Electromechanical modulator of difference of lengths of interference meter shoulders

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has signal form generator, power amplifier and electromechanical block, including first fixed magnetic system and first coil of current-conductive wire, additionally included are integrator and corrector of amplitude-frequency characteristic of electromechanical block, and block also has second fixed magnetic system and second coil of current-conducting wire, rigidly and coaxially connected to first coil. Connection of first and second coils with fixed base is made in form of soft suspension with possible movement of first and second coils, forming a moving part of modulator, relatively to fixed magnetic systems, while output of said signal shape generator is connected to direct input of integrator, inverse input of which is connected to speed sensor of moving portion of modulator, output of integrator is connected to input of corrector, to output of which input of said power amplifier is connected.

EFFECT: higher precision.

3 cl, 8 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of instrumentation, namely, devices for controlling the phase of the wavefront of the light beam in the interferometer by means of mechanical oscillations of one of the mirrors of the interferometer, and can be used to measure correlation and spectral parameters in optical circuits even with low-coherence radiation sources, as well as in interferometry in the study of the internal structure of objects and technical diagnostics, for example, for process control.

The invention is aimed at providing more rigid compliance of the law of motion of triangular law (on the period of oscillation during the first half period of the motion is at a constant speed in one direction, during the second half in the opposite direction, i.e. the speed is changed according to the law of the meander) when the modulation position of the mirror in the reference arm in highly sensitive interferometry in the scheme with the Michelson interferometer at a sufficiently high frequency modulation. Ensuring strict compliance with the law of motion triangular important, first, to obtain high sensitivity of reception of the interference signal as stability at high speed moving mirror respectively high and the stability of the Central nervous system is the first Doppler frequency of the interference signal, which can pass through a narrow-band radio filter and without loss of information about the amplitude to increase the dynamic range of the measuring circuit. Secondly, strict compliance with the law of motion triangular important when such use Electromechanical modulator, when the investigation of the correlation characteristics of the radiation source the necessary stability of the scanning speed to ensure strict correspondence between spatial and temporal intervals, which time intervals between pulses to determine their separation in space, i.e. their correlation characteristics. High frequency modulation of the mirror position necessary for a quick scan, which allows to eliminate the influence of low-frequency mechanical noise: the higher the velocity of the mirror, the smaller its relative fluctuations due to external low-frequency noise. Moreover, increased visibility and ease of visualization of the interference images. However, there are difficulties due to the fact that at high modulation frequencies provisions mirror the response of the mechanical oscillatory system, which is the movable part of the modulator, ceases to repeat the law governing force. In addition, the Electromechanical modulator must obl is to provide high angular stability axis to ensure the coherence of the phase fronts of the interfering beams for the full-scale modulation.

Known modulator that allows you to change almost businessone the arm length of the interferometer, and hence the difference between the optical lengths of the shoulders is at least several tens of operating wavelengths of the interferometer. This modulator is made in the form of fiber-optic controlled delay lines based on optical fiber piezoelectric transducer and is used in an optical interferometer (patent RU № 2100787, IPC6G 02 F 1/01, G 01 J 9/02, publ. 27.12.97 year). Fiber piezoelectric modulator includes a piezoceramic plate, on opposite surfaces where the electrodes and the optical fiber. Under the influence of an electric field in the piezoelectric plate creates tension (stress), which is transmitted to the fiber, proportionally varying the optical move through this fiber optic delay line. Mentioned piezoelectric plate is made in the form of a disk, and the fiber is laid in the form of a spiral, which provides the possibility of changing the length of an optical fiber in a wide range by businessconnect and small size of the Converter. The use of this modulator is preferably in the schemes of fiber optics. Otherwise, there is a problem of input spatial radiation in single-mode fiber and the output from it, which leads to the inevitable losses, n is the sample in a hybrid fiber-air interference schemes is complicated control of polarization, on the welds and joints fiber is a polarization mixing. Due to the significant length of the fiber used in this modulator, is difficult to have precise control of the difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms. Thus, in some problems in optical schemes with air Michelson interferometer, inappropriate use of the above-described modulator difference of the lengths of the shoulders in the form of fiber-optic controlled delay line.

