Face-type electrical machine with built-in braking device

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed face-type electrical machine has single-disk stator and single-disk rotor, as well as reliable built-in braking device affording motor stopping as soon as field winding is deenergized. Rotor disk is coupled with rotor shaft through splined joint admitting axial displacement of rotor disk relative to shaft. Braking device disposed on one of bearing end-shields of machine frame is equipped with adjusting members enabling desired positioning of rotor disk inside annular space of machine and adjustment of brake spring pressure. Shaped supports are used for installing stator core separated from rotor core by air gap which are rigidly coupled with stator core and are free to displace relative to bearing end-shield whereon they are all secured upon setting desired air gap.

EFFECT: reduced size, facilitated maintenance, enhanced operating reliability.

6 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to electrical engineering, namely mechanical electrical machines with a single rotor and a single stator. It can be widely used in those industries that use equipment that require rapid deceleration of the drive shaft after disconnecting the machine from the power supply, and transport and lifting mechanisms.

Known mechanical electrical machine with a single rotor, for example [1-2], do not have built-in braking devices which would work if the power failure of the stator winding and cause the braking of the rotating inertia of the inertial mass associated with the shaft of the rotor. The need for quick stopping of the rotor of the motor may be caused by reasons of technological nature, for example, when using the drive in the textile and light industry or transport, and in connection with the safety requirements in the operation of electrically driven devices in various industries.

Also known actuator for intermittent operation mode [3], containing asynchronous mechanical motor and electromagnetic clutch and brake. This drive is used when you want to be repeatedly switching on and off of the output in the La, characteristically, in particular, for sewing equipment. A feature of the drive is continuous rotation of the rotor of the electric motor. The advantages of this drive is achieved at the expense of design complexity compared to mechanical electrical machines that do not have devices on / off, and use of electromagnetic clutch and brake.

However, the known electric machines, which have built-in braking unit, which are involved in the braking mode when the power failure of the stator winding. The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is an electric machine with a built-in braking device [4] to a quick stop. Its the brake device comprises a brake pad mounted on the bearing shield and anchor, made in the form of a ring covering shorting sleeve of the rotor, mounted for movement on the shaft between the rotor and the brake pad. When the anchor is in the deenergized condition of the machine is pressed against the brake pad spring placed on the output shaft between the base of the armature and the rotor. Brake design is intended for use in electric machines traditional cylindrical shape performance. To release the rotor of the electric machine is a consequence of the attraction of the armature of the brake device to the rotor is not used all the magnetic flux, but only part of it branches off into the anchor, i.e. the flux.

The spring force which is overcome by the force of attraction of the armature to the rotor is determined by that part of the magnetic flux. Because it is small compared with the main magnetic flux, the spring force used to compress the anchor to the brake pad into braking mode may not be sufficient to create the necessary friction between the surfaces of the armature and the brake pads and the corresponding braking torque for a quick stop of the rotor. In addition, the diameter of the brake pads, coaxially with the shaft of the rotor of the electric machine has a cylindrical shape, not to exceed the diameter of the rotor. Consequently, to generate sufficient braking torque requires a large contact force of the contacting surfaces of the armature and the brake pads. With a small spring force, the design parameters which are determined by the magnetic flux, branches off in the anchor fast enough lockup of the rotor may be attainable. Using the same in this construction, the supporting elements in the form of pins mounted on the inner side of the short ring rotor winding and interacting with surfaces shaped grooves made in the inner ring of the anchor, leads to conditions is to design a braking device and may not provide the desired force pressing the contacting surfaces of the base anchor and brake pads. The disadvantage of the proposed braking device is its use only in non-reversing drive. In this invention there is also no device for adjusting the efforts of the pressing spring brake device.

The invention solves the problem of creating electrical machines mechanical form with single-disk rotor in either direction of its rotation, equipped with more reliable compared to the prototype of built-in braking device, as well as improving the operational reliability of electric machines in General and simplify its design.

