Field equipment and mode of seismic monitoring

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of seismic research and may be used at studying seismic field of natural or artificial origin.

SUBSTANCE: notified mode of seismic monitoring, in the algorithm of which an operation of calculating energy of seismic waves is additionally introduced with following registration of calculation results in the point of measuring for some beforehand installed interval of time chosen in dependence of frequency band of registered signals and prolongation of fading of a seismic wave to the background level at impulse impact. For carrying-out this function an additional energy calculating block is introduced in the field seismic registering equipment.

EFFECT: increases efficiency of transmission of seismic data to the collecting and processing post and increases duration of work of field registering apparatus in autonomous regime.

3 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of seismic surveys and can be used in the study of seismic fields of natural or artificial origin.

It is known that seismic monitoring is a method that provides control of the characteristics of seismic vibrations from various sources of natural or artificial origin [2]. The object of seismic monitoring of the spatial distribution of changes of properties of the studied environment over time. Variations of the medium parameters, such as those associated with the periodic change of the stress state of rocks, as a rule, are adequately displayed in the parameters and the structure of the wave field of the object of study, what is the geological basis of monitoring. From the point of view of physics based monitoring is the high sensitivity of rocks to movements of various kinds associated with structural features, texture, cracking, etc. In the study of geodynamic processes associated with seismicity or seismic emissions monitoring provides information on the stress sensitivity of the environment on the distribution of the stress field. Current seismic monitoring in the areas of oil and gas development, because the object of study - the actual oil and gas reservoir - aracterized contrasting manifestation of temporal changes in the structure of the field in the contacts area of oil, gas and water [2].

Special area of seismic surveys, received active development in the last decade, associated with human activity, which in modern cities with high population density may as world practice shows, significantly degrade the environment and, if you do not take timely and effective measures become a real threat to the health and lives of people. The need for seismic monitoring in the major cities is determined by the presence of permanent seismic loads on buildings and structures due to dynamic processes of the earth's crust. These processes largely can be strengthened as a result of anthropogenic activities: the creation of underground structures, pumping and pumping water, the impact of traffic flows, work, power plants, etc.

Thus, seismic monitoring currently known and popular as one of the ways long-term seismic studies, which in General can be algorithmization as follows (figure 1). The first step is acceptance and analog-to-digital conversion 1 seismic signals at the observation point, then the received data is written 2 and temporarily stored in the buffer memory, then transfer 3 data the collection and processing where the information is interpreted 4 in accordance with the specified requirements, at the last stage of the processing is given 5 to the user. Steps 1-3 are performed directly in the field and are an integral part of the operation algorithm of the Autonomous seismic recorder. When conducting areal monitoring of these registrars may be a set of R1, R2, ..., Rn. From the algorithm it is easy to see that for monitoring use of field seismic acquisition equipment R1-Rnwith integrated transfer device and the digital data, which performs steps 1-3, block data reception and processing performing step 4, and the device result, for example, in the form of a printout or image on the monitor screen stage 5. While registrars R1-Rnare standard well-known devices, such as domestic digital apparatus "Delta-Geon", which performs the receiving, recording to disk, and later transfer to the collection point (on average once per day) full seismic data two-wire communications line or telephone networks via a modem.

However, in some cases, when conducting monitoring there is no need to use the full seismic information, especially elibrarian is the task of the operational monitoring temporal changes of seismic activity fields of the investigated area, for example, monitoring the production of quarry blasts, in particular, if the quarry is located on insufficient distance from residential or industrial buildings. Another example is the monitoring of objects in the mine workings where there was a danger of spontaneous discharge voltage resulting from the artificial formation of empty spaces considerable volume within the mountain ranges.

The aim of the invention is to reduce the amount of memory required for temporary storage of digital information, increasing the efficiency of transmission of seismic data collection and processing and the increase in the duration field of the recording apparatus in offline mode. The goal is carried out by introducing the algorithm monitoring additional operations the calculation of the energy of seismic waves with the subsequent registration of the result of the calculation at the point of measurement for a certain, pre-determined time interval, determined by the bandwidth of the recorded signals and the duration of the attenuation of seismic waves to the background level when the pulse effect.

The operation of calculating the energy of seismic waves at the measurement point is performed as follows. On figa presents the seismogram of the event pulse from attack by the Oia, where T1and T3the time during which the recorded background signal values, a T2- the actual impulse responses with decay to the background level. From physics we know that the energy is directly proportional to the product of the amplitude of the signal at time:

where K is a proportionality constant that defines the vertical scale. Knowing the value of U at each point in time T, one can calculate the energy for the whole seismogram. In fact, it is the total area of the positive and negative half-wave signal. However, if we calculate the energy for all seismograms, we get a value that does not reflect the behavior of the signal. Obviously, we should calculate the energy in the window, the duration of which will allow you to display changes in energy levels adequately to changes in the signal on the original seismogram. Experience of research in this direction has shown that the optimum window, the duration of which is 2-10 visible periods of the initial wave phase (Ts figa)arising from pulsed exposure. On the other hand, the window should not exceed the time from the moment of occurrence of the wave to its attenuation (interval T2). On fig.2b,shows the histogram of the energy change calculated respectively for the window TWIN=0,T and TWIN=0,T. In the PE the first case, the calculation box contained 10 visible periods Ts, the second 5. Calculation of energy within each window was made by the formula (1) with regard to the digital data representation:

where ΔT - step discretization,modules amplitudes of samples of the signal inside the window WIN. Since K and DT are constants and are defined as parameters for cycle monitoring, evaluation operation energy is reduced to the simplest procedure summation of samples, which can provide real-time, virtually any modern micro-power controller.

