Method of direction finding of radiosignal source

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for systems for finding of location of radio signal radiation sources. Method includes receiving of radio signal by means of three non-directional aerials which form ring-shaped equidistant mesh, measuring phase difference among signals from aerials for all the bases formed by reference and other aerials of mesh and finding of primary estimation of direction finding to the source taking those phase differences into account. Aerial signals are additionally and simultaneously conversed into sum-difference signals due to subtraction of reference aerial signal from signals of other aerials. Then signal differences received are added in the first channel and subtracted in the other one and complex amplitude of sum-difference signals Sm are measured. Amplitudes are conversed in the neighborhood of primary estimation of direction finding θ^ into complex angular spectrum of , where m=1, 2 is number of sum-difference channel, θ is possible values of direction finding to source of θ^-π/2<θ<θ^+π/2, D·1(θ)= cos (√3πR/λ·sinθ)-exp(i3πR/λ·cosθ), D·2(θ)= isin(√3πR/λ·sinθ)are directional patterns of sum-difference channels, λ is radiation wavelength, R is radius of mesh. Direction finding is estimated from location of maximum of complex angular spectrum module. Location of maximum of complex angular spectrum module is estimated relatively primary estimation of direction finding by introducing correction in form of relation of first and second derivatives, V(θ^)' and V(θ^)'' correspondingly, of module of complex angular spectrum for direction finding in point of its primary estimation of ▵θ= V(θ^)'/V(θ^)''. Values of first and second derivatives V(θ^)' and V(θ^)'' of module of complex angular spectrum are determined from values of complex angular spectrum in close neighborhood of primary estimation of direction finding V(θ^)'=(V(θ^+δ)-V(θ^-δ))/2δ, V(θ^)''= =(V(θ^+δ)-V(θ^-δ-2V(θ^))/δ², where δ is differentiation constant.

EFFECT: improved precision of direction finding.

3 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to radio engineering, in particular to radio direction-finding, and can be used in systems determine the location of the emitters.

There is a method of finding the source of the radio signal, including coherent reception and simultaneous registration of signals for all databases, educated and support all members of the grid antennas, measuring, using Fourier transform, the complex amplitudewhere m=1, 2, ..., N - number of antennas, the multiplication of the complex amplitude on the antenna patternthe definition for the possible values of bearing θcomplex angular spectrum according to the formulathe module which determine the bearing to the source of radiation [RF Patent №2158002, G 01 S 3/14, 5/04, 1999].

The disadvantage of this method is the low accuracy of direction finding, due to the mutual influence of the antennas in the lattice, causing distortion of the electromagnetic field of the signal at the locations of the antennas. The disadvantages of the method include the relative complexity associated with the need to perform a high volume of operations on the signal, especially when a large number of antennas.

The closest in technical essence to the present invention is a method of finding the source of happy is signal, includes radio reception with three omnidirectional antennas, forming a ring equidistant grid, measuring the phase difference between the signals of the antennas for all databases, educated support and other antenna grid, and define them for the initial evaluation of bearing on the source, and signals the module to the phase difference between them is minimal, summarize, measure the phase difference between the signal that are not within the selected pair, and the total signal, and the bearing of the source of the radio signal determined by the values of the phase difference, the phase difference between the selected pair of signals, and also the angular position relative to the reference point direction of the signal, not included in the selected pair [RF Patent №2124215, G 01 S 3/00, 1998].

Due to the decrease in the number of antennas, this method is less complicated to implement, but it has low accuracy direction finding due to the mutual influence of antenna elements. For typical conditions, the accuracy of direction finding is 5-10°.

The objective of the invention is to improve the accuracy of finding the source of the radio signal.

This is achieved by the known method of finding the source of the radio signal, which consists in the reception signal with three omnidirectional antennas, forming a ring equidistant grid, measuring the phase difference between signal is Alami antennas for all databases educated support and other antennas lattice, and defining thereon initial evaluation of bearing on the source, optionally simultaneously, the signals of the antennas is converted into a total-difference signals by subtracting the signal of the reference antenna from signals of other antennas, the summation of the received difference signals in the first channel and subtracting the second to measure the complex amplitude of the sum-dierence signalsthat transform, in the vicinity of the initial evaluation of bearingin the complex angular range

where m=1, 2 - number total-differential channel,

θ - possible values bearing on the source

the pattern of total differential channels, λ is the wavelength, R is the radius of the lattice,

and evaluate the bearing to the source at the position of the maximum of the module of the complex angular spectrum

moreover, the position of the maximum of the module of the complex angular spectrum of the signal is evaluated relative to the initial evaluation of bearing the introduction of amendments as the ratio of the firstthe secondthe derivative module integrated angular spectrum for the bearing at the point e is on the initial evaluation

and the values of the firstand the secondderivatives module integrated angular spectrum of the bearing is determined by the modulus of the complex angular spectrum in the closest neighbourhood of the initial evaluation of bearing

where δ - constant differentiation.