This is achieved by the mechanical electrical machine containing mixed case consisting of two rigidly interconnected load-bearing panels and forming a Central annular cavity within which one bearing shield pinned magnetic circuit of the stator winding, and the other placed the brake device, single-disk rotor with a hub carrying a magnetic circuit with squirrel-cage winding is separated by an air gap of the magnetic circuit of the stator, a hollow rotor shaft, bearing, provided with an adjusting device for changing the magnitude of the air gap between the working surfaces of the magnetic circuits of the stator and rotor, unlike the prototype, the hub of the disk rotor and the rotor shaft with rajini to each other via a splined connection, allowing axial displacement of the rotor disc relative to the shaft of the rotor, brake pad mounted on the shield casing of the electric machine by adjusting the stops, each of which contains a stepped roller, a cylindrical projection which enters into the inner bore of the shield, the adjusting nut and locknut to secure the stop in the shield, and the brake plate is rigidly connected to the cylindrical protrusion of the roller inside the annular cavity of the housing of the electric machine, and an adjusting nut covers the outer part of the roller and restricted against axial displacement relative to it through the washer and Circlip. Spring brake device covers the hub of the rotor disc and housed in an outer cylindrical cavity of the shield casing of the electric machine, which carries the adjusting stops the brake pads. At one end of the spring is pressed against the rolling ring thrust bearing mounted in the cylindrical cavity of the shield, and the other end of the spring through the support ring is pressed against the inner ring of the angular contact bearing mounted on the hub of the rotor disc and held against axial displacement of the adjusting nut with locknut, screw on the tail section of the hub of the rotor disc.

Inside the cylindrical cavity of the bearing shield body electric machinization stationary ring, covering the spring brake device, and on the outer ring of the angular contact bearing set associated annular sleeve having free axial movement within the cylindrical cavity of the shield, and between the ends of the stationary ring and the sleeve in the de-energized state of the electric machine has an air gap, the value of which is less than the magnitude of the air gap between the surfaces of the magnetic circuits of the stator and rotor on the size of the working gap between these surfaces during rotation of the rotor.

On the face plane of the rotor disc from the brake pads rigidly fixed annular hardened plate, which is in tight contact with the brake pad to the de-energized state of the electric machine.

The rotor shaft associated with the hub of the rotor disc by means of the spline connection, supported by bearings, one of which (angular contact) covers the hub of the rotor disc and its inner ring and serves as a support for the spring, and the second (radial) is placed in the bearing shield is installed on the magnetic core of the stator, and prevents axial displacement of the rotor shaft.

The magnetic core of the stator to the bearing shield machine body is fixed by means of shaped supports, having the form of plates, rigidly connected with the magnetic circuit of the stator and operasi is camping on the ends of the set screws, screwed into the shield from the outside, each bearing has in its middle part, a cylindrical projection with a threaded end portion which enters the opening in the shield and is used for fixing the supports relative to the sheet due to tightening of the threaded connection.

The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which shows a General view of the mechanical electrical machines with built-in braking device and its longitudinal section.

Prefab housing of the electric machine consists of rigidly interconnected load-bearing panels 1 and 2, forming a Central annular cavity. Inside this cavity shield 1 through group supports 3 has a stator laminated core 4 with m-phase excitation winding. Support 3 to the magnetic core 4 is attached rigidly to form a single structure. The rotor of the electric machine consists of a Central disk 5 with the hub 6 and the shaft 7 of the rotor, which are connected with each other through a spline connection 8, permitting axial displacement of the rotor disc relative to the shaft. Inside the annular bore of the rotor placed his magnetic core 9 with squirrel-cage winding, separated in a de-energized state of the electric machine from the magnetic core 4 of the stator air gap Δ1. For installation clearances Δ1between working surfaces of the cores 4 and 9 in de-energized condition the machine are set screws 10 and nuts 11, as well as cylindrical protrusions 12 of the supports 3 of the magnetic circuit 4 of the stator, provided with threaded sections and included into the holes of the support plate of the stator. The threads of these ledges provided with nuts 13 elements in their locking after tightening threaded connections. The disk rotor by the brake pads fixed annular hardened plate 14 and tight in the deenergized condition of the machine to the braking plate 15, having a steel substrate 16 and is rigidly connected with the stepped rollers 17 adjusting the stops. Each adjusting focus in addition to the roller 17 includes a nut 18, the nut 19, the washer 20 and the retaining ring 21. And nut 18 screwed into the wall of the support plate 2, movably associated with the roller 17, but has no axial displacement relative to the platen. The cylindrical protrusion 22 of each roller 17 is included in a corresponding annular bore of a bearing Board 2, thereby providing stiffness brake pads 15.

The base of the shaft 7, the associated splined connection 8 to the hub 6 of the disk 5 of the rotor in the bearing shields 1 and 2 of the housing of the electric machine is carried out by means of a radial bearing 23 mounted in the wall of the shield 1 with the glass 24 and the cover 25, and the radial-thrust bearing 26, covering the hub 6 of the rotor disc and housed in an outer cylindrical cavity of the shield 2. Inside the same cavity installed thrust bearing 27 and posted by the spring 28 of the braking device. One end of the spring (in the drawing at the left) is drawn in to the rolling ring thrust bearing 27, and the other by the adjusting ring 29 to the inner bearing ring 26. Inside the outer cylindrical cavity of the shield 2 is pressed stationary ring 30, covering the spring 28, and the outer ring of the angular contact bearing 26 posted by sleeve 31, with the possibility of axial displacement together with the bearing 26. In de-energized state of the electric machine between the ends of the ring 30 and the sleeve 31 has an air gap Δ2. For fixing this gap are nut 32 and the nut 33, and to control it in the wall of the cylindrical cavity threaded hole closed by a threaded plug 34.

