Recoverable spacecraft

FIELD: space engineering; spacecraft for descent in atmosphere of planet.

SUBSTANCE: proposed spacecraft has case with foldable wings and/or stabilizers provided with deployment mechanisms. In folded state at deceleration of spacecraft in atmosphere, said wings and/or stabilizers are covered with separable frontal heat shield which is oval in shape in projection on plane perpendicular to longitudinal axis of spacecraft. Side surfaces of tail section of spacecraft case with wings and/or stabilizers (and some other members) may be covered with separable aerodynamic flaps which form conical surface. After deceleration at initial stage of descent, shield is separated and wings (stabilizers) deploy to working position. Proposed spacecraft has high aerodynamic properties and is provided with reliable protection against aerodynamic and thermal loads at deceleration at high supersonic flight speeds.

EFFECT: low cost of servicing.

4 cl, 13 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of space technology, and in particular to a reusable space vehicle (SV).

Known SPACECRAFT), having the form of a truncated cone. An example of such a SPACECRAFT could serve as the first American spacecraft (SC) "mercury" (figure 1) [1]. Since it is customary to call such designs capsular type. After deorbiting this capsule is made in the shape of a truncated cone, flying is part of a broad forward, with all its heat shield spherical shape, covering a wide part of the SPACECRAFT can shoot after braking in the atmosphere. The QC "mercury" front heat shield was shot, but not completely separated, and pulled a cell absorber, smartavi impact when landing. The spacecraft (SC) "Union" front screen fires back fully, QC "Gemini" and "Apollo" front screen was not separated completely [2].

The shape and configuration of CA (capsules) in the form of a truncated cone, flying is part of a broad forward and closed the front with a heat shield, is rational on a number of factors, including:

- has a very favourable distribution of heat fluxes compared to, for example, with the sphere or cone, flying pointed forward part; in fact, its screen plays the role of a divider of the atmosphere (wake shield), forming udarna the wave (figure 2);

- under certain conditions (when flying with angle of attack) KA (capsule) has a glide;

- if the angle of attack of the capsule is controlled by the descent in the atmosphere at supersonic speeds through the turns roll, requiring a small control points;

- has a good volumetric filling and internal layout;

- well linked to the booster (PH), fitting into a streamlined head part;

- direction congestion favorably for the crew as on the site launch into orbit (PH), and braking in the atmosphere, as well as when landing.

Experience in the creation of the American space ship "mercury" and "Gemini" [3] showed that the outer hull shell capsules can be made of heat-resistant metal alloys; capsule after returning from orbit remains reusable. This was confirmed in practice in flight "Gemini 2"; its capsule successfully used a second time in 1966 by the MOL program (project space station, and later closed) [4].

The disadvantage KA capsule-type is a small amount of lifting force, the so-called low glide ratio (the ratio of lift force to drag). This disadvantage manifests itself when returning from orbit on both main phases of flight: PR is braking in the atmosphere and especially when landing. In the first case, this leads to limited opportunities for lateral maneuver, the second to the impossibility of landing of an aircraft on the runway (runway). As a result, all KA capsule landed by parachute.

For landing on the runway it is necessary to provide a large enough glide.

For this reason, when creating a reusable spacecraft, the space Shuttle (figure 3) was selected cruise configuration with deltoid wing, providing greater stability and a large lateral maneuver compared to other forms of wings [5]. The main task was to ensure the landing of the Orbiter" (return to the Earth element of the space transportation system space Shuttle") on the runway due to the high aerodynamic quality as at supersonic speeds (for large lateral maneuver), and at subsonic speeds (when the landing approach and landing).

There is a significant contradiction between the desirable forms of CC on different segments of flight: while in orbit on the booster (PH), when the atmospheric descent and landing. At hypersonic speeds (especially at high Mach numbers) winged form, while providing great lateral maneuver, in General, not rational, in particular, a very large surface is And need special thermal protection. Additional requirement for reusable use leads to severe thermal protection (the total mass of the "Orbiter" space Shuttle" is about 9 tons) and the complexity of its configuration, design and technology. The layout of this ship on LV also difficult.

The major drawback of the wings of the spacecraft are also evident in the following.

With the launch of the wings create serious problems related to security. So the wings of the Orbiter" space Shuttle" prone to damage during takeoff and descent, which, eventually, led to the deaths of "Colombia" as a result of damage to the edges of the wing chip thermal protection, away from the hinged tank PH.

After deorbiting, when braking in the atmosphere winged Orbiter" "forced" to fly lower part of the fuselage ("belly") forward in order to avoid, first of all, overheating of the sock, the edges of the wings and stabilizer.

In addition, in this configuration, when braking in the atmosphere "Orbiter" is poorly managed aircraft, with a small stability margin, making it very susceptible to injury. It also became apparent, in particular, when the last flight of Columbia.

Thermal protection "Orbiter" is implemented as a special mats and tiles covering the entire body and also protects the t overheating. These tiles, the total number of which exceeds 27000, and a large part of which is glued to the body, in General, have a large mass, the road, ethnologica, and, in addition, their control in flight and when interflight maintenance difficult and long.

