Method of forming three-dimensional pictures (versions)

FIELD: decorations.

SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, wallpapers cut into rectangular strips are used as carrier.

EFFECT: improved quality of pictures.

4 cl, 8 dwg

 

The invention relates to optics and can be used in film, television, video industry, graphic and photographic arts, manufactures in the manufacture of wall coverings, ceiling coverings, tiles, decoration of apartments, offices and other premises and in other areas where the use of the cover with the two-dimensional images or two-dimensional image.

Known holographic method of obtaining three-dimensional visual image of the subject [1]. Its principle is based on the simultaneous recording in a special emulsion coating of the two light beams from the laser source, one of which carries information about the object, and the second is a reference that describes only the laser source. The size of the visible visual image will be determined by the dimensions of the emulsion coating to the base. Mandatory condition for obtaining a hologram is a recording in the emulsion layer of three-dimensional objects.

Three-dimensional visual image can be formed by the brain, if you use two two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional object obtained from two points of observation, location them side by side, the concentration of the view outside the plane of their position and obtain the three images, the average of which will be imposed [2]. It is one and the perceived three-dimensional vision of the way. If you place an overlay image at a distance of about 0.4-0.5 m from the face, without excessive strain on the eye muscles of the transverse dimension of each projection is limited to a value not more than 7-8 cm Hence, the sheets of any size and distance from the face of the observer not more than half of the three-dimensional image is limited to one sector with a transverse size of about 7-8 see the Remaining parts of the sheet will either be empty, or be perceived as two-dimensional image.

The principle of superimposed m - identical - similar copies of two-dimensional images, pereodicheski arranged in rows parallel to the axis of the human eye, also can produce three-dimensional visual image [3]. If you use the method of observation, as in the previous method, the entire General plan drawing (except the lateral border of intervals) becomes three-dimensional. However, the individual forming elements in a horizontal row remain two-dimensional. This method allows to obtain three-dimensional images as separate fragments, and composite figures.

A natural way of forming a three-dimensional visual image based on the mapping and processing by the brain information from two two-dimensional projections obtained with a linear shift equal to the distance axis between the pupils of the eyes, one three-dimensional object focused by the lens on the retina [4].This method selected prototype. In the normal observation images from two-dimensional drawings or images are perceived as two-dimensional.

Object of the invention is the provision of the necessary and sufficient conditions for obtaining three-dimensional images from a single two-dimensional image at a usual method of observation.

The task of the necessary conditions is solved by training the brain and its control in static and dynamic modes of perception, preparation of k-pereodicheski located identically similar horizontal structures, the concentration of the view outside the plane of the image, achievement for each element of the double overlay image, static, and dynamic in the process of manufacturing structures and obtaining three-dimensional images. The challenge of implementing sufficient conditions based on the formation of images on the desired patterns in static and dynamic modes of perception.

In the static mode of perception of images across the field of view of the problem of brain training is achieved using standard Wallpaper coatings, cutting them into n rectangular strips of length h(k) with match graphics in the horizontal direction, the transformation of the lower and upper edges at an angle α(k)cutting the outer parts along the lines of Transpo the information, the orientation of the sides of the strips at an angle α(k) to the horizontal and gluing them to the surface observations. When using identical copies of the rectangular image elements nenalezena plans static monitoring mode is implemented, consistent with the reversal of each copy in relation to the previous angle α. The static mode of perception of the image is as obtaining a minimum of three-dimensional images from three-dimensional objects when shooting with continuous shift in the horizontal direction and further their location in the plane of observation in the sequence corresponding to the shooting. In the dynamic mode of perception of images, the task of training the brain is achieved by shooting one camera video of three-dimensional objects with a continuous shift in the horizontal direction, is used as the plane of observation monitor screen or TV, the mounting of the material obtained so that the plane of observation simultaneously and continuously received at least three consecutive fragment corresponding to the horizontal offset of the camera. When using computer modeling dynamic mode is achieved by creating three-dimensional visualizations in k-horizontal rows of i is identical to the similar elements, the first of which, in each of the m number, is fixed, the second raspolagayutsya at a distance of tk(i)the orientation of the eye outside the plane of the monitor screen, forming superimposed images of the two elements, obtaining three images, the movement of the third and subsequent elements from the previous location at a distance of tk(i+1), which differs from the optimal-the eye tk(i) by an amount equal to ±Δtg(i). Or with the same method of observation and in the same sequence and location on the screen two copies, containing plans, and antimateriel transformation of their outer sides.

