the object of study - the actual oil and gas reservoir - aracterized contrasting manifestation of temporal changes in the structure of the field in the contacts area of oil, gas and water .
Special area of seismic surveys, received active development in the last decade, associated with human activity, which in modern cities with high population density may as world practice shows, significantly degrade the environment and, if you do not take timely and effective measures become a real threat to the health and lives of people. The need for seismic monitoring in the major cities is determined by the presence of permanent seismic loads on buildings and structures due to dynamic processes of the earth's crust. These processes largely can be strengthened as a result of anthropogenic activities: the creation of underground structures, pumping and pumping water, the impact of traffic flows, work, power plants, etc.
Thus, seismic monitoring currently known and popular as one of the ways long-term seismic studies, which in General can be algorithmization as follows (figure 1). The first step is acceptance and analog-to-digital conversion 1 seismic signals at the observation point, then the received data is written 2 and temporarily stored in the buffer memory, then transfer 3 data the collection and processing where the information is interpreted 4 in accordance with the specified requirements, at the last stage of the processing is given 5 to the user. Steps 1-3 are performed directly in the field and are an integral part of the operation algorithm of the Autonomous seismic recorder. When conducting areal monitoring of these registrars may be a set of R1, R2, ..., Rn. From the algorithm it is easy to see that for monitoring use of field seismic acquisition equipment R1-Rnwith integrated transfer device and the digital data, which performs steps 1-3, block data reception and processing performing step 4, and the device result, for example, in the form of a printout or image on the monitor screen stage 5. While registrars R1-Rnare standard well-known devices, such as domestic digital apparatus "Delta-Geon", which performs the receiving, recording to disk, and later transfer to the collection point (on average once per day) full seismic data two-wire communications line or telephone networks via a modem.
However, in some cases, when conducting monitoring there is no need to use the full seismic information, especially elibrarian is the task of the operational monitoring temporal changes of seismic activity fields of the investigated area, for example, monitoring the production of quarry blasts, in particular, if the quarry is located on insufficient distance from residential or industrial buildings. Another example is the monitoring of objects in the mine workings where there was a danger of spontaneous discharge voltage resulting from the artificial formation of empty spaces considerable volume within the mountain ranges.
The aim of the invention is to reduce the amount of memory required for temporary storage of digital information, increasing the efficiency of transmission of seismic data collection and processing and the increase in the duration field of the recording apparatus in offline mode. The goal is carried out by introducing the algorithm monitoring additional operations the calculation of the energy of seismic waves with the subsequent registration of the result of the calculation at the point of measurement for a certain, pre-determined time interval, determined by the bandwidth of the recorded signals and the duration of the attenuation of seismic waves to the background level when the pulse effect.
The operation of calculating the energy of seismic waves at the measurement point is performed as follows. On figa presents the seismogram of the event pulse from attack by the Oia, where T1and T3the time during which the recorded background signal values, a T2- the actual impulse responses with decay to the background level. From physics we know that the energy is directly proportional to the product of the amplitude of the signal at time:
where K is a proportionality constant that defines the vertical scale. Knowing the value of U at each point in time T, one can calculate the energy for the whole seismogram. In fact, it is the total area of the positive and negative half-wave signal. However, if we calculate the energy for all seismograms, we get a value that does not reflect the behavior of the signal. Obviously, we should calculate the energy in the window, the duration of which will allow you to display changes in energy levels adequately to changes in the signal on the original seismogram. Experience of research in this direction has shown that the optimum window, the duration of which is 2-10 visible periods of the initial wave phase (Ts figa)arising from pulsed exposure. On the other hand, the window should not exceed the time from the moment of occurrence of the wave to its attenuation (interval T2). On fig.2b,shows the histogram of the energy change calculated respectively for the window TWIN=0,T and TWIN=0,T. In the PE the first case, the calculation box contained 10 visible periods Ts, the second 5. Calculation of energy within each window was made by the formula (1) with regard to the digital data representation:
where ΔT - step discretization,modules amplitudes of samples of the signal inside the window WIN. Since K and DT are constants and are defined as parameters for cycle monitoring, evaluation operation energy is reduced to the simplest procedure summation of samples, which can provide real-time, virtually any modern micro-power controller.