The direction of the overload acting on the crew of the space Shuttle during takeoff on the PH and the slope varies, which causes additional complications.

Also known KA in the form of a lifting body with inclined stabilizers (figure 4). This form of the device was considered as an option at an early stage of development of the space Shuttle" [5]. KA with a carrying case they are smaller in size, have good stability and average glide, also providing maneuvering in the atmosphere and landing on the runway.

However, these designs also have the same basic flaws that are marked for "space Shuttle".

To reduce the size of the deck of aircraft carriers is widely used folding wings. To facilitate thermal protection AC when returning from orbit (when braking in the atmosphere) it was also proposed to apply the folding wings [5]. This approach, in particular, made the model with bearing housing and inclined stabilizers in winged design (figure 5).

However, practical application of ideas with folding wings estabilization for the return to Earth was not received due to their lack of effectiveness without additional measures.

Object of the invention is the simultaneous provision of a great deal of aerodynamic quality, and protection of SPACECRAFT from aerodynamic and thermal loads during braking in the atmosphere at high supersonic speeds with a minimum of mass and material costs, including the costs of interflight service.

The problem is solved in that the reusable SPACECRAFT, comprising a housing with wings and/or stabilizers, at the end of the tail part of the body has its heat shield that covers the end of the body with wings and/or stabilizers when braking in the atmosphere, the drop-down wings and/or stabilizers are equipped with mechanisms open to reduce the dimensions of the SPACECRAFT and, first and foremost, windshield heat shield. Detachable drag heat shield that covers the folding wings and/or stabilizers and other elements of the body, is oval-shaped in projection on the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, for example, in the form of an ellipse. In this case, the dimensions of the front of the screen and its weight reduced, and may purchase additional aerodynamic quality.

The lateral surface of the body of the SPACECRAFT from the front with a heat shield also subject to aerodynamic loads, including heat, though significantly less than the intensity of the sector, than the load on its heat shield. In order to give the body the necessary aerodynamic forms on this flight are encouraged to apply additional aerodynamic panels or fairings. Aerodynamic shields, as well as head heat shield separated prior to deployment of the wings and/or stabilizers.

These shields (or fairing) also provide additional protection at the stage of the descent, and at the conclusion of the orbit on the PH; in this case the additional fairing on PH is not required.

The most tried and tested in practice are KA with a round head with a heat shield spherical shape and design, including a section in the form of a truncated cone. So acceptable is this configuration aerodynamic shields, which together form a fairing cone-shaped. In the General case, the fairing can be made more complex configuration, which has an oval shape.

Thus, it is possible to eliminate the above disadvantages and to use the advantages of both variants return to Earth spacecraft (capsule and winged). In General, it is proposed KA-protected braking in the atmosphere at hypersonic speeds (at high Mach numbers) and acquiring a sufficiently large aerodynamic quality of the pic is e deployment stabilizers and/or wings; and this just provides additional maneuvering and planning when landing on the runway.

The area of the side surfaces of the SPACECRAFT, including the wings and stabilizers, exceeds the area of the heat shield, so the mass of the heat shield front screen less thermal protection of the side surfaces. Additional weight savings can be expected from applying for frontal shield ablative thermal protection type.

In the proposed invention (as in the famous invention of the singer in his car, sewing eye ahead) spacecraft flies when braking in the atmosphere of the tail forward. This achieves a significant effect: the body of the spacecraft is protected from major aerodynamic and thermal loads. As a result, the main outer shell of the hull of the spacecraft can be made of heat-resistant alloys that do not require additional thermal protection in the form of-low-tech tiles. This design is more simple, including in terms of inspection and maintenance, and at the same time provides reusable.

As noted, the idea of folding stabilizers and wings still not been implemented on the spacecraft due to the lack of effectiveness without additional measures. Folding the protruding elements of design, which significantly increases the effectiveness of the composition only in combination with their protection from aerodynamic and thermal loads using windshield heat shield.

Folding wings, stabilizers and other protruding elements of design not only reduces the dimensions of the SPACECRAFT so that they were behind the front screen, but the size of the windshield heat shield, and also improves the layout and other characteristics. To this end, the wings are fitted with deployment mechanisms. The apparatus for carrying foldable case is made sloping stabilizers, which are also equipped with a deployment mechanisms.

Figure 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 is provided winged KA and KA with a carrying case (with stabilizers) according to this invention, where:

1 - body SPACECRAFT

2 - wings

3 - stabilizers

4 - we fire its heat shield

5 - deployment mechanism wings

6 - deployment mechanism stabilizers

7 - aerodynamic flaps

Figure 6 presents the winged SPACECRAFT, wings 2 which are stacked while in orbit and during orbital flight, and when de-orbit and braking in the atmosphere. The tail part of the housing 1 together with folded wings 2 and the vertical stabilizer 3 protected detachable head with a heat shield 4, which has, for example, a round shape in projection on the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis; the screen is separated after braking in the atmosphere, and the wings 2 razorace who are using mechanism 5.

