Seismic prospecting method
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used when prospecting oil and gas fields. Method is based upon forming of random wave field (microseism) on the base of microseisms received during seismic prospecting works at profile and area observations. Wave field is formed by creating series of time fields composed by totality of routes being equally distant from explosion site for areas, which are free of recording of regular waves, and summary time fields composed by seismograms of multiple overlapping integrated by the same point of reception. Received wave fields are subject filter filtration and spectral analysis. Parts of abnormal values of low-frequency component and specific energy of the component in total random wave field is determined. Gradients of spectra are determined and maps of those parameters distributed along the area are built. If drilled holes are available, correlation links of c calculated parameters are found and those data is used in complex interpretation of seismic prospecting works of materials or for expert evaluation and specification of given before drilling recommendations for search or survey holes.
EFFECT: simplified technology.
The invention relates to seismic exploration and can be used in the exploration of oil and gas fields.
There is a method of seismic exploration, which makes it possible to predict the spatial location of fractured-cavernous reservoir zones in the thickness of the massive rocks according to standard seismic two-dimensional and three-dimensional observations (patent No. 2168187, CL G 01 V 1/00).
The method includes seismic excitation signal, the recording of seismic fields and data processing, the selection of the diffuse components of the seismic field by eliminating the regular reflected and repeated waves of determining the energy and spectral characteristics, the degree of irregularity of seismic signals scattered components and abnormal values for these parameters, the selection of fractured-cavernous reservoir zones.
The disadvantage of this method is that there is no information about the hydrodynamic processes, always flowing in fractured media.
These processes give rise to an independent field of irregular waves (seismic noise), which registration and restoration of noise sources on them are made by the method of emission tomography, which is taken as a prototype (abstracts of the Second Russian-Chinese seminar "Optimization of exploration, R is trabocchi and exploitation of oil and gas geophysical research and technology", Moscow, 2000, p.36-40, Bsmbi, A.V.Nikolayev, Abermals (oil and gas research Institute of RAS), "Methods of seismic surveys, based on the principles of emission tomography"). The method includes forming a wave field of random waves by special registration gathers on the surface, highlighting it coherent component, mapping microseismic activity environment and tomographic images seismically noisy objects.
The disadvantage of this method is the inability to use archival materials previously seismic data for the analysis of field emission waves.
The objective of the invention is to simplify the technology through the use of standard seismic data, including archival materials on the previously performed studies.
The task is solved in that in the method of seismic exploration, including the formation of the wave field of random waves, mapping microseismic activity environment, according to the invention a random wave field wave form on the basis of seismograms obtained by seismic work under profile and areal observations of reflected waves by creating a series of fields, composed of the aggregate of runs equal distances from the shot point to the areas that are free from writing regular waves, and pivot the time the data fields, composed of seismograms multiple floors, all United by one point, perform frequency filtering, isolated areas of anomalous values of energy of the low-frequency component, determine its share in the total field of microseisms, determine the amplitude-frequency spectra and their gradients in the low frequency range, build maps of the distribution of these parameters on the area if the area has drilled wells are correlation parameters calculated from the test results and use this data as an additional prognostic parameters in integrated interpretation of seismic observations on the reflected waves or for additional expert evaluation of previously issued recommendations to the drilling of a prospecting or exploration wells.
Figure 1. see field seismograms obtained by the method of multiple slabs of common depth point (CDP) with the selected intervals (1-4), free from writing regular waves, which are used to form and field analysis of random waves (microseisms).
Figure 2 - shows the installation records of microseisms on slopes equal deletions (l=const), obtained from all seismograms on the profile with the record length 1 with filter 0-15 Hz, indicating the location of exploration wells drilled(304, 73, 18).
Figure 3 shows a map of what raspredeleniya the specific energy of the low-frequency component of the microseismic field area detailed 3D works.
Figure 4 shows the graph of the mapping shown in figure 3 parameter with daily well flow rates obtained during their trials.
The method is as follows.
Form of the wave field of random waves on the basis of seismograms obtained by seismic work under profile and areal observations, by creating a series of fields, composed of the aggregate of runs equal offsets in areas free from the records of regular waves (1, 2), and a summary of the temporary fields composed of seismograms multiple floors, all United by one point, which extends the length of the recording (and analysis) of microseisms in accordance with the frequency of the surveillance system.