Thus, for the proposed monitoring algorithm will look as shown in figure 3, where the additional operation of calculating energy 6, described above, is included between the receive operation and analog-to-digital conversion 1 and write procedure and temporary storage 2 data. The results of the calculation, i.e. sampling the energy calculated by the formula (2) in accordance with the established window TWIN: EWIN1EWIN2, ..., EWINmaccording to the above algorithm, are temporarily stored in memory until the data transmission at the point of collection and processing).
Since one of the main tasks of the monitoring is to study the changes in the intensity and structure of the seismic field in time, option to display the result in the item is receiving and processing data can be contour map of the energy field, when building which is synchronized all the arrays EWINreceived from registrars R1-Rn. To build a map you can use, for example, well-known computer program Surfer, preparing appropriate source arrays EWIN. These cards will be many, and each of them shows the distribution of seismic energy field at some time ti. Figure 4 illustrates changes in the activity and structure of the field over time: a sequence of maps showing the moments of t1, t2, ..., tn-1, tn. To build the dynamic picture is quite alternately displayed on the monitor screen prepared card in the direction shown by the arrow in figure 4. The animation that occurs when the frequency of change of images ≥24 fps. It should be added that when the mapping must take into account the constraint that imposes the source data array EWIN:tn-tn-1TWIN.
As noted above, when conducting seismic monitoring is commonly used well-known field seismic acquisition equipment, for example, described in , which consists of serial connected seismic sensor, the power amplification and filtering, analog-to-digital Converter, a memory unit for premanagement information and block transmission of digital data at the point of collection and processing. All blocks, except the seismic sensor, directs the controller. The functional purpose of the blocks is known and further description is not needed.
Figure 5 shows a block diagram of the field seismic acquisition apparatus designed for implementing the proposed method of seismic monitoring. The device consists of a serially connected seismic sensor 7, unit gain and filter 8, an analog-to-digital Converter 9, added unit 10 computing power, memory block 11 and block 12 of the digital data. In addition, the device includes a controller 13 control control outputs which are connected to corresponding inputs of all units, in addition to the seismic sensor.
The signal entering from the sensor 7, amplified, filtered and converted to digital form in blocks 8 and 9. The digital samples are received in block 10 of calculation energy calculation EWINaccording to the above algorithm. Thus, in block 10 calculate the energy converts samples of the amplitudes of the seismic signal in the sampling of the energy that are in the memory block 11, where it is stored until transmission of information collection and processing unit 12 of the digital data. Practically, the unit 10 is implemented on the micro is ontroller ATS, in the program memory which laid the algorithm for computing the energy.
The proposed method and field equipment seismic monitoring would greatly reduce the amount of required memory for intermediate storage of digital data. First of all, the reduction of volume due to the introduction of additional procedures (and the corresponding block in the hardware implementation) calculations and subsequent temporary storage of samples of the signal energy, and not the signal itself. The density of the data stream from the output of the computing unit of energy can be reduced by up to 2 orders of magnitude compared with the density at the output of analog-to-digital Converter. Specific density value is selected by the user and depends on the window calculate the energy, TWIN. If necessary and appropriate communication between the field recorders and data collection method can provide a visual representation of the changes in activity and structure of the seismic field in real time. Note that still get a similar report in real-time was not possible, since the density of information flow seismic signal samples from many field recorders are extremely high.
In addition, reducing the amount of memory required for temporary storage of Dan who's, virtually eliminates the problem of the autonomy of the use field recorders in the continuous monitoring mode. Only the criterion of the capacity of the battery intended to power the equipment. Considering the fact that field equipment is performed on a micro-power elements with minimal power consumption, battery life on the battery capacity of 12-16 And·h can be several months.
Sources of information
1. Seismic acquisition system using wireless telemetry. Patent US 6219620 B1, Apr. 17, 2001.
2. The team of authors. Seismic monitoring of the earth's crust. M., Institute of physics of the Earth, USSR Academy of Sciences, 1986. 290 S. - Prototype.
1. Method of seismic monitoring, namely, that consistently receive seismic signals from seismic sensors, analog to digital conversion of received signals, the entry and temporary storage of the data in the intermediate memory from which information is periodically transmitted at the point of collection and processing and the interpretation presented in the form of a graphic or a text report, characterized in that after the analog-to-digital conversion in it additionally, we introduce the operation of calculating the energy of the seismic signal with the subsequent entry of samples calculated energy into memory for temporary storage, and computation power p is otvoditsya in some, a predetermined window, taking into account the bandwidth of the recorded signals and the duration of the attenuation of seismic waves to the background level when the pulse effect.
