Method of and device for measuring geometry of track

FIELD: railway transport; track maintenance.

SUBSTANCE: geometry of track is measured by using high-accuracy measuring circuit with two mechanically coupled test trucks forming transport and mechanically coupled test trucks forming transport and mechanical part of measuring system and including covered distance meter and truck tilting level sensors relative to horizon and at least one radiating mark (optical radiation source) rigidly installed on first test truck in direction of movement and providing pressing of flange of wheel to inner head of base rail, and optical electronic receiving-and-analyzing system rigidly secured on second truck. Second truck is double axle, with flanges of corresponding wheelsets pressed to inner surface of head of base rail, thus forming measuring base identifying position of base rail in points of contact of corresponding wheelsets.

EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurement at simplification of process.

4 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used for maintenance of railway track.

There is a method of measuring track [EN 2169809 C1, 27.06.2001] using two measuring units of rolling stock that can move independently from each other, and the first mobile unit measuring rolling stock takes a position in one of the two end points of the measured section of rail track, and in the coordinate system determines the position of the second measuring unit rolling stock, remaining stationary during the measurement process, and between the two measuring units of rolling stock establish a control line in the form of an optical measuring beam, after which the first measuring unit rolling stock is moved in the direction of the second stationary unit measuring wagon at the other end, and any change of the position of the first radio unit measuring rolling stock relative to a reference straight line is registered as a correction factor. Before the beginning of each measurement cycle using the receiver for the global satellite system positioning in the vicinity of the measured section of rail track, and using the obtained data is e location, set the control straight on a mobile measuring unit of rolling stock and perform the measurement of the track, moving forward with a mobile measuring unit of rolling stock.

The disadvantage of this method is its complexity and high cost.

A device for implementing the method of measuring track [EN 2169809 C1, 27.06.2001]. It contains two units of measurement of rolling stock that can move independently from each other, the receiver of a global satellite system positioning an optical device.

The disadvantage of this device is its complexity and high cost. There is a method of measuring the geometry of the track [Machine lining, tamping, leveling CDF-1200, Moscow, "Transport", 1986, s-122], adopted for the prototype. This method is based on the use of rope three-point leveling system with adjustment of the front point. The principle of operation of the leveling system is that the signal to lift the route is served by the height sensor depending on the deflection path in place of the bearing from the measuring base, the position of which is determined by two points: rear, located on the straightened section of road, and the front, in front of him.

The disadvantage of this method is its complexity and the low accuracy of the measurement.

The world is but a device for measuring the geometry of the track [Machine lining, tamping, leveling CDF-1200, Moscow, "Transport", 1986, s-122], which was adopted for the prototype. It contains leveling cables; leveling device with a pendulum, with a lifting mechanism of the front ends of the cables and the photodetector; a measuring device with a pendulum and a proportional height sensor; front and laser truck.

The disadvantage of this device is the complexity of its design, and that the presence of cables reduces the accuracy of the measurement.

The invention solves the problem of increasing the accuracy of measurement of the geometry of the track when the simplification of the process.

The problem is solved by a method for measuring the geometry of the track by means of two measuring trucks, interconnected by optical measuring channel, in accordance with the invention, the two carts connected kinematically and the second direction of movement of the measuring trolley set opto-electronic receiving and analyzing system, the sighting axis of which have nominally parallel to base rail, thereby forming the optical measuring base that identifies the position of the base of the rail at the points of tangency of the respective wheel pairs, at first in the direction of movement of the measuring trolley set, at least one source of optical radiation and nominally Orient it position relative to the reticle to the second axis of the opto-electronic receiving and analysis system, record the deviation of the position of the base rail from direct, arising from the movement of trucks, as the shift in the source of optical radiation from the nominal position with respect to the sighting axis of the opto-electronic receiving and analysis system, compare the obtained data with mileage trucks, length (path), the received information is processed in hardware-software complex, which algorithmic processing of information in a form suitable for further use, for example, in a display, the graphical representation indicating the parameters of the geometry of the track, including arrows bend.