Perform frequency filtering of the received wave fields with obtaining low-frequency component (0-10÷0-15 Hz), determine the specific energy of this component in the overall field of random waves as the ratio of the energy of the filtered route to the energy of the full field, calculate the amplitude-frequency spectra and their gradients in the low frequency range, build maps of the distribution of these parameters on the area and give them lots of abnormally high geodynamic activity environment (figure 3).
If the study area drilled wells build diagrams of correlation with the connection parameters of the geodynamic activity with those obtained by testing the flow rate (figure 4), allocate areas of high and a low prospects, precise location and sequence of drilling exploratory wells in the process of integrated interpretation of seismic observations on the reflected waves or use this data for additional expert evaluation of previously issued recommendations to the drilling of a prospecting or exploration wells.
It is known that oil and gas deposits, being unstable thermodynamic systems are sources of high level geodynamic noise, on the basis of a study which attempts their contouring. Among elevated values geodynamic noise inherent in the oil and gas deposits, there are sources of abnormally intense signals associated with active interactions at the contact of the oil(gas) - water, with pockets of intense gidroperita that can be nepreodolimymi channels, with zones of active geodynamic interactions of the different blocks of the environment determining the zone of maximum compression and rarefaction of the control zones of increased productivity deposits.
Examples of the practical application of the method.
This method was applied to predict the contours of deposits and allocation within highly productive zones in some areas of Western Siberia, including with the installed according to the drilling of oil what onestly.
As an example, a clear separation of local zones of increased noise levels, which are SCV and 18, which gave industrial (over 60 tons/day.) tributaries when testing the productive formation SC1, figure 2 shows the nature of recording low-frequency (0-15 Hz) component of the field of random waves (microseisms) on one of the profile 2D shooting. Here is shown the bore 73, located on the border of abnormal, but poorly intensive zone, which is on the horizon unproductive, but given the influx of 5.2 t/d of the underlying, with local development and less productive horizons HUC-2-9. Such montages and graphics intensity microseisms were built on all profiles of this area and used to justify the locations for new wells.
Areal distribution of specific energy low-frequency component (0-15 Hz) random waves (microseisms) section detailed 3D works on one of the squares of the Krasnoleninsky arch of the West Siberian plate shown in figure 3. The oil content of this area established according to the drilling, but is variable in size and generally low productivity.
Figure 4 is a graph that shows a clear correlation between the location of the more productive wells with areas of increased intensity of random waves and in which mo is but to say, what industrial inflows (over 5 tons/day) can be expected in areas where the relative option geodynamic activity of more than 0.8. Based on these data was conducted expert evaluation of previously issued recommendations on drilling new exploration wells clarifying provisions 2 and canceling the drilling of one well.
Thus, the proposed method, due to the use of spatio-temporal plots of seismograms obtained by seismic work, free from the records of regular waves, allows no additional cost on a special field observations to identify and delineate areas of anomalous values geodynamic noise on the surface and use the resulting data as additional parameters in the prediction of highly productive areas of oil and gas deposits.
Method of seismic exploration, including the formation of a random wave field waves (microseisms), mapping of microseismic activity environment, characterized in that the random wave field wave form on the basis of seismograms obtained by seismic work under profile and areal observations of reflected waves by creating a series of fields, composed of the aggregate of runs equal distances from the point of explosion in areas free from the write reg is regular waves, and summary of temporary fields composed of seismograms multiple floors, all United by one point, perform frequency filtering of this field, highlighting areas of anomalous values of the low-frequency component, to determine the specific energy of this component in the overall field of random waves, determine the gradients of the spectra, build maps of the distribution of these parameters on the square, in the presence of drilled wells are correlation parameters calculated from the test results of wells drilled and use these data in an integrated interpretation of seismic studies or for peer review and Refine previously issued recommendations to the drilling of a prospecting or exploration wells.
FIELD: oil geology, particularly to determine occurrence depths and relief structure of prospective geological horizons.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing seismic exploration; drilling wells; determining reflection horizon seam depth on the base of drilling data; obtaining dependence of above seam depth as a function of relief altitude and determining interval velocity of upper non-uniform layer for following subsurface geologic imaging.
EFFECT: increased accuracy.
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device has base, on which using two resilient supports and holder two connected oppositely magnetic systems are mounted, consisting of serially connected cylindrical magnetic duct, permanent magnet and polar headpiece. Also device has coil, first amplifier, output of which is connected to coil, two magnetic rod, light diode and two-area photo-diode, flat slit diaphragm, mounted between photo-diode and light diode on magnetic ducts so, that its plane is parallel to photo-detector areas, reducer engine, serially connected integrator, commutator, and second amplifier.