Comparative analysis of the claimed solution with the prototype shows that the proposed method differs from the known presence of, first, new actions on signal: signal conversion antennas in total-difference signals, converting them into complex angular spectrum evaluation of bearing on the source position of the maximum of the module of the complex angular range, in particular based on the ratio of first to second derivative module integrated angular spectrum (bearing), which is determined by the modulus of the complex angular spectrum, and secondly, new modalities of action: a transformation in the complex angular range in the vicinity of the initial evaluation of the bearing, the definition of derivative in the closest neighbourhood of the initial evaluation of the bearing.

The study of other known technical solutions in this field of technology the mentioned set of features, atricauda the invention of the prototype, was not identified.

In formed on the proposed rule sum-dierence signals in virtue of the symmetrical arrangement of the antenna elements are compensated components due to reflections of the signals from the antennas and the Central mast on which is mounted antenna array. Sum-dierence signals are not correlated. Statistical synthesis for these conditions necessitates the evaluation of the bearing based on the maximization of the integrated module of the angular spectrum. However, such an assessment is not straightforward, and takes into account the involvement of rough, but unambiguous initial evaluation of the bearing.

It is the use of compensatory properties of the sum-dierence transformation, in accordance with the proposed new actions on signal and the conditions of their implementation, allows to increase the accuracy of direction finding up to complete elimination of errors caused by the mutual influence of the antennas and the Central mast.

Figure 1 shows a structural diagram of a device that implements the proposed method, figure 2 - structural diagram of a variant of construction of the angular spectrum analyzer in figure 3 - structural diagram of a variant of the build definition block bearing, figure 4 - photograph of the designed antenna array figure 5 - experimental results in the form of zavisimost is her error finding from the direction to the source for prototype (marked by crosses) and the proposed method (marked by circles).

A device that implements the proposed method contains (1): antenna 1.1-1.3, connected 3-channel receiver unit 2, block initial evaluation of the bearing 3, the measure of the phase difference 4.1, 4.2, adders 5.1-5.2, myCitadel 6.1-6.4, the device 7 determine the function arctan x/y item scale 8, measuring the complex amplitude 9.1, 9.2, the angular spectrum analyzer 10, the block defining a bearing 11. The angular spectrum analyzer 10 includes (figure 2): a storage device of the directional diagrams 12.1-12.2, multipliers 13.1-13.2, Quad 14.1-14.2, adders 15.1-15.2, the scale elements 16.1-16.2, the device module definition of complex quantities 17, the device taking the square root of 18 and the divider 19. The unit 11 determine the bearing (figure 3) includes: a determination device of the first derivative 20, the determination device of the second derivative 21, a divider 22 and myCitadel 23. Devices 21, 22 define derivatives include delay elements 24.1-24.4, myCitadel 25.1-25.3, the adder 26, the scale elements 27.1-27.2. Block initial evaluation of the bearing 3 includes a measure of the phase difference of 4.1-4.2, the adder 5.1, myCitadel 6.1, item scale 8 and the device 7.

Measuring the phase difference of 4.1, 4.2 first inputs connected via the receiving device 2 to the antenna 1.1 (reference), and their second inputs through the channels of a receiving device according to the ntenna 1.2 and 1.3. The meter output is the phase difference of 4.1 through the adder 5.1, and 4.2 meter through myCitadel 6.1 and element 8 is connected to the first and second inputs of the device 7, the output of which is connected with the first inputs of the blocks 10 (memory devices 12.1, 12.2) and 11 (first input vicites 23). Antenna 1.2 and 1.3 through the receiving device 2 is additionally connected respectively to the first inputs of vychitala 6.2 and 6.3, and the antenna is 1.1 - to their second inputs. The output of vicites 6.2 (6.3) connected to the first input of block 5.2 (6.4) and the second input unit 6.4 (5.2). The output of the adder 5.2 is connected via measuring the complex amplitude 9.1 with the second input of the analyzer 10 (first input of the multiplier 13.1 ), and myCitadel 6.4 through the meter 9.2 - with a third input of the analyzer 10 (first input of the multiplier 13.2), the output of which (divider 19) is connected to the second input of the block 11 defining a bearing (input elements 24.1, 24.3). The output of the storage device 12.1 (12.2) is connected with the second input of the multiplier 13.1 (13.2) and the input of the Quad 14.1 (14.2). Outputs Quad 14.1 and 14.2 is connected to the first and second inputs of the adder 15.2, Quad 14.1 - directly and 14.2 - through item 16.2. The outputs of multipliers 13.1 and 13.2 are connected to first and second inputs of the adder 15.1, multiplier 13.1 - directly and 13.2 - through item 16.1. The outputs of adders 15.1 and 15.2 are connected to first and second inputs of the divider 19, the adder 15.1 - nepo is directly, and 15.2 - through device 18. The delay elements 24.1 and 24.2 (24.3 and 24.4) are connected in series and connected to the first input of vicites 25.1 (25.3). Inputs elements 24.1 and 24.3 connected to the second inputs of vychitala 25.1-WHT item 24.3 via the first input vicites 25.2 connected to the first input of the adder 26, the second input of which is connected to the output of vicites 25.3. The output of vicites 25.1 and adder 26 through the elements respectively 27.1 and 27.2 connected to the first and the second input of the divider 22 and through him to the second input of vicites whose output is the output of the block defining a bearing 11 and the device in General.