Get expressions for the Central shafts of the bend in the plan and deflection in the longitudinal profile of the track:

where xL, yLrespectively the horizontal and vertical components of the shift of the point of contact of the base rail and the first movement of the measuring wheel with a straight line passing through the contact point of the second and third wheels;

l1- the distance between the nearest nominally parallel to the axes of the wheel pairs of the first and second carriages;

l2- the distance between the axes of the measuring wheels of the second truck.

In the device for measuring the geometry of the track containing two and the measuring trolley, the first of which (in the direction of travel) is the source of light radiation, and the second radiation detector, in accordance with the invention, the radiation detector is an opto-electronic receiving and analyzing system, the sighting axis of which is in nominal position (straight and horizontal section of rail track) is parallel to the base rail and provides a source of radiation, both carts are kinematically linked transporting means and on both bogies installed level sensors, and one sensor is traversed path, while the optical receiving and analyzing system connected to the electronic device selection coordinate information connected with the software-hardware complex algorithmic processing aggregate information, which in turn are connected to level sensors and distance.

The second measuring three-wheeled trolley is made, containing the rear wheel pair and a steering wheel, while the flanges of the idler and the rear pair of wheels mounted on one of the threads rail adopted as the base of the rail, are located on one straight line perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the rear wheel pair.

Thus, the problem is solved at the expense of " the precision of the measurement scheme using two kinematically connected transporting device (for example, the trailer platform) measuring trucks, form of transport and mechanical part of the measuring system having a sensor distance traveled (odometer) and sensors levels of tilt of the cart relative to the horizon, at least one radiating brand (source of optical radiation), rigidly mounted on the first (in the direction) of the measuring trolley, providing clamping the flange of the wheel to the inner cylinder, the base of the rail, and opto-electronic receiving and analysis system, rigidly attached to the second trolley and the second trolley is made with biaxial clamp the flanges of the respective wheel pairs to the inner surface of the head base of the rail, forming thereby measuring base that identifies the position of the base of the rail at the points of tangency of the respective wheel pairs.

Figure 1 shows a geometric diagram of the measurements in terms of the track.

Figure 2 shows a geometric diagram of the measurement by tilting the front of the truck.

Figure 3 shows the mapping coordinates when the slope of the second truck in the transverse profile of the path.

Figure 4 shows the layout of elements on the device.

Figure 5 shows a connection diagram of the elements of the device.

The proposed method of measuring the geometry of the track is the following. Nominal floor is laid on the entire measuring system is installed on a straight horizontal section of rail track, which corresponds to the horizontal location of wheelset axles measuring trucks and zero the sensor level.

Radiant mark M first truck set in parallel to the base rail sighting axis opto-electronic receiving and analysis system (hereinafter will be called its optical receiving and analyzing system (OPAU)), placed on the second measuring bogie, for example, directly above (below) the axis of the rear (in the direction) of the pair of wheels. When the axes of the wheels of the front pair of wheels must be kinematically waged between himself, and the axis of rotation of the biasing measuring wheel this wheel pair and the axis of rotation of the rear pair of wheels must be parallel and rigidly connected with the frame measuring trucks, fully determining its spatial position relative to the contact points of the base rail with short measuring wheels in accordance with the tilt axis of the rear wheel pair in the transverse profile of the road. Thus, also given is the spatial location of APAU with respect to the base rail.

OPAU made in the form of a lens installed in the plane of the analysis target image position-sensitive receiver of optical radiation (e.g., a quadrant photodiode or a matrix of photodetectors). On the latter is connected to the electronic device to determine the coordinates of the energy center of the optical image. The sighting axis of the optical system passes through the rear nodal point of the lens and adopted for the origin point of the photosensitive surface of the position-sensitive radiation detector. Position-sensitive photodetector (PCF) in conjunction with the electronic device forms a position-sensitive recording system (PCRS). In the process of motion is kinematically connected trucks, due to the deviation of the position of the base rail from a straight line (as in plan and longitudinal profile), as well as the slope of the first truck, is adequate changing the position of the radiating brand, and then, in the process, and the sighting axis of APAU. When this radiant brand and the nodal point of the lens OPAU will always be on the curve equidistant base rail. The specified offset is perceived, OPAU as changing the projection angle at which the visible mark from the nodal point of the lens, or as a shift of the analyzed image of the brand in the plane of the position-sensitive radiation detector by an amount defined by the projections x’, y’ in the Cartesian coordinate system PCRS. Accordingly calculated values

