Clutch for transmitting limited torque

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: clutch comprises two members which co-operate with each other and are made of cylindrical ring and cylindrical shaft. The ring engages the shaft to transmit torque until the limiting value reaches at which the ring begins to rotate with respect to the shaft. When the ring rotates with respect to the shaft, the pump delivers the fluid from the tank to the space between the interacting surfaces that are provided with means for discharging fluid from the space keeping the ring in engagement with the shaft once the transmitted torque exceeds the limit one. The shaft has the base whose surface layer is made of a material whose plasticity limit essentially lower than that of the material of the ring surface.

EFFECT: improved design and enhanced reliability.

6 cl, 1 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a coupling for transmitting a limited torque.

Known coupling for transmitting a limited torque, containing two coaxial essentially cylindrical articulating surfaces of the two interacting parts, made in the form of a cylindrical casing and a cylindrical shaft, wherein the ferrule is in the transmitting torque of the friction clutch with the shaft to transmit torque up to a maximum value corresponding to their friction clutch in which the clip begins to rotate relative to the shaft. The clutch also has at least one pump capable of relative rotation of the cage and the shaft is driven to discharge fluid from the reservoir into the gap between the interacting surfaces, and means to drain liquid from the gap to restore the friction clutch cage and the shaft after exceeding the limit transmitted torque (see publication of the international application WO 90/00231). This known coupling usually works well. Couplings of this type are often used in steel rolling mills between the leading engine, for example an electric motor, and a roller. Transmitted power may be on the order of 20,000 kW. The cost of downtime of such a rolling mill may be of the order of 100,000 Swedish to the he/h

In the case of applications for which this is the clutch, it switches from a relatively low frequency, for example of the order of once in five years, up to 300 times a year. Typical frequency switching is 20 times/year.

The frictional coupling between the shaft and the yoke can be set to the selected level using some appropriate technical means. For example, the housing may contain a concentric annular chamber, which can create pressure. As indicated above, the coupling includes one or more pumps, which pump the liquid from the receiver into the gap between the cooperating surfaces so that the liquid forming the liquid layer in combination with interactive surfaces. The pumps are made so that they are operated with the rotational movement of the shaft and the shell relative to each other. In the discharge fluid in the gap between the interacting surfaces, the said surface may slip relative to each other, as will be exceeded, the installation torque value. This prevents damage to the clutch and engine or rolling mill. Clutch for transmitting a limited torque of such known type only requires just one turnover in order to create g is grotticelli layer, at which torque is reduced to levels close to zero.

When the clutch is running, you must completely stop the drive. Pumps clutch then stop pumping the fluid (oil) in the gap between the interacting surfaces. This allows fluid to be discharged through the channels, after which the frictional interaction between these interacting surfaces can again recover for about 1 minute. Limit the transmitted torque can be selected within a wide range and can be installed with a high degree of accuracy, for example ±10% from the nominal desired value. The clutch is also compact in size.

The disadvantages of this known coupling lies in the fact that all of the liquid (oil) or part of the liquid (oil)contained in the clutch, can flow to the start clutch, the properties of the oil may eventually change the oil may be contaminated with particles, which may be formed, for example, during startup of the device, and particles can clog valves, filters, and to disrupt or adversely affect the operation of the device, etc.

Thus, there is a risk that the known device does not work at startup. Disruption of the functioning of the clutch can cause the interacting surfaces are not separated is received from each other sufficiently, and that will be uploaded insufficient amount of oil in the gap between the interacting surfaces. The malfunction may then cause, among other things, the occurrence of a very large torque transmitted by the clutch, which may cause damage, for example, of the engine and driven them equipment, as well as, of course, to serious damage to the clutch. Because of the effects of the disruption of the coupling (compare with the cost of equipment downtime) coupling of this type in question, has not been particularly widely used in practice, despite the ability of the coupling to provide automatic and rapid recovery during normal startup and, therefore, the rapid restoration of the mill after the cause of shutdown or repair.