In optical schemes with air Michelson interferometer, Fourier spectrometers visible and PC range known mechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms, or, in other words, the modulator difference of turn two optical beams (SU # 1569789, IPC5G 02 F 1/01, publ. 1990). This known mechanical modulator provides a relatively large amplitude, the modulation frequency and the vibration resistance of the structure. It contains the drive rotational movement on the axis of the shaft which has first and second plane-parallel plate is rotated one with respect to another on the corner α. The first ray of the first optical beam) passes through the first rotating plate and the second beam (the second optical beam) through the second rotating plate, resulting in the difference between the first and second optical beams is continuously changing. The disadvantage of this fashion is atora difference of turn two optical beams, in this design it is impossible to ensure the constancy of the speed of the modulation, i.e. the required law meander changes the modulation speed.

The closest in technical essence is declared Electromechanical modulator from famous company PASCO (United States) (www.pasco.com - the device of a series of Mechanical Wave Drivers. Known Electromechanical modulator includes a movable part attached with a soft suspension to a stationary frame. In the movable part is a coil of wire (impedance 4 Ohm), placed in the region of the stationary radial magnetic field created by the permanent ring magnet. When passing through the coil AC control electric current from a magnetic field affects the corresponding variable force producing all the moving part in an oscillatory motion in accordance with the law governing force. The movable part provided with a fixture for fixing of external objects, such as mirrors, which is necessary to move according to a certain law. Electromechanical modulator equipped with an external generator and power amplifier, and is used in various experimental facilities, as well as for mechanical modulation of the difference of the lengths of the arms in the interferometer.

The disadvantage of this Electromechanical modulator is absent is their control over the movement - the response of the movable part of the modulator on the impact of the control variable power phase and nonlinear distortions that impede the restoration of law of motion with the required precision.

Task to be solved by the present invention is directed, is the development of Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms, providing the scanning mirrors of the interferometer with the law for the velocity, as accurately as possible the relevant law required meander, at a sufficiently high frequency (50 Hz) scan and a sufficiently large amplitude of oscillations (up to 10 mm).

The technical result in developed Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms, as well as in Electromechanical modulator prototype is due to the fact that it contains the generator waveform, the amplifier and control unit, which includes the first stationary magnetic system, rigidly connected to a stationary solid basis and the first coil of current-carrying wire, which is connected to the output of the power amplifier. The first coil is located with the ability to move across magnetic field lines of the first magnetic system.

New in developed Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms is what about, that it introduced an integrator and the offset of the amplitude-frequency characteristic of the Electromechanical unit, and an Electromechanical unit entered the second stationary magnet and the second coil of current-carrying conductors rigidly and coaxially connected with the first coil. The combination of the first and second coils with a fixed base is made in the form of a soft suspension with the possibility of moving the first and second coils forming the movable part of the modulator, relative to the fixed respectively to the first and second magnetic systems across lines of their magnetic fields, and the output of the above-mentioned generator waveform is connected to the direct input of the integrator, inverting input connected to the speed sensor moving part of the modulator, the output of the integrator is connected to the input of the offset amplitude-frequency characteristic of the Electromechanical unit, the output of which is connected to the input of the above-mentioned power amplifier.

In one particular case it is advisable as a speed sensor, the movable part of the modulator to use Electromechanical speed sensor as mentioned second coil mounted to move across magnetic field lines of the second stationary magnetic system, while the current-carrying wire of the second coil is connected to the mentioned in arteruim the input of the integrator, and as the first and second magnetic systems use a standard magnetic system speakers, while the first and second coils need to be strengthened at opposite ends of the metal rod.

In another particular case, it is advisable as a speed sensor, the movable part of the modulator to use optical speed sensor in the form of more compact Michelson interferometer, one of the mirrors to be mounted on the movable part of the modulator. A radiation source for said additional compact Michelson interferometer can serve as a diode laser with a sufficiently narrow spectral width of the radiation at the output as mentioned compact Michelson interferometer, it is advisable to install a sensor, coupled to the frequency Converter into a voltage output which should be connected with said inverting input of the integrator, and current-carrying conductors of the first and second coils to connect the output of the amplifier.