and

(where a is the distance from the nodal point of the lens OPEU to the brand, and s is the distance from the rear principal plane of the volume of tive to the photosensitive surface) of the displacement of the mark M with the sighting axis of APAU, who has caused this shift in the image. The values x, y offset of the brand are associated with simultaneous odometer and level sensors, that is, considered as a function of x(L,u1u2), y(L,u1u2) traveled by the cart path L (where u1u2the tilt angles of the first and second carriages, respectively).

Obtained using the described method, the data to fully describe the curve rails in natural form, in the sense that its equation is not associated with any random choice of the coordinate axes and this equation corresponds to a certain curve. As evidence can be given the following arguments. As noted above, the recorded coordinates x’, y’ brand with adequate accuracy to known values (see further correction function) corners α , β in plan and longitudinal profile, which is visible mark from the nodal point of the lens OPAU.

Figure 1 illustrates consider the way of measuring in terms of rail track. It is obvious that all ratios are stored and for measurements in the longitudinal profile. From theorem sinuses have

where l1specified structurally unchanged distance between the nearest nominally parallel to the axes of the wheel pairs of the first and second carriages; R - the radius is cragnotti, containing the point O And M For the optical imaging system with a corrected aberrations

Thus, for the current value of the path L in the horizontal position of the measuring trucks will have

As

the expression (1) can be represented in the form

In the course of differential geometry [see, for example, Smirnov V.I. Course of higher mathematics, volume II, str, M., 1957] showed that every equation of the form RL=f(L) corresponds to only a certain curve, which was to be proved.

In the practical case of small angles α offset x’Lmuch less than the segment s, and, therefore, can be written

As follows from expressions (1)to(3), the calculated values of RLcan be obtained with any other provision of OPAU along the line of sight to the second measuring trolley, which must be specified by the distance value. This fact is useful when a constructive embodiment of this method.

According to accepted norms, the position of the base rail is set to the corresponding values of fxfythe Central shafts of his bending (in the plan) and trough (prod the flax profile) for a given length of the chord, in function of the distance to the origin of the traversed path.

In connection with this circumstance, it is necessary to move from the generated values of the deviations x(L,u1u2), y(L,u1u2), corresponding structurally defined distances between all wheel pairs, measuring trucks, to the traditional representation of the geometry of the rails. The specified transition easily done as follows. From figure 1 for the magnitude of instrumental boom bending fL(ISM)then there are arrows obtained directly from the measurement results, it is necessary fLu=l2·sinα where l2- the distance between the axes of the wheels of the second truck. Or, neglecting close to unity multiplier cosα ,

It is known that for chords with a small Central angle relationship of the values of the deflection curve is a constant that does not depend on the radius of the curve, and dependent only on the ratio of the distances between the measurement points of the arrows. Proceeding from this position, the Central arrows fLget

If you fulfill the condition l1=l2then the value of fLyou can easily determine how

The considered method of measurement allows precise measurement and in the presence of tilt change is sustained fashion trucks in the transverse profile of the road. For proof please refer to figure 2, which presents the geometric pattern measurements for the case when the axis of the first truck is angled u1. The nominal target position of the first carriage corresponds to the origin O(o)the reference system X(a)About(a), Y(o), which is the Central projection of the coordinate system X’, O’, Y’ position-sensitive photodetector. The location of the origin O’ is determined by the angle u2(mouth)setup OPAU on the measuring trolley. Similarly, the position of the mark M on the first trolley corresponds to the angle u1(mouth). In the General case, u1(mouth)u2(mouth). Figure 2 shows a case of curvature of the path, causing the offset points To a1contact first measuring wheel truck with the base rail on the value of xLin the horizontal plane and the value of yLin the vertical plane. Due to the slope of the first truck on the corner u1in the cross section of the path, mark M will occupy the position identified by the specified angle and distance from its initial installation. Registered OPAU coordinates of the brandwill contain the corresponding corrected error Δ xcor(u1and Δ ycor(u1)caused by coal is the first turn u 1. From figure 2 it is easy to obtain the following expressions for the values of the correction functions

Thus, in the present case, the values of horizontal and vertical shifts of the point of contact To1base rail will be nominal and reference coordinate systems respectively be the same and will be

When the inclination of the second truck of the recorded coordinate values xLm,Lmthe brand will change with the rotation of the reference coordinate system X(a), O(a), Y(a)the angle u2and offset it started at x0(u2and y0(u2) (see figure 3) relative to the nominal system XMr.OMr., YMr..