Antenna 1.1-1.3 are symmetric vibrators placed on the circumference at equal mutual distance, forming an equidistant grid fixed in the center on the mast. The appearance of such an antenna system is shown in figure 4. One of the antennas 1.2 support is oriented from the center of the circle to the North. The reference bearing and numbering other antennas clockwise with increasing numbers. The receiving device 2-channel type channel setup on the frequency of received signals. Measuring the complex amplitude 9.1, 9.2 digital type, can be performed according to the variant shown in [Poberezhskiy HP Digital receiving device. M, Radio and communications, 1987, p.67-68, RES], or, as in the similar, using the converted is adowanie Fourier. The scale elements 8, 16.1-16.2, 27.1-27.2 provide a multiplication of the input variable to a constant, implemented on the multipliers and have the following transmission ratios in accordance with the specified order:Other elements of the device are standard.

The principle of operation of the device is as follows. Radio transmitters accept using antennas 1.1-1.3, convert and amplify in the receiving device 2, the output of which receive the signals of the antennas of the form:

whereis the complex amplitude of the signal in the reference secluded antenna

f is the frequency of the output signal of the receiving device

ϕ10) - phase multipliers determined by the position of the antenna (l=1, 2, 3) and mast (l=0),

θ0the bearing on the radiation source,

,the coefficients of mutual influence of the antennas and the Central mast.

The coefficients of mutual influence of the antennas are the same because of the symmetry of the antenna array and identity antennas, and phase multipliers are determined by the following relations:

where R is the radius of the lattice,

λ - wavelength radiation.

In blocks 4.1 and 4.2 measure the phase difference between reference signals 1.1 and antennas is 1.3, 1.2: Δϕ13that Δϕ12. After the formation of their amount in box 5.1 and difference

in box 6.1, the normalization device 8 and determine the arctangent relations unit 7 receives an initial assessment of the bearing to the source:

In the absence of noise and the mutual influence of the antennas, when the coefficients,equal to zero, equation (3) gives the exact direction when the General limitations:characteristic of the prototype, but is implemented with the involvement of fewer operations. In the General case, the mutual influence of elements of the antenna system leads to errors in the initial evaluation, shown in figure 4 crosses.

Subsequent processing involves performing a linear transformation of the signals of the antennas in total-difference signals. When this signal is the reference antenna 1.1 (output receiving device) in blocks 6.2, 6.3 subtracted from the signals of the antennas 1.2 and 1.3, the resulting difference signals are summed in the adder 5.2 in the first channel and subtracted in block 6.4 in the second channel with the formation of the sum-dierence signals:

In the absence of noise, these signals are described by the relations:

wherethe amplitude of the signal at the output of Amarna-differential channels

and

the pattern of total differential channels.

According to the formula (5), the amplitude of the sum-dierence signalsdoes not depend on the coefficient of mutual influence of the mast, and the mutual influence of the antennas is reflected only in its the same scaling on the output channel.

In measuring the complex amplitude 9.1, 9.2 eliminates high-frequency carrier signal by a known transformation of the form:

where m=1, 2 - number total-differential channel,

T - time of measurement.

In the absence of noise are:

When using digital processing circuit values of the complex amplitude gain in digital form.