Sufficient conditions for obtaining a discrete three-dimensional images of individual characters provided nenalezena plans are carried out by the formation of character and line spacing, shape, number and size of the symbols. Continuous change three-dimensional images in superimposed plans is achieved by the formation of images by color, gradient color, intensity, and brightness, or use of structures with a fractal description of the image elements.

Figure 1 shows the principle of angular transformation of rectangular Wallpaper strip. Figure 2 shows the model generated Wallpaper space. Figure 3 shows the basic image elements nenalezena plans, projections formation is of middle and far plan and the conditions for constructing a composite image, obtained in figure 4. The number of images built with continuous spatial shift, given in figure 5. The principle of forming a computer simulation of the dynamic mode of perception with single objects shown in Fig.6, and the transformation of the sides of the identical images with fragments of future plans - 7. On Fig shows the conditions for the implementation of the formation of sufficient conditions in paragraph 10 and 11 of the formula.

Wallpaper space (Fig.1-2) is covered with working parts 1, between lines transformation LTR and LTR, and remove the 2 parts. The working parts 1 form a plane of stratification of the two-dimensional drawing I, II, III. Figure 3 base image (BI) is the first plan - 1 (cranes), the second is 2 (the bushes on the right), the third is 3 (three trees on the left), the fourth - 4 (three of a tree in the center), the fifth - 5 (single tree), the sixth - 6 (group of trees to the right), the seventh - 7 (dark vegetation on the top of the hill on the left), the eighth - 8 (top of the hill with a dark vegetation), to illustrate the type of image without angular spread formed two plan 9 (middle) and 10 (far), line angular transformation sides L.1 and L.2. One horizontal row of the image with a constant horizontal shift shooting formed six plots (figure 5). A computer model of the dynamic mode of perception (6) forms the tsya individual elements of the picture, placed in horizontal rows k1, k2, k3, k4, k5. Model by computer simulation in the dynamic mode of exercise (7) consists of two identical projections, which have transformed the lower (NP) and upper (EAP) part of the lateral sides, with the same middle part (SP). Fig has five consecutive fragments obtained during dynamic conditions, sufficient conditions for the method to work.

The generalized principle of the way to ensure the fulfillment of the necessary conditions is the following. It is based on a comprehensive approach to training and its control in static and dynamic modes of perception of images, with the formation of images on a full field of view or partial occupancy. First select training methods and basic image. The base image must contain elements that will indicate the first signs of the emergence of new abilities of the brain to form three-dimensional images. They will be used as a control fragments. Further, forming the images are placed according to the principles of optimal observation for eye muscles. In the next step, the view outside the plane of focus of their location and receive a three-dimensional superimposed images. For a static method of surveillance that occurs after the production of a comprehensive image of the clusters as for dynamic - in terms of building models or in the process of observation models. The training process ends when there are new items of three-dimensional images in the control fragments. However, they remain with ordinary methods of observation. The duration of individual training. In the future, all the image is built exclusively with the found dependencies similar to control slices.

Specific application build method of brain training with the use of Wallpaper coverings in the static mode of perception in the full field of view is as follows. First select the Wallpaper covering, whose elements are drawn. Then determine the conditions for obtaining a plane full field of view (D×H), which will serve as the base for brain training. Square full field of view is selected, the number of laminations k, which will form a three-dimensional visual image, their vertical dimensions - Δh(k) provided that ∑Δh(k)=N, the magnitude of the angles of transformation - α(k)that fall within the interval 0≤α(k)<arctan(h(k)/d). Based on the selected set of parameters is the number of bands in horizontal rows n(k)=Dcosα(k)/d, and the height of all the sets of strips - h(k)=Δh(k)/cosα(k)+Dtgαand(k). Then cut k - set is n(k) is identical strips of height h(k). On each strip all sets are line transformation LTR and LTR, which are cut remove the outer part 2. Line transformation parallel and pass through opposite vertices of the bands on the distance from the tops of the sides equal to Dtgαand(k). Next, each set of the remaining part 1 takes place on the corners α(k) so that the sides of the lanes were lines of transformation, were oriented horizontally, and they are all glued on a plane full field of view. Surface for training in the static mode of observation is ready.