Registered coordinatesin the new readout system will be the nominal coordinates of the mark M

Thus, knowing the values of c, u1(mouth)u2(mouth)the original design parameters and the current values of the angles u1and u2determined by the level sensors of the first and second trucks, formula (6-12) calculated values of the measured values xL, yL.

After the appropriate substitutions, the General calculation formula will be of imitive:

On the basis of expressions (5) and (13) it is easy to get the values of the Central shafts of the bend in the plan and deflection in the longitudinal profile of the rail road

Thus, it is shown the adequacy of the proposed method of measuring the geometry of the track goals and measuring tasks.

The device (see figure 4 and figure 5) contains the first (in the direction) of the measuring cart 1 and the second measuring carriage 2, which are mounted on rails 3 using kinematic devices towed platform 4, driven hydraulic jacks 5. The carriage 2 is made tricycle containing the rear wheel pair 6 and idler 7. Thus the flanges of the wheels 7 and rear wheels of the pair of wheels 6 mounted on one of the threads rail track 3 taken as the base rail 8 are located on a straight line perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the rear wheel pair 6. These flanges of the wheels, and the wheel flange of the trolley 1 is biased to the side surface of the rail head using the appropriate jacks 9. Thus, the spatial position of the trolley 1 is entirely determined by the position of the base rail and the elevation of outer rail (tilt truck 1). For measuring angles of inclination of the trucks on their lips the determined level sensors 10. For “binding” of the measurement results to the traveled way, that is, to ensure comparability of measurement results to the stationing, cart 2 is an incremental sensor of the traversed path 11 (odometer). On the trolley 2 is rigidly secures the optical receiving and analyzing system 12 (APAU), so that its sighting axis is parallel with the base rail 8. Radiant mark 13, made in the form of an led, mounted on the carriage 1 so that the nominal position of the measuring device (the platform is straight and horizontal section of rail track) it was located on the sighting axis of OPAU 12.

OPAU 12 is connected to the electronic unit selection coordinate information 14, which provides the coordinates of the energy center of the target image 13 on the surface of the position-sensitive photodetector (PCF), part of APAU. The electronic unit 14 and mark 13 is connected to the power supply 15. Coordinate information with the electronic unit 14, as well as information from the level sensor 10 and sensor traversed path 11 is supplied to a hardware-software complex of 16, performing algorithmic processing aggregate information and conclusion the results of this processing, in a form suitable for further use, in particular, the on-screen graphic is the presentation. The output of a hardware-software complex 16 is an output device.

The device operates as follows. During movement of the trailer platform 4 with her moves and the measuring bogie 1 and 2 are clamped to the base rail of the respective hydraulic cylinders 9. When the deviation of the position of the base rail from a straight line is offset from the measuring trolley 1 with respect to the cart 2 and, respectively, the displacement of the radiating brand 13 with the sighting axis of OPAU 12. The electronic unit selection coordinate information 14 generates information about the target position 13 in the coordinate system of OPAU 12, i.e. in the coordinate system rigidly associated with the second measuring carriage 2. In the General case the specified offset can occur both in plan and longitudinal profile of the rail track. The presence of the tilt measuring bogies 1 and 2 leads to inadequate allocated to the electronic unit 14 of the measuring information of the true position identified by the wheels of these trucks points of the base rail in plan and profile rail track. This circumstance caused the inevitable structural destruction of the provisions of OPAU 12 and mark 13 from the base rail. Excluding any such non-conformance and bringing the obtained information to the required type (calculation of values of xL,Lby the formulas (13)), is also computed values of the shafts bend f xLfyL(see expression (14)), as a function of distance traveled (stationing), is a hardware-software complex 16. As additional information necessary to implement the procedures specified correction, hardware-software complex (APC) 16 uses the sensors of the 10 levels, i.e. in the calculation of the injected current values of the angles u1and u2the first and second measuring trucks, respectively. Angle values u1used AIC as output information about the current value of the fragile elevation of the outer rail road. In addition to mapping all measurement data with the stationing on one of the inputs APK signals from the sensor of the traversed path 11. The calculated geometry parameters of railway track, associated with stationing, namely: the position of the path in the plan and the position of the path in the longitudinal profile, as well as the mutual position of rail lines in the level stored in the memory of agriculture, and can be represented graphically on the monitor.