Figure 1 shows the structural diagram of the developed Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms in the General case, its execution in accordance with claim 1 of the formula.

Figure 2 presents a side view in section of the Electromechanical unit is designed modulator in the first private sluchaev perform in accordance with claim 2 of the formula.

3 shows the structural diagram of the developed Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms in the second special case of its implementation in accordance with section 3 of the formula.

4 shows an external view of the prototype developed Electromechanical modulator made in accordance with claim 2.

Figure 5 presents the amplitude-frequency characteristic of the Electromechanical modulator block.

Figure 6 presents the amplitude-frequency characteristic of the Electromechanical modulator block with regard to high-frequency parasitic resonances.

Figure 7 presents the amplitude-frequency characteristic depth feedback developed Electromechanical modulator.

On Fig presents a mechanical oscillatory system, equivalent to the movable part of the Electromechanical unit.

Developed Electromechanical modulator presented in figure 1, contains the oscillator 1 waveform, the electronic control unit 2 and control unit 3. Electromechanical unit 3 includes first and second stationary magnetic system 4 and 5 and the first and second coils 6 and 7 of the current-carrying wire located with the ability to move across magnetic field lines of the magnetic systems 4 and 5 and obrazuyuscyegosya part 8 Electromechanical modulator. In addition, the control unit 3 includes a speed sensor 12 of the movable part 8 of the modulator. The electronic control unit 2 includes an integrator 9, the corrector 10 amplitude-frequency characteristics (AFC) and the power amplifier 11. This direct input of the integrator 9 is connected to the output of the oscillator 1 waveform, and the inverting input of the integrator 9 is connected to the output of the speed sensor 12 of the movable part 8 of the modulator, the output of integrator 9 is connected to the input of the amplitude-frequency characteristic corrector 10. The output of the corrector 10 is connected to the input of the power amplifier 11, the output of which is connected with the live wire of the first coil 6. Stationary magnetic system 4 and 5 are rigidly connected to a stationary massive base 13. Coils 6 and 7 are connected rigidly and coaxially, and the connection of these coils 6 and 7 with the corresponding fixed magnetic systems 4 and 5 is made in the form of a soft suspension 15 with the possibility of the above movement of the coils relative to the fixed magnetic systems 4 and 5 and the base 13.

In the first special case of manufacturing developed Electromechanical modulator his Electromechanical unit 3, are presented in figure 2, contains a fixed solid base 13 on which is rigidly fixed standard magnetic systems 4 and 5 electrodynamic speakers, i.e. speakers. As the first and W is Roy coils 6 and 7 of the conductive wire used for the coil, wound on aluminum frames. Rigid and coaxial connection of the coils 6 and 7 between them, forming the movable part 8 of the modulator is achieved by mounting them on opposite ends of the metal rod 14. The soft suspension 15 which provides a connection of these coils with magnetic systems 4 and 5, is made in the form of two soft centering washers. In the first special case of manufacturing developed Electromechanical modulator as a speed sensor 12 of the movable part 8 of the modulator used the second coil 7, the current-carrying wire which is connected with said inverting input of the integrator 9, forming a negative feedback circuit. Working mirror 16 Michelson interferometer, forming one of the two arms of the interferometer, is attached to the movable part 8 is designed Electromechanical modulator. Reciprocating scanning mirror 16 at a constant speed according to the law of the meander is defined and maintained using the oscillator 1 waveform, the electronic control unit 2 and included in the negative feedback circuit (see figure 1) with speed sensor 12.

In the second special case of manufacturing developed Electromechanical modulator presented in figure 3 as a speed sensor 12 of the movable part 8 of the modulator used for more the compact interferometer 17 Michelson, one of the mirrors is fixed on the movable part 8. A radiation source for these more compact interferometer 17 is a diode laser 18 with a fairly narrow spectral width of the radiation at the exit of the above-mentioned interferometer 17 is installed a sensor 19 connected to the Converter 20 frequency voltage, the output of which is connected with said inverting input of the integrator 9, forming a negative feedback circuit. When this current-carrying conductors of the first and second coils 6 and 7 is connected to the output of the amplifier 11.