A method of imaging a static exercise mode when using identical images with their angular transformation on the sides at an angle α (3-4) works well. First, for convenience of drawing on the basic image is the angular transformation along the lines L.1 and L.2. This is achieved by converting the rectangular image in keystone along the lines of transformations, oriented to the vertical at an angle α and passing from each top corner through the bottom base. Then, the converted image is copied as many times as needed. Two images that will be in the center, turn the corner α (right image, the left (counterclockwise), with the orientation of the abutting side shall thoron on the vertical. Left and right are attached two images deployed on a corner 3α, respectively etc. When this relative reversal of two adjacent copies is twice the angle of transformation. After connecting all copies together the picture is converted to a rectangular shape. The lower part is complemented by plans 9, period, location, 10-15% smaller than the lower bases of the trapezoid, the upper part of the 10 plans with a period approximately equal to the size of the upper base of the trapezoid. It is optimal to such a construction, where the angle of transformation of not more than three degrees, and the number of projections 5-6.

When implementing the method of training using the shooting of three-dimensional objects is recording their projections in the spatial movement of the camera. The best effect is achieved by choosing such subjects that have long-term plans, and when the vertical plane of the lens does not coincide with the movement direction vector. In addition, eyes without much inconvenience will perceive the change projections on separate frames in if they are from the transverse size of the boundary side edges or the relative change of individual items on neighboring frames do not exceed 10-15%. Figure 5 shows 6 frames satisfying the above conditions. The sequence obtained is output in this way, can be used for dynamic exercise mode. For this purpose it is necessary to fix a continuous plot of sufficient duration to produce a workout. Then choose the number of projections, which will be training. Further programs methods to mount the video so that each projection reproduces the plot at the same time, but to start they did with the personnel shift corresponding to the relative and boundary conditions the optimum perception image listed above. This will lead to the fact that each window will begin the change, but the relative shift of the stories will be constant, and one of his points is adequate depicted in figure 5.

Using computer simulation, first select the program that will be making the base image and exercise. For example, Photoshop, Word, or that another program, in which there is some set of symbols, characters and functions mashtabirovanie with controlled movement. For training apply at least two characters that differ in size by 2-3 times. For simplicity, they will be placed to the right or to the left of the free horizontal field. Further, they are copied and moved horizontally at a distance of T(i)equal to not less than its 3-5 transverse size, but no more than 8-10 cm with the account, so there were at least three horizontally. Copied a second time and moved to a distance that is different from T(i), but not more than 30%. Continue the process of ghosting characters and their placement on horizontal and vertical rows of full field of view with saving 30% of the range of variation of the distances between elements in horizontal and vertical rows. When training with two identical images with perspective on individual pieces, they are placed side by side. Next, the outer lateral sides begin to bend that provides the appearance of a three-dimensional visual image.