In order to cool the heating elements in the design of the machine provides slovencina cooling system that includes a network of ducts and cavities, connected between themselves and the surrounding atmosphere. At the same time to move the coolant flows within the Central annular cavity of the machine rotor disk provided with a ventilation blades 35, 36, and for the supply of cooling air mass into the Central annular cavities are holes made in the walls of the shields of the housing of the electric machine and the wall of the hollow shaft 7 of the rotor (in the drawing, the input overstep shown). For the discharge of heated air from a Central annular cavity of the housing of the electric machine provides a window 37, 38, performed on the peripheral wall of the bearing shields.

The hollow shaft 7 of the rotor has two internal splined section 39, 40 and one outer section 41, for connecting with the Executive mechanisms.

Electric machine operates as follows.

When connecting the electric machine to the network in the windings of the magnetic circuit of the stator occurs inrush current exceeding the rated current operating mode of machine operation, resulting in a strong magnetic field, under which the disc rotor to the hub performs axial displacement on the shaft splines of the rotor in the direction of the magnetic stator and moves away from the brake pads 15. When this occurs, additional compression of the spring 28. The sleeve 31 connected with the outer ring of the bearing 26, is moved and its end abuts against the end face of the ring 30. Gap Δ2disappears, and between the working surfaces of the cores 4 and 9 set the working gap Δequal to the difference between clearances Δ1and Δ2which is maintained during rotation of the rotor under the action of a rotating magnetic field, as the small size of the gap Δ the attractive force of the magnetic circuit 9 of the rotor to the stator laminated core 4 eno is on to hold the rotor in position. This corresponds to the gap between the plate 14 of the rotor disc and the brake pad 15, equal to the value Δ2.

When the power failure of the stator winding from the network magnetic flux that hold the rotor in position, disappears. As a result, the spring 28 causes axial displacement of the rotor disc 5 with the hub 6 in the direction of the brake pads 15 on the value Δ2. The friction surfaces of the coupling plates 14 of the rotor disc and the brake pads 15, is pressed by the force of the spring 28, the stop of the rotor. This corresponds to the axial clearance Δ2between the ends of the ring 30 and the sleeve 31.

The bearing 23 mounted in the wall of the support plate 1, holds the rotor shaft against axial displacement. This bearing does not test action of the axial forces, which contributes to increase the service life of the electric machine.

The installation of the initial efforts of the preload of the spring 28, corresponding to the gap Δ2between the ring 30 and the sleeve 31, is produced by a nut 32 and nuts 33, screw on the threaded end section of the hub 6 of the disk 5 of the rotor.

As wear of the brake lining 15 gap Δ2increases. To compensate for this wear use the adjustment stops the brake pads. Nuts 19 these stops turn, the nut 18 screw in the wall of the support plate 2 of the vehicle body on the right in the mask, causing axial displacement of the disk 5 of the rotor hub 6 to achieve the necessary clearance values Δ2controlled through the hole in the wall of the cylindrical cavity of the bearing shield, subsequently closed by a threaded plug 34. After making the desired adjustment, the lock nut 19 is tightened.

Installation clearance Δ1between the surfaces of the cores 4 and 9 is carried out in the following sequence. If the gap Δ1it is necessary to reduce, weaken the nuts 13 of the supports 3 of the magnetic circuit 4 of the stator and lock nuts 11 set screws 10. This was followed by screwing the set screws 10 in the wall of the support plate 1 is called the offset of the magnetic circuit 4 inside the annular cavity of the electric machine to the required value. After installing the necessary clearance values Δ1controlled measuring probes through the window 37 on the peripheral wall of the bearing shields, produce a tightening of the lock nuts 11 and nuts 13.

If necessary, increase the gap Δ1the nuts 11 and nuts 13 weaken, the set screws 10 turn by an amount corresponding to the offset of the magnetic circuit 4 of the stator, after which the nut 13 povertyvajut on the threads of the cylindrical protrusions 12 of the supports 3 of the magnetic circuit 4, causing a shift in the direction of shield 1 until it stops its support 3 in the ends of ustanovocnyj screws 10. Upon reaching the desired value of the gap Δ1the nut 11 and the nut 13 is tightened.

Supports 3 of the magnetic circuit 4 of the stator rather simple in design and allow you to align the value of the air gap Δ1relative to the working plane of the magnetic circuit 9 of the rotor throughout its circumference.