Figure 7 presents the AC with a carrying case, stabilizers 3 which is folded when in orbit and during orbital flight, and when de-orbit and braking in the atmosphere. The tail part of the housing 1 together with folded stabilizers protected detachable head with a heat shield 4, which has, for example, a round shape in projection on the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis; the screen is separated after braking in the atmosphere, and stabilizers 3 unfold by means of the mechanism 6.

On Fig presents winged SPACECRAFT, wings 2 which are stacked while in orbit and during orbital flight, and when de-orbit and braking in the atmosphere. The tail part of the housing 1 together with the wings 2 and the vertical stabilizer 3 protected detachable head with a heat shield 4, which has an oval shape in projection on the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis; the screen is separated after braking in the atmosphere, and the wings 2 are deployed by means of the mechanism 5.

Figure 9 presents the AC with a carrying case, stabilizers 3 which is folded when in orbit and during orbital flight, and when de-orbit and braking in the atmosphere. The tail part of the housing 1 together with stabilizers protected detachable head with a heat shield 4, which has an oval the Orme in the projection plane, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis; the screen is separated after braking in the atmosphere, and stabilizers 3 unfold by means of the mechanism 6.

Figure 10 presents the winged SPACECRAFT, wings 2 which are stacked while in orbit and during orbital flight, and when de-orbit and braking in the atmosphere. The tail part of the housing 1 together with the wings 2 and the stabilizer 3 is protected not only detachable head with a heat shield 4, and aerodynamic flaps 7, which are separated after braking in the atmosphere, and the wings 2 are deployed by means of the mechanism 5.

Figure 11 presents KA with a carrying case, stabilizers 3 which is stacked on orbit during orbital flight, and when de-orbit and braking in the atmosphere. The tail part of the housing 1 together with stabilizers 3 protected not only detachable head with a heat shield 4, and aerodynamic flaps 7, which are separated after braking in the atmosphere, and stabilizers 3 unfold by means of the mechanism 6.

Aerodynamic flaps can also be applied to KA, the caudal part of the body which together with the stabilizers and wings secured the front with a heat shield having an oval shape in projection on the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. On Fig presents the SC bearing housing is om, stabilizers 3 which is stacked on orbit during orbital flight, and when de-orbit and braking in the atmosphere. The tail part of the housing 1 together with stabilizers 3 protected not only detachable head with a heat shield 4, which has an oval shape in projection on the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, and aerodynamic flaps 7, which are separated after braking in the atmosphere, and stabilizers 3 unfold by means of the mechanism 6.

The same aerodynamic shields can be used on a winged SPACECRAFT with folded wings, the tail part of the body which together with the stabilizers and wings secured the front with a heat shield having an oval shape in projection on the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.

As when creating KA capsule type, which was used chassis configuration consisting of several sections having the form of bodies of revolution (in the form of a truncated cone and cylinder), this form is also possible for the proposed KA with a carrying case and with folding wings and/or stabilizers. This can be achieved by selecting the shape and configuration of the aerodynamic shields, forming a conical surface of rotation (Fig).

Thus, the proposed KA in all its variants is protected. the result, the outer casing of the body of the SPACECRAFT, as well as wings and stabilizers may be made of heat-resistant alloys that do not require additional thermal protection.

Thus the tail part of the body, including the wings and stabilizers, protected from the most severe, aerodynamic and thermal loads, as well as accidental damage as if in orbit on PH, and braking in the atmosphere. Especially effective this can be when returning to the cruise apparatus in the earth's atmosphere from the second cosmic velocity after interplanetary travel.

Detachable drag heat shield element is disposable, so its heat can be, for example, effective ablative type. Aerodynamic plates bearing a much lower thermal load, can be made of heat-resistant materials.

References

1. Spaceships. Webcow and Usermatic. M: Knowledge, 1984.

2. Space encyclopedia, M.: Owls. The ence., 1986.

3. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Space Technology. K. Gatland. USA, 1981. There is an abridged English translation of the Space Shuttle.

4. 100 stories about the dock. Century Syromyatnikov. M: University book, 2003

5. The History of The National Space Transportation System. D.R.Jenkings. USA, 1997.

1. Reusable spacecraft, comprising a housing with folding wings and/or stabilized the Rami, equipped with mechanisms for their deployment, as well as the heat shield that covers these wings and/or stabilizers in the folded position when braking in the atmosphere, characterized in that the screen is detachable front and installed on the end of the tail portion of the shell.

2. Reusable spacecraft according to claim 1, characterized in that the detachable drag heat shield has an oval shape in projection on the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the device.

3. Reusable spacecraft according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the lateral surface of the caudal part of the body with wings and/or stabilizers are closed detachable aerodynamic shields.

4. Reusable spacecraft according to claim 3, characterized in that the said aerodynamic flaps form a conical surface.



 

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