EFFECT: higher precision.
SUBSTANCE: method includes excitation of resilient waves and registering three-dimensional seismogram. Adjustable directional adding of seismogram channels is performed along two orthogonal directions with selection of regular waves and calculation of their beam parameters, which are used to determine planes, touching surface hodographs of each wave. Adding of each separated wave is performed along touching plane with increasing aperture and concurrent control of amplitude of total signal, maximum of which is used to determine radius of first Fresnel zone on three-dimensional seismogram. Effective speed of wave expansion is calculated.
EFFECT: higher precision.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises exciting seismic vibration by means of a seismic source, generating simultaneously electric field by means of at least two electrodes, recording seismic vibration at least once when current is supplied to the electrodes and at least once when electric power is not supplied to them, producing the difference of seismic records obtained in the presence and absence of electric field, and detecting anomalous phenomena from the variation of the amplitude of reflected waves of seismic and seismic-electric fields.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reduced cost of prospecting.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention is related to geophysics and may be used in the stratigraphy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on using the pattern, obtained by summing the continuity curves, presenting the seismic horizons. The aim of the summing consists in determining the geological layers, forming the seismic section in that state, in which they were deposited, but not in the state of their present observation. According to the proposed method it is achieved by conversion of the vertical scale of the seismic section (in the units of seismic time intervals) into the geological vertical scale (in the units of geological time intervals). The conversion is based on the flattening of histograms. The proposed method permits to determine the flattened seismic sections by using the flattened histograms. The flattened seismic sections are used for determination of the deposition rates, which had controlled the deposition of geological layers. In particular, the method permits to detect the geological faults, i.e. erosions and fall-through (gaps).
EFFECT: increased accuracy and reliability of seismostratigraphy.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing surface three-dimensional seismic operations using 3D longitudinal waves according to common-depth-point method, drilling wells with extraction of core, electric, radioactive, acoustic and seismic logging, testing of wells, research of core. On basis of total data from drilling and geophysical research of wells, and known criteria, presence of collectors, their capacity, penetrability, hydro-conductivity, oil productiveness, level of water-oil contact, position of oil fields, and also presence of correlative connection between capacity, hydro-conductivity and oil productiveness, are detected and/or estimated. According to data from acoustic, seismic and radioactive logging, and laboratory research of core, liquid models of target deposits are constructed, synthetic seismic trajectories are calculated, along which spectral-temporal analysis is performed and model seismic spectral-temporal and acoustic samples of oil-productive collectors are determined, which together form an oil bed. According to data from surface three-dimensional seismic 3D operations and results of common-depth-point method in area of wells experimental seismic spectral-temporal and pseudo-acoustic images of oil bed are determined. Acoustic and pseudo-acoustic images are estimated using bed-average acoustic and pseudo-acoustic speeds within target range of depths and times. Model seismic, well spectral-temporal analysis results and standard optimal specific results, acoustic and pseudo-acoustic speeds are correlated to capacity, hydro-conductivity, oil productiveness of collectors, regressive dependencies are set as well as mutual correlation coefficient. Along all trajectories of seismic temporal cube within target range of seismic record spectral-temporal analysis is performed and pseudo-acoustic conversions with determining of optimal specific results, pseudo-acoustic speeds and construction of cubes of spectral-speed attributes, which are recalculated to cubes of third powers of capacity, hydro-conductivity and oil productiveness of collectors.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher precision, higher trustworthiness, higher efficiency.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: seismograph can be used for registering horizontal vibrations generated by seismic waves from sources of natural and artificial origin. Seismograph has inertial mass and its arm till axis of oscillation, elongated arm of pendulum provided with fragment of soft magnetic cylindrical surface of rotation at its end which has radius being equal to elongated arm of pendulum. Mass of soft magnetic cylindrical surface of rotation is significantly smaller than inertial mass. Seismograph also has cylindrical magnetic III-shaped cross-section system in form of assembly made of central permanent magnet, inserted into cylindrical yoke made of soft magnetic material, unit for conversing oscillations of pendulum system to electric signal and electric signal amplifier.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation; preserved increment in period of self-oscillations.