Figure 2 shows the specific model example made Wallpaper space full field of view. The principle of manufacture forming parts is given in figure 1. To build were selected Wallpaper with images of stars, the scale is different about three times. At a distance of 1.5-2 meters from the wall full field of view, forming a three-dimensional visual image that has dimensions D≈3 m, and N≈2,5 m If the width of the Wallpaper strip d=50 cm α=0-40°, n(k)=6-8. Select the three spatial planes of stratification of the visual image. First, the most distant and Central to this model is obtained by α=40° (figure I in figure 2). Stripes above and below it will be α=20° (II-n or II-b). And the most extreme does not have a corner transform is s (III-V and III-n). Total sets of bands is five. Cut identical strip length 0.7 m for III-V and III-n; 0.7 and 0.55 m (II-n or II-b) and 1.1 m for angle transformation 40°(I). Line transformation pass from opposite vertices stripes on the sides at distances to 0.19 and 0.42 m for angles of transformation 20 and 40° respectively. When splitting and superposition of images is three-dimensional visual image, which has three vertical plane bundles I, II and III. The figure is constructed so that the spatial separation of each plane should not be. Training of the visual channel of the brain is carried out when the orientation of the eye outside the plane of the drawing so that instead of two reference black vertical lines in the lower part of the figure first appeared four, and then average coincided and they became three. This is a necessary condition for obtaining three-dimensional images on two-dimensional images. When the addictive brain to these paintings to figure 2 will appear illusion of spatial separation of any of the three flat layers on the sizes of stars. After this level of fitness of the brain will be able to get the items of three-dimensional visualizations when considering two-dimensional images without ghosting effects and blending is identical similar to the horizontal elements. Figure 4 shows an example form the fragmented image, consisting of four full base images and two partial lateral boundaries, six complete copies of the middle image and four complete copies of the two partial copies of the plans far. The angle at which was held line transformation of the base image (figure 3)is about 3°. It is from this angle, but with the opposite sign from the vertical, deployed two middle images. Therefore, the relative angular transformation of the medium of copies between them will be 6°. With respect to a vertical line, the following two pairs of images deployed on 9 and 15° degrees, respectively. However, the relative angular transformation neighboring copies is constant and equal to 6° with two sides. Converted the base image has plans nenalogovye fragments 1; 2; 4; 5; 7; 8, blocked 3; and intermediate between them 6. The middle - 9, consisting of shrubs, and far - 10 of clouds do not have the angular transformation and used to compare different methods of imaging with three-dimensional visual images. During prolonged exercise with this image we obtain that for nenalezena projection image is formed by the continuous change of the three-dimensional image. While superimposed projection, especially 3, do not give such effect. They are almost totally the n identical planar stratification, generated plans 9 and 10. The proposed angular transformation is identical drawings can be applied to any types of drawings that have nenalezena fragments. Such a line-up of two-dimensional images allows you to get the illusion of a continuous three-dimensional visual image across the section of the picture. When implementing the method should take into account the limitation on the corner α, the optimal value of which 2-3 degrees. In addition, the best effect is seen in images with a predominance of vertical sizes of the fragments relative to the horizontal, and the optimal number of copies horizontally 5-6. This method is applicable to formation of Wallpaper to cover the full field of view.

Figure 5 shows the generated one row of six copies obtained when the camera is moving with the plane orientation of the lens at an angle of approximately 90 degrees to the displacement vector and hold the camera so that the building in the background is not changed their position in the frame. Front plans are modifiable. The sequence of frames corresponds to the path of the camera. After conducting the training process will begin to receive the visual image of the bushes in the foreground with the conventional method of observation. The best effect will be achieved when filling the same series, the entire area is locoste observation.

The difference between dynamic training method according to claim 5 is that on the monitor screen is at least three projections on which there is a change of subject, but their origin is shifted by the number of frames, which is offset from the lateral edge regions of the foreground in the range of 5-10 percent. For example, the first three shown in figure 5. And each of them demonstrates the plot, which are specified frames.

Figure 6 shows five mills computer model of the dynamic method of training. As items are selected identical mnogoluchevye stars. For the first number (k1), since the third element, the period t1 is increased by 30%, for the second (k2) t1 is reduced by 30%. On the second group of rows (k3-k5) shows option change period t2 (the number of k4) and a decrease (the number of k3) and the increase of 20% (k5). In the lower part of the figure contains two reference mark. The training process is the addictive brain to move within the specified limits of each of the third element of the series. Thus, when the oscillation interval of the period of each subsequent element, compared to the previous moving, this element creates the illusion of three-dimensional movement with respect to the plane of arrangement of the previous elements. This can be seen in the rows of k1 and k2. This opinion focuses HV the plane of the drawing so that instead of the two black lines in the lower part of the figure, they became 3. If the distance of the third item number k2 is less than t1, then this visual image is closer than the plane of the 1st and 2nd items. When approaching distance to the t1 image of the third element approaches the plane of the drawing, and then subsequent increase pushed the plane of the drawing, and upon reaching 1,3 t1 becomes at a level k1. Thus, it will proceed from the level of the three-dimensional image of a number of k2 to the location of elements of a number of k1. This is the essence of dynamic exercise mode.

Obtaining dynamic exercise mode two identical copies of a transformation of the lateral faces is shown in Fig.7. To do this, the selected one of the frames 5. He copied and they are close by. Divide the frame into three terms. The average will remain unchanged. The lower and upper transformed by the principle of symmetric distortion with changes in the external lateral sides of the projections. The training process consists of obtaining the three-dimensional spatial images superimposed image transformation sides. The control element is the sky background with the effect of detachment of clouds from him.