2. Field seismic monitoring equipment containing successively United seismic sensor, the power amplification and filtering, and analog-to-digital Converter, and connected in series memory block and the block of digital data, in addition, the device includes a controller controlling the outputs of which are connected to the corresponding inputs of the power amplification and filtering, analog-to-digital Converter, a memory block and a block of digital data, characterized in that it additionally introduced computing unit of energy, the input connected to the output of the analog-to-digital Converter, and the output connected to the input of the memory block, while the control input the computing unit of energy is connected with the corresponding output of the controller.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method by transformation of excited and registered wave fields, amplitude-frequency and transfer characteristics of deposits of hydrocarbon resources are formed along lateral line and below face of control well, which are used to determine position and depth of oil-gas deposits. After transformation and comparison of frequency characteristics of longitudinal and transverse resilient oscillations, character of saturation and filtering-capacity properties of oil-gas deposits are determined.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher trustworthiness.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electromagnetic drive during selection of gap is provided with energy transformation mode with permanency of formed force, at which current il is measured in electromagnet excitation winding during operation of seismic source on soil. Then shift of antenna panel and deformation of soil is determined from current difference il proportional to them and from known current io in excitation winding, appropriate for operation of seismic source with immobile emitting plate.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used when prospecting oil and gas fields. Method is based upon forming of random wave field (microseism) on the base of microseisms received during seismic prospecting works at profile and area observations. Wave field is formed by creating series of time fields composed by totality of routes being equally distant from explosion site for areas, which are free of recording of regular waves, and summary time fields composed by seismograms of multiple overlapping integrated by the same point of reception. Received wave fields are subject filter filtration and spectral analysis. Parts of abnormal values of low-frequency component and specific energy of the component in total random wave field is determined. Gradients of spectra are determined and maps of those parameters distributed along the area are built. If drilled holes are available, correlation links of c calculated parameters are found and those data is used in complex interpretation of seismic prospecting works of materials or for expert evaluation and specification of given before drilling recommendations for search or survey holes.
EFFECT: simplified technology.
FIELD: oil geology, particularly to determine occurrence depths and relief structure of prospective geological horizons.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing seismic exploration; drilling wells; determining reflection horizon seam depth on the base of drilling data; obtaining dependence of above seam depth as a function of relief altitude and determining interval velocity of upper non-uniform layer for following subsurface geologic imaging.
EFFECT: increased accuracy.
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device has base, on which using two resilient supports and holder two connected oppositely magnetic systems are mounted, consisting of serially connected cylindrical magnetic duct, permanent magnet and polar headpiece. Also device has coil, first amplifier, output of which is connected to coil, two magnetic rod, light diode and two-area photo-diode, flat slit diaphragm, mounted between photo-diode and light diode on magnetic ducts so, that its plane is parallel to photo-detector areas, reducer engine, serially connected integrator, commutator, and second amplifier.
EFFECT: higher precision.
SUBSTANCE: method includes excitation of resilient waves and registering three-dimensional seismogram. Adjustable directional adding of seismogram channels is performed along two orthogonal directions with selection of regular waves and calculation of their beam parameters, which are used to determine planes, touching surface hodographs of each wave. Adding of each separated wave is performed along touching plane with increasing aperture and concurrent control of amplitude of total signal, maximum of which is used to determine radius of first Fresnel zone on three-dimensional seismogram. Effective speed of wave expansion is calculated.
EFFECT: higher precision.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises exciting seismic vibration by means of a seismic source, generating simultaneously electric field by means of at least two electrodes, recording seismic vibration at least once when current is supplied to the electrodes and at least once when electric power is not supplied to them, producing the difference of seismic records obtained in the presence and absence of electric field, and detecting anomalous phenomena from the variation of the amplitude of reflected waves of seismic and seismic-electric fields.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reduced cost of prospecting.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention is related to geophysics and may be used in the stratigraphy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on using the pattern, obtained by summing the continuity curves, presenting the seismic horizons. The aim of the summing consists in determining the geological layers, forming the seismic section in that state, in which they were deposited, but not in the state of their present observation. According to the proposed method it is achieved by conversion of the vertical scale of the seismic section (in the units of seismic time intervals) into the geological vertical scale (in the units of geological time intervals). The conversion is based on the flattening of histograms. The proposed method permits to determine the flattened seismic sections by using the flattened histograms. The flattened seismic sections are used for determination of the deposition rates, which had controlled the deposition of geological layers. In particular, the method permits to detect the geological faults, i.e. erosions and fall-through (gaps).