The transformation (4) and then (6) provides an important property of correlativeness noise total differential channels. Thus, the noise variance in channel 1, relative to the noise in the receiver is increased 6 times, and channel 2 is doubled. Statistical synthesis of these conditions leads to the necessity of determining the bearing on the basis of maximizing the possible directions θ source module integrated angular spectrum of the form:

Complex angular spectrum characterizes the distribution of the intensive the spine of the received signal on possible areas of his coming. For its determination in the storage devices 12.1, 12.2 of the spectrum analyzer 10 pre-write values charts,. Since the transformation (4) the original number of channels is reduced, the definition of bearing will be ambiguous. To disambiguate the module definition of the complex angular spectrum carried out in the vicinity of the initial evaluation of bearing:

According to (8), the error of the initial evaluation must not exceed modulo value π/2.

Accordingly in the vicinity of the initial evaluation of bearing on the basis of the data unit 7 reads information from the memory devices 12.1, 12.2.

After measurement of the complex amplitudes is carried out sequentially for each possible value of the bearing processing in blocks 13.1, 13.2, 15.1, 17, and 14.1, 14.2, 16.2, 15.2, 18, 19 in accordance with rule (7). Nachine module integrated angular spectrum receives the output of the analyzer 10.

In the definition block bearing 11 on the position of the maximum of the module of the complex angular spectrum estimate the bearing to the source. In a variant the execution of the position of the maximum of the module of the complex angular spectrum signal appreciate the introduction regarding the initial evaluation of bearing amendment (block 23) in the form of relations (the floor is up in the divider 22) the first (get in the block 20) to the second(unit 21) the derivative of the modulus of the complex angular spectrum for the bearing at the point of initial evaluation:

The values of derived module integrated angular spectrum of the bearing is determined by the modulus of the complex angular spectrum in the closest neighbourhood of the initial evaluation of bearing:

where δ - constant differentiation.

For this purpose, the elements 24.1, 24.2 and 24.3, 24.4 implement the delay values of the module of the complex angular spectrum in the vicinity of the initial evaluation of bearing on the value of δ and using myCitadel 25.1, item 27.1 determine the first derivative, and using vychitala 25.2, 25.3, adder 26 and item 27.2 - second derivative. Thus, in this embodiment, it is sufficient to estimate only three values of the modulus of the complex angular spectrum, which simplifies the implementation of the method. The value of the constant differentiation is determined by the allowable error in the determination of the bearing. So, to ensure the error is not less than 0.2° it is necessary to ensure δ≤10°.

At the final stage, the resulting correction is subtracted from the initial evaluation:

displaying the results on the ar device.

To evaluate the technical result (precision direction finding)achieved by the proposed method, experimental field studies with the use of an antenna array of the form of figure 4. The distance between the antenna grid is 1.6 m System consists of symmetric dipoles with a length of 2.4 m and a diameter of 1.6 cm, mounted on a mast height of 4.7 m the Results showed that in the frequency range 84-128 MHz module coefficients of mutual influence of the antennas and masts reaches values of 0.15 and 0.25, and the error of the estimate bearing - size 5-10°. The latter is illustrated by figure 5, which shows the dependence of the accuracy of direction finding (the difference between the measured and the true bearing from bearing on the control source. For the prototype when assessing the bearing according to rule (3) results marked by crosses. Circles highlighted similar data for the proposed method. It is seen that the proposed method provides improved precision direction finding with a baseline error of about 10 degrees up to a full compensation of the errors of mutual influence, when there are only errors of the noise character of the order of fractions of degrees.

1. The method of finding the source of the radio signal including a radio reception with three omnidirectional antennas, forming a ring equidistant grid, the receiving device, measuring the phase difference between the signals of the antennas, for all databases, educated support and other antennas ring equidistant grid, and define them for the initial evaluation of bearing on the source signal, wherein the simultaneously formed at the output of the receiving device to the first and second total differential channels, the radio antenna is converted into a total-difference signals by subtracting the signal of the reference antenna from the radio signals of other antennas, the summation of the received difference signal in the first channel and subtracting the second to measure the complex amplitude of the sum-dierence signalsthat transform in a neighborhood ofinitial evaluation of bearingin the complex angular range

where m=1, 2 - number total-differential channel, θ - possible values bearing on the source of the signal,the pattern of total differential channels, λ is the wavelength, R is the radius of the lattice,is the imaginary unit, and estimate the bearing to the source of the radio signal according to the position of the maximum of the module of the complex angular spectrum.

2 the Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the position of the maximum of the module of the complex angular spectrum signal appreciate relative to the initial evaluation of bearing the introduction of amendments as the ratio of the firstthe secondthe derivative module integrated angular spectrum for the bearing at the point of initial evaluation

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the values of the firstand the secondderivatives module integrated angular spectrum of the bearing is determined by the modulus of the complex angular spectrum in the closest neighbourhood of the initial evaluation of bearing

where δ - constant differentiation.



 

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