In the specific example of implementation of the fabricated Electromechanical modulator in accordance with claim 2, presented in figure 1 and 2, in which the oscillator 1 waveform is a crystal oscillator that provides a signal in the form of a meander. As the integrator 9 used operational amplifier with an integrating chain. The amplitude-frequency characteristic corrector 10 is made of several operational amplifiers with integrating and differentiating chains. As the power amplifier 11 used standard chip ORAT. Electromechanical unit 3 is made of a standard produced by the domestic industry of magnetic systems speakers.

Magnetic systems 4 and 5 are rigidly connected with a massive base 13. Coil and 6 and 7 to increase the rigidity of the movable part 8 is made on the aluminum frames using epoxy glue. Thus, the components of which made a prototype developed Electromechanical modulator, a photo of which is presented in figure 4, produced by domestic industry. Developed Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms can be manufactured in series.

Developed Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms, represented in the General case implementation in figure 1, works as follows.

Control voltage representing the difference between signals from generator 1 and the speed sensor 12, it is necessary to bring to power the coil 6 of the movable part 8 of the modulator. But if you give it control voltage directly to the coil 6, the amplitude and phase responses of the movable part 8 will not repeat the amplitude and phase of the control force (control voltage). This is because the movable part 8 of the developed design of the modulator is a classic mechanical oscillatory system having a mechanical resonance at low (30-40 Hz) frequencies, as shown in the frequency response in figure 5. The resonance curve in figure 5 (the dependence of the amplitude And oscillation of the movable part 8 of the frequency f of the acting forces, i.e. the modulation frequency of the arm of the interferometer) is described by a known function

where f0resonance frequency equal(k is the coefficient of elasticity of the suspension 15, M is the mass of the movable part 8, γ is the coefficient of damping of the oscillation, F is the amplitude of the external force applied to the force coil 6, is proportional to the amplitude of the control voltage. It should be noted that at frequencies f greater resonance frequency f0(f>f0), the phase response of the mechanical system (the movable part 8) A(f) is close to 180°that is unacceptable from the point of view of stability of the feedback system, as it follows from the Nyquist criterion (see, for example, Maisema. Theory of automatic control of the motors. The equations of motion and stability. State publishing house of technical and theoretical literature. M, 1952). Therefore, the mentioned control voltage (the difference between the signals from the generator 1 and the speed sensor 12) is first served on the corrector 10, consisting of the summed with the corresponding weights (coefficients "a", "b" and "C") of a linear, double-differentiating and differentiating chains, and only then through the amplifier 11 is fed to the coil 6 of the movable part 8. The coefficients "a", "b" and "C" are selected in such a way that the corrector 10 allows you to fully compensate for the dependence of the amplitude A(f) [equation (1)] from the frequency f, and the result is zavisimosti amplitude and phase of oscillation of the movable part 8 of the frequency f of the control force (control voltage) up to a certain limit f rezdue to the presence of the movable part 8 of its high-frequency resonances in connection with its final hardness. Therefore, the actual frequency response of the movable part 8 of the modulator appear additional high-frequency (8-10 kHz) resonant peaks (smfh), which is nothing can compensate (in the manufacture of Electromechanical modulator taken special measures to increase the rigidity of the movable part 8, namely coils 6 and 7 are made on aluminum frames with epoxy glue, resulting in a frequency frezthe first high-frequency parasitic resonance is increased more than three times compared to standard coils on a cardboard frame). Thus, it is necessary to limit the bandwidth of the feedback to these high-frequency parasitic resonances (˜4 kHz)in the feedback loop is entered integrator, providing depth feedback equal to one, the frequency of the lower frequency frezthe first high-frequency parasitic resonance. At low frequencies was able to realize the depth of feedback in several thousand (see Fig.7, which shows the frequency response of depth feedback). It should be noted that the attachment of the movable part 8 is fixed to the base 13 by means of the suspension 15, for example soft centering washers (see figure 2), with SV and its own resonances, lying in the region of hundreds of Hertz, i.e. inside the band feedback can ruin a phase response of the Electromechanical modulator and to break the resistance of the feedback. But when the selected ratio of the mass M of the movable part 8 and the total mass m of soft centering washers M ≫ m additional rotation phase of oscillation of the movable part 8 due to the nonlinearity of the suspension 15, as established by the authors, is not more than 5-10 degrees. This can be explained as follows. On Fig a schematic representation of the mechanical oscillatory system, the equivalent of the claimed design. Cargo M in this oscillatory system is equivalent to the movable part 8 of the modulator affected by the force F by the magnetic system 4 (ampere acting on a conductor in a static magnetic field). Cargo m is equivalent to soft centering washers 15 (actually it's a distributed mass distributed elastic link). Mechanical oscillatory system of the two goods M and m has two resonance: low frequency determined by the mass M of the movable part 8 and the stiffness of the suspension 15 and the high-frequency determined by the mass m and the same stiffness of the suspension 15. As established by the authors, the low-frequency resonance appears at frequencies of 30-40 Hz and the high frequency resonance at frequencies of 300 to 400 Hz. When solving the problem of finding amplitude the frequency characteristics of the oscillation cargo M depending on the frequency of the external force F is obtained, when M is much greater than m and at an acceptable quality factor of the vibrating mechanical system contribution mentioned resonance in the amplitude and phase fluctuations of a large cargo M (movable part 8) is negligible. In our case, the additional rotation phase of the oscillation of the movable part 8 at the frequency of the high frequency resonance (300-400 Hz) was, as noted above, no more than 5-10 degrees, which is completely unable to break the resistance of the feedback system. Thus, the design of Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms, providing the desired linear dependence of the amplitude and phase response of the movable part 8 of the modulator from the amplitude and phase of the control voltage at a sufficiently high scanning frequency and a large amplitude of oscillations, which allows to solve the problem.