The individual elements perform sufficient conditions for forming three-dimensional images are present in all the examples. Illustrate the nd sufcient conditions for the formation of discrete images with nenalogovye plans is any printed text, including this. Letters, words, punctuation marks, in separate lines, symbols, shared line and character spacing. They differ in the shape, number and size. This and any other accidentally typed the text characterizes the three-dimensional visual image, resembling white noise. The best effect is achieved with the zoom list on the computer monitor especially with the signs of prepinaniya.

Forming a three-dimensional image with the presence of elements of color, gradient color, intensity, or brightness adding structures with fractal dependencies shown on Fig. It shows five consecutive fragments rotating globe with a picture of continents, oceans and clouds. In black and white there is a gradient black and white transitions from the clouds to the surface of the oceans or continents with a fractal dependence of the boundaries of the clouds. Sufficient conditions are like on the fixed image in the static mode, and when the rotation of the globe on the screen of the monitor or TV.

The proposed methods of brain training are not the only one. However, they are most suitable for the process of lifelong learning that can significantly reduce its duration. This particularly applies to the static principle of training with Wallpaper coverings. stroenie Wallpaper space according to claim 2 can be implemented for any type of Wallpaper and the most accessible to manufacture. As you can see, it generates a discrete plane of the lamination horizontal direction. There are ways of getting the planes of stratification on the vertical axis and the continuity changes of three-dimensional images vertically and horizontally. Such methods of forming Wallpaper coatings differ little from the standard.

For making the surface of the full field of view can be applied to other methods, coatings, images with similar or recurring elements in the horizontal direction. Option dynamic training (item 6) on the computer monitor based on the construction of models, location them on the best-perceived by the eye distances and movement at predetermined intervals. Without much difficulty, although with limited capacity, it can be repeated and manual method of training, when there is a sufficient number of sets of planar identical shapes. The main condition for building images for training in any of the modes is the presence of elements that will show the emergence of new qualities of the brain in the perception of three-dimensional images from two-dimensional images. Sufficient conditions for the formation of three-dimensional images are more generic and do not have clear boundaries. Note that deleted objects that we see in open areas, such as the stars and the clouds, represented by two-dimensional visual images. However, after this training process, it is possible for these objects to get the illusion of three-dimensionality.

The invention can be used in film, television, video industry, graphic and photographic arts, manufactures in the manufacture of wall coverings, ceiling coverings, tiles, decoration of apartments, offices and other premises and in other areas where the use of the coating with two-dimensional drawings or images, including when observing distant objects.

Sources of information

1. Nphmeleva and other Physical optics. Moscow: Mashinostroenie. 1991. S.

2. Three-Dimensional Magic Boris Vallejo. LLC "POTPOURRI". Minsk. 1996. C.11.

3. Three-dimensional Magic Boris Vallejo LLC "POTPOURRI". Minsk. 1996. C.12.

4. Dviwin. Optics. Moscow: Nauka. 1985. P.132.

1. The method of forming a three-dimensional image, which consists in obtaining the media image followed his visual observation, characterized in that as media use Wallpaper cover, the latter is cut into n rectangular strips of length h(K) with the possibility of a collision of the picture in the horizontal direction, and then transform the lower and upper faces at an angle αand(K), cut off the outer part of the TRANS the information, Orient the sides of the strips at an angle α(K) to the horizontal, and then paste on surface observations and form an image by superimposing two elements.

2. The method of forming a three-dimensional image, which consists in obtaining the media image followed his visual observation, characterized in that the image receiving through the camera at least three two-dimensional images from three-dimensional objects with a continuous shift in the horizontal direction and their location in the plane of observation in the sequence corresponding to the shooting, and the subsequent imposition formed of two elements.

3. The method of forming a three-dimensional image, which consists in obtaining the media image followed his visual observation, characterized in that as the carrier, use the monitor screen or TV, and the image get through shooting one camera of the three-dimensional video images with a continuous shift in the horizontal direction with the subsequent mounting of the received image when the visual observation on the monitor or TV submit simultaneously and continuously for at least three consecutive fragments obtained image corresponding to the horizontal offset is in the camera.



 

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