EFFECT: increased accuracy and reliability of seismostratigraphy.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing surface three-dimensional seismic operations using 3D longitudinal waves according to common-depth-point method, drilling wells with extraction of core, electric, radioactive, acoustic and seismic logging, testing of wells, research of core. On basis of total data from drilling and geophysical research of wells, and known criteria, presence of collectors, their capacity, penetrability, hydro-conductivity, oil productiveness, level of water-oil contact, position of oil fields, and also presence of correlative connection between capacity, hydro-conductivity and oil productiveness, are detected and/or estimated. According to data from acoustic, seismic and radioactive logging, and laboratory research of core, liquid models of target deposits are constructed, synthetic seismic trajectories are calculated, along which spectral-temporal analysis is performed and model seismic spectral-temporal and acoustic samples of oil-productive collectors are determined, which together form an oil bed. According to data from surface three-dimensional seismic 3D operations and results of common-depth-point method in area of wells experimental seismic spectral-temporal and pseudo-acoustic images of oil bed are determined. Acoustic and pseudo-acoustic images are estimated using bed-average acoustic and pseudo-acoustic speeds within target range of depths and times. Model seismic, well spectral-temporal analysis results and standard optimal specific results, acoustic and pseudo-acoustic speeds are correlated to capacity, hydro-conductivity, oil productiveness of collectors, regressive dependencies are set as well as mutual correlation coefficient. Along all trajectories of seismic temporal cube within target range of seismic record spectral-temporal analysis is performed and pseudo-acoustic conversions with determining of optimal specific results, pseudo-acoustic speeds and construction of cubes of spectral-speed attributes, which are recalculated to cubes of third powers of capacity, hydro-conductivity and oil productiveness of collectors.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher precision, higher trustworthiness, higher efficiency.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: seismograph can be used for registering horizontal vibrations generated by seismic waves from sources of natural and artificial origin. Seismograph has inertial mass and its arm till axis of oscillation, elongated arm of pendulum provided with fragment of soft magnetic cylindrical surface of rotation at its end which has radius being equal to elongated arm of pendulum. Mass of soft magnetic cylindrical surface of rotation is significantly smaller than inertial mass. Seismograph also has cylindrical magnetic III-shaped cross-section system in form of assembly made of central permanent magnet, inserted into cylindrical yoke made of soft magnetic material, unit for conversing oscillations of pendulum system to electric signal and electric signal amplifier.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation; preserved increment in period of self-oscillations.
FIELD: oil extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: displacement of front limits of pumped or contour waters is determined from data of vertical seismic profiling performed no less than two times. Each time identity of excitation conditions and oscillations receiving and observation system is maintained. Data for excluding remaining non-identity of excitation conditions and oscillations receiving are processed. Seismologic cross-sections are built, difference between them is calculated, which shows changes of front of pumped and contour waters.
EFFECT: simplified realization, lower costs.
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for conducting 2D, 3D, 4D seismic prospecting by means of multichannel telemetering seismic stations. Multichannel telemetering system for collecting seismic data has central seismic data control and registration device which has in turn excitation synchronizing system and control computer. Control and registration central control unit is connected with field control units due to trunk line communication channels. Field control units are connected with field registration devices through linear communication channels. Field registration devices are connected with group of geophones. Seismic data central control and registration unit has also trunk line controller which has the first input-output connected with input-output of control computer. The second and the third input-outputs are connected correspondingly with first and second trunk line channels and fourth input-output is connected with input-output of excitation synchronization system through wire.