FIELD: measurement engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device and method can be used for registering creeping processes and dynamic infra-processes as of natural and of artificial origin, for example, for registering seismic processes or infrasonic and gravitational waves. Device for measuring microscopic shifts has measuring member and sensitive element, membrane and signal former which has output connected with winding of fixing electromagnet. Device is additionally provided with pulling electromagnet, which interacts with measuring member. Winding of pulling electromagnet is connected with the second inverting input of signal former. Pulling electromagnet should be preferably disposed onto membrane to widen the range of microscopic shifts to be measured. Formation of oxide films and like films onto working surfaces of measuring and sensitive elements is prevented due to closure in space formed by case of the device and membrane. As a parameter used for quantization, the field emission current is taken. Shifts can be registered being within units of Angstroms range.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement in wide dynamic range.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: previously, approximate number of interferences subject to suppression in information receipt zone is determined, measurement of levels of total signal in N points near well is performed concurrently, where N is greater than number of interferences, subject to suppression, thereby forming one multi-component measurement. Then process of forming of multi-component measurement is repeated with frequency, not less than doubled maximal frequency of total signal spectrum and generated multi-component measurements are accumulated in amount determined by operator. Accumulated multi-component measurements are used as source data for calculation of coefficients for adaptive adder. Measuring process is continued, forming one count of useful signal of each next multi-component measurement with use of coefficients of adaptive adder. If interference suppression level is not high enough, all actions are repeated, with necessary changes of number and/or position of signal receipt points, approximation criterion, etc. method variant is different by number of points of signal receipt and method for forming multi-component measurement. Number of receipt points of signal is decreased to 1-3, and necessary number of counts for each multi-component measurement is accumulated by artificial change of electric resistance in zone of location of signal receipt points.
EFFECT: higher interference resistance, higher efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing three-dimensional seismic operations, drilling wells with taking of core, electrical, radioactive, acoustic and seismic logging, testing of wells. Seismic operations are performed in three-dimensional inter-well space by longitudinal waves on basis of common deep point method. According to data from drilling and geophysical well research standard model seismic and well spectral-temporal images of cracked argillaceous collectors are determined as well as their spectral-temporal attributes. According to data from three-dimensional seismic operations in zone of wells standard experimental seismic attributes are determined and their volumetric spectral seismic attributes on basis of use of spectral-temporal three-dimensional seismic data analysis in target recording interval and numeric estimation of its results. Following mutual correlation of values of coefficients of capacity differentiation and oil productiveness is performed on basis of data from drilling and geophysical wells research with standard model seismic, well spectral-temporal attributes and volumetric spectral-temporal seismic attributes according to three-dimensional seismic data. Optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes are selected with greatest mutual correlation coefficients and regressive dependencies of optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes are built, or of a complex attribute, with values of coefficients of capacity differentiation and oil-productiveness of cracked argillaceous collectors according to drilling data and geophysical well research. Along al routes of seismic temporal cube spectral-temporal analysis is performed and its numeric spectral-temporal parameterization on basis of optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes, or a complex attribute, with construction of attributes cubes and following recalculation thereof according to regressive dependencies to cubes of coefficients for capacity differentiation and oil productiveness.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher precision.
FIELD: oil extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: displacement of front limits of pumped or contour waters is determined from data of vertical seismic profiling performed no less than two times. Each time identity of excitation conditions and oscillations receiving and observation system is maintained. Data for excluding remaining non-identity of excitation conditions and oscillations receiving are processed. Seismologic cross-sections are built, difference between them is calculated, which shows changes of front of pumped and contour waters.
EFFECT: simplified realization, lower costs.
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for conducting 2D, 3D, 4D seismic prospecting by means of multichannel telemetering seismic stations. Multichannel telemetering system for collecting seismic data has central seismic data control and registration device which has in turn excitation synchronizing system and control computer. Control and registration central control unit is connected with field control units due to trunk line communication channels. Field control units are connected with field registration devices through linear communication channels. Field registration devices are connected with group of geophones. Seismic data central control and registration unit has also trunk line controller which has the first input-output connected with input-output of control computer. The second and the third input-outputs are connected correspondingly with first and second trunk line channels and fourth input-output is connected with input-output of excitation synchronization system through wire.