Developed Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms has the following specifications:

- Frequency modulation - 10-50 Hz.

- Scale fluctuations of 3-4 mm (or 10 mm at the base of the speaker to the large size).

- Duration plot with a constant rate of 90% of the time.

Due to the large base mounting of rolling element 8 (the distance between the magnetic systems 4 and 5 is 6 cm or more) the device has a very high angle camera is lnasty axis, it is important to obtain a stable interference pattern in the interferometer with extended shoulders. The test developed Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms showed its full performance and stability.

The operation of the modulator in the first special case of its manufacture in accordance with claim 2 of the formula (see figure 1, 2) is used as a speed sensor 12 of the movable part 8 of the modulator electro-mechanical speed sensor in the form of a second coil 7 mounted to move relative to the magnet system 5. When moving coil 7 with the movable part 8 electromotive force (EMF)induced in the coil 7, is proportional to the speed V of its movement and is the feedback signal. This signal is applied to the inverting input of the integrator 9, closing the negative feedback circuit, which minimizes the difference between the signals from the oscillator 1 waveform and a speed sensor 12 of the movable part 8 (in this case, the coil 7). Consequently, the developed design of the modulator movable part 8 moves (scans) with velocity V, changing the law, follow the law of the meander changes the control voltage from the generator 1. The accuracy of the velocity V in this the design is 0.5% of its amplitude. The constancy of the speed V in both directions of the scan provides a triangular law of motion of the working mirror 16 when the modulation difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms.

The operation of the modulator in the second special case of its manufacture in accordance with claim 3 of the formula is used as a speed sensor 12 of the movable part 8 of the optical sensor in the form of more compact interferometer 17 Michelson, one of the mirrors is fixed on the movable part 8, and the radiation source is a diode laser 18 (see figure 3) with a fairly narrow spectral width of radiation. Namely, such a wide spectrum, in which the possible interference of two beams, with the difference based on the maximum magnitude of the scanning movable part 8. In the location of the photodetector 19 at the output of this compact interferometer 17 when moving mirror together with the movable part 8 there is a change in the interference pattern at a speed proportional to the speed V of the scan. This change of the interference pattern is recorded by the photodetector 19. It should be noted that the above-described optical part of the speed sensor provides accurate and instantaneous tracking of the scanning velocity V of the movable part 8. Next, the interference of the Doppler signal with an important aspect of the ICA 19 Converter 20 is converted into a signal, the voltage which is proportional to the scanning velocity V of the movable part 8. The signal Converter 20 serves as a feedback signal and is input to the integrator 9, closing the negative feedback circuit, which minimizes the difference between the signals from the oscillator 1 waveform and a speed sensor 12 of the movable part 8. On the basis of modern electronic database created by the Converter 20 frequency voltage with a sufficiently high accuracy of the transformation, which significantly improves the accuracy of optical speed sensor compared to, for example, an Electromechanical sensor, and thus a further 1-2 order to improve the accuracy of the speed V of the scanning in accordance with the desired law of the meander.