The presence of open cavities between the supports 3, the basis of the magnetic circuit 4 and the shield 1 stator provides intensive cooling of the magnetic core 4 and its field winding in the passage of the cooling air flows inside the annular cavity of the machine and driven in the direction from the center to the periphery of the vent blades 35, 36 of the rotor disc.

The brake device of the electric machine is driven by a spring force which does not depend on the magnetic flux, branches off in the anchor brake, as in the prototype, and from the total magnetic flux permeating the working air gap of the electric machine. As a consequence, ceteris paribus, the spring force can be made greater than in the prototype, and therefore, in the proposed design of electrical machines is achieved faster stopping of the rotor the power to the stator winding.

The brake device works when lobanovruslan rotation of the rotor. The proposed construction of the electric machine is quite simple and high-tech for industrial development. It is small, easy to service, and due to the presence of the adjusting device is structurally simple and reliable, high maintainability, which has certain technical and economic value.

Sources of information

1. Russian Federation patent RU №2058655 C1, MKI H 02 To 5/16, 17/00, 1996, bull. No. 11.

2. Russian Federation patent RU №2140700 C1, MKI H 02 To 5/173, 5/16, 17/16, 1999, bull. No. 30.

3. Russian Federation patent RU №2199176 1, MKI H 02 To 17/32, D 05, 69/10, 2003, bull. No. 5.

4. Russian Federation patent RU №2041548 C1, MKI H 02 To 7/102 // F 16 D 55/02, 1995, bull. No. 22 (prototype).

1. Mechanical electrical machine with integrated braking device containing mixed case consisting of two rigidly interconnected load-bearing panels and forming a Central annular cavity within which one bearing shield pinned magnetic circuit of the stator winding, and the other placed the brake device with a brake pad, single-disk rotor with a hub carrying a magnetic circuit with squirrel-cage winding is separated by an air gap of the magnetic circuit of the stator, a hollow rotor shaft, bearing, provided with an adjusting device for changing the value of the hcpa what's the gap between the working surfaces of the magnetic circuits of the stator and rotor, characterized in that the hub of the disk rotor and a rotor shaft coupled to each other via a splined connection permitting axial displacement of the rotor disc relative to the shaft of the rotor, brake pad mounted on the shield casing of the electric machine through the medium of the adjusting lugs, each of which contains a stepped roller, a cylindrical projection which enters into the inner bore of the shield, the adjusting nut and locknut to secure the stop in the shield, and the brake plate is rigidly connected to the cylindrical protrusion of the roller inside the annular cavity of the housing of the electric machine, and an adjusting nut covers the outer part of the roller and restricted against axial displacement relative to it through the washer and Circlip.

2. Electric machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the spring brake device covers the hub of the rotor disc and housed in an outer cylindrical cavity of the shield casing of the electric machine, which carries the adjusting stops the brake pads, and one end of the spring is pressed against the rolling ring thrust bearing mounted in the cylindrical cavity of the shield, and the other end of the spring through the support ring is pressed against the inner ring of the angular contact bearing mounted on the hub of the rotor disc and held against axial displacement regulating the internal nut with locknut, screw on the tail section of the hub of the rotor disc.

3. Electric machine according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the inside cylindrical cavity of the bearer of the shield casing of the electric machine pressed stationary ring, covering spring brake device, and on the outer ring of the angular contact bearing set associated annular sleeve having free axial movement within the cylindrical cavity of the shield, and between the ends of the stationary ring and the sleeve in the de-energized state of the electric machine has an air gap, the value of which is less than the magnitude of the air gap between the surfaces of magnetoroton stator and rotor on the size of the working gap between these surfaces during rotation of the rotor.

4. Electric machine according to claim 1, characterized in that on the end plane of the rotor disc from the brake pads rigidly fixed annular hardened plate, which is in tight contact with the brake pad to the de-energized state of the electric machine.

5. Electric machine according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the rotor shaft associated with the hub of the rotor disc by means of the spline connection, supported by bearings, one of which (angular contact) covers the hub of the rotor disc and its inner ring of the case, is it a support for the springs, and the second (radial) is placed in the bearing shield is installed on the magnetic core of the stator, and prevents axial displacement of the rotor shaft.

6. Electric machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the magnetic circuit of the stator to the bearing shield machine body is fixed by means of shaped supports, having the form of plates, rigidly connected with the magnetic circuit of the stator and resting on the ends of set screws screwed into the shield from the outside, each bearing has in its middle part, a cylindrical projection with a threaded end portion which enters the opening in the shield and is used for fixing the supports relative to the sheet due to tightening of the threaded connection.



 

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