EFFECT: improved efficiency and reliability of measurements.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has set of coaxially placed piezoceramic converters, connected to each other through mounting parts and fixed together by centering rod, pressurizing elastic cover with two end lids, filled with electro-isolating liquid. Each piezoceramic converter has shape of correct straight polyhedral prism, sides of which are made in form of piezoceramic plates. Connection of piezoceramic plates to mounting part is made with possible realization by piezoceramic plates of resilient transverse oscillations. Inner volumes of piezoceramic converters and volume, formed by their outer surface and elastic cover, have hydrodynamic connection.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
3 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has measuring tank and tachometer generator and pressure and temperature sensors on it. It is mounted at distance of one tubing pipe from extracting pump, where pressure is higher than saturation pressure, i.e. in one-phase liquid flow, and serves as connecting sleeve. At distance of two tubing pipes from deep station in connection sleeve additionally mounted is sensor of liquid hydrostatic pressure. Measurement of base parameters characterizing production of oil and gas product wells, is performed directly in the well close to position of extracting pump. Device allows to perform systematical measurements of product parameters individually for each product well at all stages of deposit extraction. Use of deep stations for measuring parameters of oil and gas wells product excludes use of expensive and complicated switching execution mechanisms of automated group measuring plants.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method is used for naval seismic prospecting for studying sections of sediments in seas in oceans to find sea hydrocarbon deposits. Method is based upon synergy of synchronous measurements by means of geophones mounted on the sea bottom and in towed scythes. Autonomous bottom seismic stations are used as bottom receivers mounted in specific areas. Far and nearer areas seismic towed scythes are used as multichannel receivers. Kinematical and dynamic parameters of the whole set of reflected, refracted, head longitudinal and lateral waves after being synchronously registered by autonomous bottom seismic stations and far and nearer area seismic scythes, are used for data interpretation. The whole set of data is subject to complex processing at synchronous registration along the whole wave field.
EFFECT: improved truth of results of measurements.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: source comprises vehicle with platform, control unit, falling mass set in the guiding pipe, emitting plate, wrench mechanism, rope which connects the mass with the drum of the wrench mechanism. The guiding pipe is provided with air-operated starting accelerator, chamber with exhaust ports, and device for locking mass in the top position. The starting accelerator is made of chamber with piston. The falling mass is locked in the pipe at the top level and hermetically closes the exhaust port made in the piston of the chamber.
EFFECT: improved design.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises partially submerged vessel, source of linear mechanical force whose first movable member is joined to the weight which can move upward and second one is joined with the striker-emitter. The bottom of the vessel is provided with port. The housing, which can be a part of the vessel, is secured to the bottom over periphery of the port. The housing received the submerged striker-emitter which is mounted above the port and can move downward. The striker is coupled with the weight through flexible members. The weight bears on the housing.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reduced service expenses.
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method can be applied at prospecting of oil and gas pools as in sedimentary and in metamorphic and crystal rocks. Seismic waves induced by seismic standard source close to surface are registered. Wave fields are formed from expected objects of reflection, diffraction and dissipation and parameters of processing are chosen in such a manner to provide better selection of modeled objects on the error background. Received parameters are used for processing real data and selecting real objects. Shapes of objects of dissipation are presented in form of maps and sectional views.
EFFECT: increased level of valid signal.
FIELD: protection aids.
SUBSTANCE: direction finder can be used for taking azimuth relatively guarded objects at guarded areas, calculating number of objects in group target and classifying found objects. Direction finder has two seismic receivers, two processing channels with delay lines and correlators, maximal signal selector, correlator, testing module, commutator and calculator. To realize the direction finding function the method of passive diversity detection and ranging is used. The main information criterion for finding direction to object has to be the function of mutual signals correlation in two signal processing channels. Value of azimuth is judged from value of signal delay. Change in value of signal delay is equivalent to controlling directional diagram of seismic active aerial which allows classifying detected objects separately. Test influence is used for adaptation of speed of propagation of seismic wave which changes under influence of meteorological conditions. Current value of speed of propagation of seismic wave is judged from time of delay of test influence signal coming to second seismic receiver. Tuning of lines of delay is conducted correspondingly to those changes.
EFFECT: improved precision of direction finding.
FIELD: seismic prospecting, applicable for excitation of seismic waves by on unexplosive seismic source with an electromechanical drive.
SUBSTANCE: in the claimed device the main and additional excitation windings are made in the form of excitation windings of direct and reverse motion of the radiator operating member. The device uses a commutating capacitor, which via the first commutating thyristor is connected to the excitation winding of the direct and reverse motion of the operating member, and via the second commutating thyristor - to the excitation winding of the direct and reverse motion of the operating member, the commutating capacitor is shunted by the series-connected third diode and the third inductance coil.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and repetition frequency of force actions, simplified control of the amplitude and duration of the excited seismic waves.