The technical result of the present invention is a further improvement of the clutch to limit the impact of impaired functioning of the coupling and, thus, limit losses due to downtime as a result of reducing the time required to perform work on the restoration of the clutch after the problems that occurred as a result of its shutdown, for example, due to insufficient amount of oil is injected into the gap between the cooperating surfaces of the coupling.

This technical result is achieved in that the coupling for transmitting a limited torque, containing two coaxial, in essence, qi is indijskie articulating surfaces of the two interacting parts, made in the form of a cylindrical casing and a cylindrical shaft, wherein the ferrule is in the transmitting torque of the friction clutch with the shaft to transmit torque up to a maximum value corresponding to their friction clutch in which the clip begins to rotate relative to the shaft, and having at least one pump capable of relative rotation of the cage and the shaft to operate to discharge fluid from the reservoir into the gap between the interacting surfaces, and means to drain liquid from the gap to restore the friction clutch cage and the shaft after exceeding limit the transmitted torque. According to the invention, the shaft comprises a base having a surface layer forming its interactive surface and consisting of a material having a tensile ductility, which is significantly lower than the tensile ductility of the interacting surface of the shroud.

The surface layer of the shaft may include deepening, while providing an elasticize the ability to move the surface layer from interacting surface of the shroud.

Deepening may consist of grooves arranged in a circle on the surface layer of the shaft.

The surface layer of the shaft may consist of red brass, and interacting the again casing consists of steel.

The shaft and the yoke can be planted with mutual interference fit to create a friction clutch.

The surface layer of the shaft may include deepening, providing the thickness of the surface layer of the shaft in the radial direction smaller than the distance in the radial direction between the surface of the base shaft and the cooperating surface of the shroud after the plasticization and/or melting of the surface layer of the shaft and removing the radial load of the shaft and the shell.

The surface layer of the shaft may consist of a material the coefficient of thermal expansion greater than the coefficient of thermal expansion of its Foundation.

While interacting surface normal clutch consists of lightly alloyed carbon steel, subjected retracements to a depth of about 0.3 mm and having a hardness of about 700 units of hardness Vickers, it is proposed according to the invention to perform one of these parts so that it had a surface layer, which defines one of the interacting surfaces and which consists of a material having a substantially lower tensile ductility than the interacting surface of the other part. The surface layer may have a thickness, which is a few millimeters, for example 5 mm, and may, for example, contain copper-tin alloy ti is as red brass (tombac), ie, for example, 90% cu, 10% Sn, 1% Pb. This alloy has a modulus of about 100 N/m2. The surface layer may also include depressions in the form of grooves on its free surface. These grooves can form channels for the distribution of fluid to perform the functions of support. In an alternative embodiment, the recesses in the outer layer can contain other recess or cavity. The purpose of these recesses in the surface layer is to provide the conditions under which the material of the surface layer, for example, the melting would have a volume less space between the cage and the shaft, originally occupied by the surface layer. Because plasticity involves the exception of force transmission from the shaft to the yoke and on the contrary, the recesses in the surface layer should preferably be given such dimensions that when this takes into account the fact that the internal diameter of the cage is reduced, when you shoot a load and the outer diameter of the shaft increases, when you shoot the load on the shaft, so that the space available for the surface layer decreases. Material layer, therefore, should preferably be the net amount that is less than the volume of the space between the ferrule and the shaft after removal of the radial load between them, and, taking into account temperature conditions, when through this process, or is splavlenii surface layer (i.e. when the corresponding fluctuations in the volume of the surface layer, the carrier and the shaft), so that the holder could, in principle, to rotate freely without contact with the plasticized surface after rotation of the holder relative to the shaft. This reduces the risk that a material of the surface layer will be reported is the amount of energy that will cause melting of the material in the relative rotation of the two main parts of the coupling.

The plasticization of the surface layer causes further decrease of the yield strength or conventional yield stress of the material of the surface layer. Such a surface layer is used to provide torque limitation, which is transmitted when the hydrostatic bearing functions may not be supported. The power transmission between the drive shaft coupling and its driven shaft can be controlled and interrupt it by external means, for example, by determining the potential difference of the velocities of the leading and the trailing parts of the device, for limiting relative rotation between these parts.