Thus, for the proposed monitoring algorithm will look as shown in figure 3, where the additional operation of calculating energy 6, described above, is included between the receive operation and analog-to-digital conversion 1 and write procedure and temporary storage 2 data. The results of the calculation, i.e. sampling the energy calculated by the formula (2) in accordance with the established window TWIN: EWIN1EWIN2, ..., EWINmaccording to the above algorithm, are temporarily stored in memory until the data transmission at the point of collection and processing).

Since one of the main tasks of the monitoring is to study the changes in the intensity and structure of the seismic field in time, option to display the result in the item is receiving and processing data can be contour map of the energy field, when building which is synchronized all the arrays EWINreceived from registrars R1-Rn. To build a map you can use, for example, well-known computer program Surfer, preparing appropriate source arrays EWIN. These cards will be many, and each of them shows the distribution of seismic energy field at some time ti. Figure 4 illustrates changes in the activity and structure of the field over time: a sequence of maps showing the moments of t1, t2, ..., tn-1, tn. To build the dynamic picture is quite alternately displayed on the monitor screen prepared card in the direction shown by the arrow in figure 4. The animation that occurs when the frequency of change of images ≥24 fps. It should be added that when the mapping must take into account the constraint that imposes the source data array EWIN:tn-tn-1TWIN.

As noted above, when conducting seismic monitoring is commonly used well-known field seismic acquisition equipment, for example, described in [1], which consists of serial connected seismic sensor, the power amplification and filtering, analog-to-digital Converter, a memory unit for premanagement information and block transmission of digital data at the point of collection and processing. All blocks, except the seismic sensor, directs the controller. The functional purpose of the blocks is known and further description is not needed.

Figure 5 shows a block diagram of the field seismic acquisition apparatus designed for implementing the proposed method of seismic monitoring. The device consists of a serially connected seismic sensor 7, unit gain and filter 8, an analog-to-digital Converter 9, added unit 10 computing power, memory block 11 and block 12 of the digital data. In addition, the device includes a controller 13 control control outputs which are connected to corresponding inputs of all units, in addition to the seismic sensor.

The signal entering from the sensor 7, amplified, filtered and converted to digital form in blocks 8 and 9. The digital samples are received in block 10 of calculation energy calculation EWINaccording to the above algorithm. Thus, in block 10 calculate the energy converts samples of the amplitudes of the seismic signal in the sampling of the energy that are in the memory block 11, where it is stored until transmission of information collection and processing unit 12 of the digital data. Practically, the unit 10 is implemented on the micro is ontroller ATS, in the program memory which laid the algorithm for computing the energy.

The proposed method and field equipment seismic monitoring would greatly reduce the amount of required memory for intermediate storage of digital data. First of all, the reduction of volume due to the introduction of additional procedures (and the corresponding block in the hardware implementation) calculations and subsequent temporary storage of samples of the signal energy, and not the signal itself. The density of the data stream from the output of the computing unit of energy can be reduced by up to 2 orders of magnitude compared with the density at the output of analog-to-digital Converter. Specific density value is selected by the user and depends on the window calculate the energy, TWIN. If necessary and appropriate communication between the field recorders and data collection method can provide a visual representation of the changes in activity and structure of the seismic field in real time. Note that still get a similar report in real-time was not possible, since the density of information flow seismic signal samples from many field recorders are extremely high.

In addition, reducing the amount of memory required for temporary storage of Dan who's, virtually eliminates the problem of the autonomy of the use field recorders in the continuous monitoring mode. Only the criterion of the capacity of the battery intended to power the equipment. Considering the fact that field equipment is performed on a micro-power elements with minimal power consumption, battery life on the battery capacity of 12-16 And·h can be several months.

Sources of information

1. Seismic acquisition system using wireless telemetry. Patent US 6219620 B1, Apr. 17, 2001.

2. The team of authors. Seismic monitoring of the earth's crust. M., Institute of physics of the Earth, USSR Academy of Sciences, 1986. 290 S. - Prototype.

1. Method of seismic monitoring, namely, that consistently receive seismic signals from seismic sensors, analog to digital conversion of received signals, the entry and temporary storage of the data in the intermediate memory from which information is periodically transmitted at the point of collection and processing and the interpretation presented in the form of a graphic or a text report, characterized in that after the analog-to-digital conversion in it additionally, we introduce the operation of calculating the energy of the seismic signal with the subsequent entry of samples calculated energy into memory for temporary storage, and computation power p is otvoditsya in some, a predetermined window, taking into account the bandwidth of the recorded signals and the duration of the attenuation of seismic waves to the background level when the pulse effect.

2. Field seismic monitoring equipment containing successively United seismic sensor, the power amplification and filtering, and analog-to-digital Converter, and connected in series memory block and the block of digital data, in addition, the device includes a controller controlling the outputs of which are connected to the corresponding inputs of the power amplification and filtering, analog-to-digital Converter, a memory block and a block of digital data, characterized in that it additionally introduced computing unit of energy, the input connected to the output of the analog-to-digital Converter, and the output connected to the input of the memory block, while the control input the computing unit of energy is connected with the corresponding output of the controller.



 

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