EFFECT: improved efficiency and reliability of measurements.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has set of coaxially placed piezoceramic converters, connected to each other through mounting parts and fixed together by centering rod, pressurizing elastic cover with two end lids, filled with electro-isolating liquid. Each piezoceramic converter has shape of correct straight polyhedral prism, sides of which are made in form of piezoceramic plates. Connection of piezoceramic plates to mounting part is made with possible realization by piezoceramic plates of resilient transverse oscillations. Inner volumes of piezoceramic converters and volume, formed by their outer surface and elastic cover, have hydrodynamic connection.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
3 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has measuring tank and tachometer generator and pressure and temperature sensors on it. It is mounted at distance of one tubing pipe from extracting pump, where pressure is higher than saturation pressure, i.e. in one-phase liquid flow, and serves as connecting sleeve. At distance of two tubing pipes from deep station in connection sleeve additionally mounted is sensor of liquid hydrostatic pressure. Measurement of base parameters characterizing production of oil and gas product wells, is performed directly in the well close to position of extracting pump. Device allows to perform systematical measurements of product parameters individually for each product well at all stages of deposit extraction. Use of deep stations for measuring parameters of oil and gas wells product excludes use of expensive and complicated switching execution mechanisms of automated group measuring plants.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method is used for naval seismic prospecting for studying sections of sediments in seas in oceans to find sea hydrocarbon deposits. Method is based upon synergy of synchronous measurements by means of geophones mounted on the sea bottom and in towed scythes. Autonomous bottom seismic stations are used as bottom receivers mounted in specific areas. Far and nearer areas seismic towed scythes are used as multichannel receivers. Kinematical and dynamic parameters of the whole set of reflected, refracted, head longitudinal and lateral waves after being synchronously registered by autonomous bottom seismic stations and far and nearer area seismic scythes, are used for data interpretation. The whole set of data is subject to complex processing at synchronous registration along the whole wave field.
EFFECT: improved truth of results of measurements.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: source comprises vehicle with platform, control unit, falling mass set in the guiding pipe, emitting plate, wrench mechanism, rope which connects the mass with the drum of the wrench mechanism. The guiding pipe is provided with air-operated starting accelerator, chamber with exhaust ports, and device for locking mass in the top position. The starting accelerator is made of chamber with piston. The falling mass is locked in the pipe at the top level and hermetically closes the exhaust port made in the piston of the chamber.
EFFECT: improved design.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises partially submerged vessel, source of linear mechanical force whose first movable member is joined to the weight which can move upward and second one is joined with the striker-emitter. The bottom of the vessel is provided with port. The housing, which can be a part of the vessel, is secured to the bottom over periphery of the port. The housing received the submerged striker-emitter which is mounted above the port and can move downward. The striker is coupled with the weight through flexible members. The weight bears on the housing.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reduced service expenses.
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method can be applied at prospecting of oil and gas pools as in sedimentary and in metamorphic and crystal rocks. Seismic waves induced by seismic standard source close to surface are registered. Wave fields are formed from expected objects of reflection, diffraction and dissipation and parameters of processing are chosen in such a manner to provide better selection of modeled objects on the error background. Received parameters are used for processing real data and selecting real objects. Shapes of objects of dissipation are presented in form of maps and sectional views.
EFFECT: increased level of valid signal.
FIELD: protection aids.
SUBSTANCE: direction finder can be used for taking azimuth relatively guarded objects at guarded areas, calculating number of objects in group target and classifying found objects. Direction finder has two seismic receivers, two processing channels with delay lines and correlators, maximal signal selector, correlator, testing module, commutator and calculator. To realize the direction finding function the method of passive diversity detection and ranging is used. The main information criterion for finding direction to object has to be the function of mutual signals correlation in two signal processing channels. Value of azimuth is judged from value of signal delay. Change in value of signal delay is equivalent to controlling directional diagram of seismic active aerial which allows classifying detected objects separately. Test influence is used for adaptation of speed of propagation of seismic wave which changes under influence of meteorological conditions. Current value of speed of propagation of seismic wave is judged from time of delay of test influence signal coming to second seismic receiver. Tuning of lines of delay is conducted correspondingly to those changes.
EFFECT: improved precision of direction finding.
FIELD: seismic prospecting, applicable for excitation of seismic waves by on unexplosive seismic source with an electromechanical drive.
SUBSTANCE: in the claimed device the main and additional excitation windings are made in the form of excitation windings of direct and reverse motion of the radiator operating member. The device uses a commutating capacitor, which via the first commutating thyristor is connected to the excitation winding of the direct and reverse motion of the operating member, and via the second commutating thyristor - to the excitation winding of the direct and reverse motion of the operating member, the commutating capacitor is shunted by the series-connected third diode and the third inductance coil.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and repetition frequency of force actions, simplified control of the amplitude and duration of the excited seismic waves.