1. Electromechanical modulator difference of the lengths of the interferometer arms, containing the generator waveform, the amplifier and control unit, which includes the first stationary magnetic system, rigidly connected to a stationary solid basis, and the first coil of current-carrying wire, which is connected to the output of the amplifier, characterized in that it introduced the integrator and the offset of the amplitude-frequency characteristic of the Electromechanical unit, and an Electromechanical unit entered the second stationary magnetic system is a and the second coil of current-carrying wire, rigidly and coaxially connected with the first coil, the combination of the first and second coils with a fixed base is made in the form of a soft suspension with the possibility of moving the first and second coils forming the movable part of the modulator, relative to the fixed respectively to the first and second magnetic systems across lines of their magnetic fields, and the output of the above-mentioned generator waveform is connected to the direct input of the integrator, inverting input connected to the speed sensor moving part of the modulator, the output of the integrator is connected to the input of the offset amplitude-frequency characteristic of the Electromechanical unit, the output of which is connected to the input of the above-mentioned power amplifier.

2. Electromechanical modulator according to claim 1, characterized in that as the speed sensor, the movable part of the modulator serves as the above-mentioned second coil mounted to move across magnetic field lines of the second stationary magnetic system, while the current-carrying wire of the second coil is connected with said inverting input of the integrator, and the first and second magnetic systems used standard magnetic system speakers, while the first and second coils mounted on opposite ends of the metal rod.

3. Electromechanics the second modulator according to claim 1, characterized in that as the speed sensor, the movable part of the modulator is more compact Michelson interferometer, the light source for which is a diode laser with a sufficiently narrow spectral width of the radiation at the output as mentioned compact Michelson interferometer has a photodetector connected to the frequency Converter in voltage, the output of which is connected with said inverting input of the integrator, and current-carrying conductors of the first and second coils is connected to the output of the amplifier.



 

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1 dwg

FIELD: optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: multichannel optical commutator is made of two bunches of optical fibers, two collimators which have their focuses to place bunches' edges of, and light-guiding element mounted between collimators. As light-guiding element either mirrors or two acoustic-optical deflectors are used or their combination. Device allows to connect N users in series, which N user are connected to first bunch to S users which are connected to second bunch and visa versa and to conduct communication between users connected to one bunch.

EFFECT: units of fiber-optic assemblies and telecommunications can be made to provide speed of operation of channel switching within microsecond range and to provide number of switching channels up to 10000 at the same communication unit.

EFFECT: 21 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: at least two stable or metastable ordering of liquid crystal are realized. Switching aid which causes the switching of liquid crystal material between switches has aid intended for optical illumination of the device. Device can provide the supply of linear polarized light for inducing torsion in liquid crystal. Alternatively ordering of liquid crystal can be switched by means of aid for supplying second energy, for example, electric field. In this case light serves to generate heat which helps to switching. One or both energy sources can be used locally for switching chosen areas or pixels. Energy levels on bistable substrate can be controlled by using oligomer adding (slippery surface).

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.

48 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: at least two stable or metastable ordering of liquid crystal are realized. Switching aid which causes the switching of liquid crystal material between switches has aid intended for optical illumination of the device. Device can provide the supply of linear polarized light for inducing torsion in liquid crystal. Alternatively ordering of liquid crystal can be switched by means of aid for supplying second energy, for example, electric field. In this case light serves to generate heat which helps to switching. One or both energy sources can be used locally for switching chosen areas or pixels. Energy levels on bistable substrate can be controlled by using oligomer adding (slippery surface).

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.

48 cl, 10 dwg

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