The invention is effective for preventing damage to the driven equipment, as well as leading equipment, and limiting damage to the clutch for transmitting a limited torque.

The coupling can be easily restored after plasticization (Rapla the population of the surface layer) by heating the aforementioned layer and the shaft, having the surface layer. As the surface layer contains a material (red brass)having a high coefficient of thermal expansion, the layer is separated from the bottom of the shaft, and it can be easily removed from the shaft. Removable surface layer in the form of a sleeve of red brass can be simply inserted into the interactive part, where you need it, or stretched on it and attached to it, for example, using an adhesive connection, and this connection can be destroyed by heat provided during recovery operations, or in combination with through this process, a surface of the layer.

The invention is further described by example with reference to the accompanying drawing, which schematically shows a cross section of a clutch for transmitting a limited torque according to the invention.

The device shown in the drawing, is similar to the device described in international publication WO 90/00231, the essence of which is incorporated into the present application.

The clutch generally includes a cylindrical pin 10 and the yoke 20, covering the trunnion/shaft 10, the shaft 10 and the yoke 20 have respective connecting flanges 11 and 21 for connection to the system drive, for example an electric motor, and with the roller rolling mill. The yoke 20 has an inner surface 22, Sopra the military with the outer surface 12 of the shaft 10. In the wall of the casing 20 posted by oil chamber a in which you can create the pressure by discharge oil under pressure, for example, in the range 0-50 MPa to create a friction pairing in mipomersen coupling between the interacting surfaces 12, 22. Friction grip and maximum torque which can be transmitted are determined by the oil pressure in the chamber A. After discharge of oil into the chamber And the flow channel valve (not shown) in the channel (not shown) is closed.

A cylindrical ferrule 20 includes a sleeve 30 is able to rotate coaxially with the yoke 20. On the outer side of the sleeve 30 has a bearing 5, the eccentrically located relative to the axis of the sleeve 30. Several oil pumps 3 is located radially between the bearing 5 and the inner surface of the shroud 20. The pumps are equipped with connecting channels 4, in which the oil pump in mipomersen space, for example in its Central region with respect to the longitudinal size. The oil spread along mipomersen space and can, for example, be collected through the channel 41, which means drain at one end of mipomersen space and back to the pumps. A certain amount of oil may be concluded in the space of pumps so that sucked relevant nasoya immediately escalate in mipomersen space In the case of relative rotation of the shaft 10 and the shell 20. Pumps 3 are put into effect as a result of this relative rotation due to the eccentricity of the outer surface of the sleeve 30 (eccentric position of the bearing 5 to the shaft 10 and the holder 20). The part of the shaft 10, which interacts with the yoke 20 has a surface layer 50 of red brass (90% cu, 10% Sn, 1% Pb). Layer 50 contains grooves 51 at its free main surface. Grooves 51 can also be used as channels for the distribution of oil supplied by the pump 3. Oil pump pump 3 in the Central longitudinal area ratio mipomersen space In the channel 40, and it spreads away in the axial direction to both ends mipomersen space, as shown by the arrows in figure 1. The oil flow is passed directly into the pumping chamber, and the oil is going through the channel 41 directed back into the chamber of the oil pump.

Between the shaft 10 and the holder 20 is a space completely filled with the layer 50, with the exception of the grooves 51 in the above-mentioned layer. Grooves 51 also serve to receive portions of a layer 50, which plastifitsirujushchih in the relative rotation of the shaft 10 and the shell 20. Interactive surface 22 of the clip 20 is made of steel and interacts with the surface of the layer 50 from red brass. The layer 50 of red brass can transmit torque in the normal largest steep the future moment. However, when the torque exceeds a preset value, the steel surface 22 begins to slip relative to the layer 50 from red brass. The heat generated through friction and/or relative motion causes rapid deformation layer 50, resulting from the plasticizing or melting. Grooves 51 allow the material from the surface of the layer 50 to move quickly in the radial direction from the surface 22. Net layer should be properly filled in the space between the ferrule 20 and the shaft 10 after will be charged a load in the radial direction between the yoke and the shaft and reduced to normal condition and the temperature of the deformed surface layer 50. This decreases the risk that a material layer 50 will get so much energy that it will cause it to melt. Plasticization leads to a consistent reduction of the yield strength of the material. Typically, the material layer 50 does not come in the melt phase. As a result of plasticization of the material layer 50 and the displacement of the material of the power transmission between the shaft 10 and the holder 20 will be limited if the pump 3 will not be able to pump oil in mipomersen space Century.

The frictional coupling between the shaft 10 and the holder 20 may be recovered by any other means other than creating a pressure in the hydraulic chamber And, as it is implemented in the illustrated example implementation. For example, the yoke 20 and the shaft 10 may be made conical, and they can be pressed in the axial direction to each other so as to generate the selected value of the friction clutch, i.e., to ensure the selected upper limit transmitted torque. When the yoke and the shaft have pre-selected size to achieve a given friction clutch, the clutch can be achieved by so-called “heat shrink” or by press fit clip on the shaft. When the friction clutch is eliminated, i.e. when you shoot a radial load between the shaft and the ferrule, the outer diameter of the shaft increases, and the inner diameter of the cage is reduced. The outer layer should therefore be made of such size that its net could be placed within the specified limits, in the space between the yoke and the shaft when the friction connection is eliminated, i.e. when charged, the load on the yoke and the shaft in the radial direction. Thus, by forming the outer layer 50 from a material that has a relatively low yield point, you can run the initial rotation between the shaft 10 and the holder 20 in the absence of an oil film between them, with a relatively low torque limit, which, however, is revised torque limit, created under the action of the friction clutch between the shaft 10 and the holder as a result of the initial plasticization of the surface layer material. Material 50, it is possible to say, forms the lubricant in mipomersen space between the shaft and the yoke. When they provide the conditions under which the surface layer can be placed in the resulting gap between the ferrule and the shaft after removal of the same load in the radial direction, the energy transfer material layer 50 is minimized, and the energy transfer between the shaft and the holder.

To the surface layer could from the outset to transfer energy between the shaft and the yoke, on the one hand, and collapsibility and move in condition in which it will have a significantly smaller thickness in the radial direction, on the other hand, the surface layer may also contain other recess or cavity in addition to functional grooves on its free surface, such as pores, etc. in its original condition.

1. Clutch for transmitting a limited torque, containing two coaxial essentially cylindrical articulating surfaces of the two interacting parts, made in the form of a cylindrical casing and a cylindrical shaft, wherein the ferrule is in the transmitting torque of the friction clutch with the shaft for re the ACI torque up to the maximum value appropriate to their friction clutch in which the clip begins to rotate relative to the shaft, and having at least one pump capable of relative rotation of the cage and the shaft is driven to discharge fluid from the reservoir into the gap between the interacting surfaces, and means to drain liquid from the gap to restore the friction clutch cage and the shaft after exceeding limit the transmitted torque, characterized in that the shaft comprises a base having a surface layer forming its interactive surface and consisting of a material having a tensile ductility, which is significantly lower than the tensile ductility of the interacting surface of the shroud.

2. The coupling according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface layer of the shaft contains cavities, thereby providing plasticization ability to move the surface layer from interacting surface of the shroud.

3. The coupling according to claim 2, wherein the recesses comprise grooves arranged in a circle on the surface layer of the shaft.

4. The coupling according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the surface layer of the shaft consists of red brass, and the interacting surface of the casing consists of steel.

5. The coupling according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the shaft and the yoke planted with mutual the m tightness to create a friction clutch.

6. The coupling according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the surface layer of the shaft contains cavities, providing the thickness of the surface layer of the shaft in the radial direction smaller than the distance in the radial direction between the surface of the base shaft and the cooperating surface of the shroud after the plasticization and/or melting of the surface layer of the shaft and removing the radial load of the shaft and the shell.

7. The coupling according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the surface layer of the shaft consists of a material the coefficient of thermal expansion greater than the coefficient of thermal expansion of its Foundation.



 

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