1. The way of measuring the geometry of the track by means of two measuring trucks, interconnected by optical measuring channel, characterized in that the two carts connected kinematically and the second direction of movement of the measuring trolley set opto-electronic receiving and Ana is serwisow system, the sighting axis of which have nominally parallel to base rail, thereby forming the optical measuring base that identifies the position of the base of the rail at the points of tangency of the respective wheel pairs, at first in the direction of movement of the measuring trolley set, at least one source of optical radiation and nominally Orient its position relative to the sighting axis of the opto-electronic receiving and analysis system, and recording the deviations of the position of the base rail from direct, arising from the movement of trucks, as the shift in the source of optical radiation from the nominal position with respect to the sighting axis of the opto-electronic receiving and analysis system, compare the obtained data with mileage trucks distance (by), the received information is processed in hardware-software complex, which algorithmic processing of information in a form suitable for further use, for example, in a display, the graphical representation indicating the parameters of the geometry of the track, including arrows bend.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the receive expression for the Central shafts of the bend in the plan and deflection in the longitudinal profile of the track:

where xL, yL, respectively horizon is & vertical components of the shift of the point of contact of the base rail and the first movement of the measuring wheel with a straight line, passing through the contact point of the second and third wheels;

l1- the distance between the nearest nominally parallel to the axes of the wheel pairs of the first and second carriages;

l2- the distance between the axes of the measuring wheels of the second truck.

3. Device for measuring the geometry of the track containing two measuring trucks, the first of which (in the direction of travel) is the source of light radiation, and the second detector, wherein the radiation detector is an opto-electronic receiving and analyzing system, the sighting axis of which is in nominal position (straight and horizontal section of rail track) is parallel to the base rail and provides a source of radiation, both carts are kinematically linked transporting means and on both bogies installed level sensors, and one sensor is traversed path when this optical receiving and analyzing system connected to the electronic device allocation coordinate information connected with the software-hardware complex algorithmic processing aggregate information, which, in turn, connected to the level sensor and the traversed path.

4. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the second m is I the trolley is made tricycle, containing the rear wheel pair and a steering wheel, while the flanges of the idler and the rear pair of wheels mounted on one of the threads rail adopted as the base of the rail, are located on one straight line perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the rear wheel pair.



 

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1 dwg

FIELD: measuring instruments.

SUBSTANCE: the interferometer for controlling of the form of prominent, concave spherical and flat surfaces of large-sized optical components has a source of monochromatic radiation, a collimator and an objective, one after another located a beam divider, a flat mirror and an aplanatic meniscus with a reference surface and also an observation branch located behind the beam divider in beam return and a working branch consisting out of a spherical mirror with a compensator which form a focusing system. Depending of the form of a controlled surface focusing of the working branch of the interferometer is executed at replacing the compensator and the basic block of the interferometer which has an illuminating branch. A beam divider, a flat mirror, an aplanatic meniscus and an observation branch relative to a fully stabilized spherical mirror along an optical axis on such a distance at which the beams reflected from the spherical mirror fall on the controlled surface transversely to its surface.

EFFECT: expansion of nomenclature of controlled surfaces, decreasing large-sized dimensions of the interferometer.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: rolled stock production.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes unit for measuring length; additional unit and converter forming signal for cutting. Additional unit is in the form of two slit type sliding guides mounted with possibility of measuring distance between them according to width B of rolled strip. Length of guides l = (18 - 21)√B, width of slits (0.05 - 0.07)B. Unit for measuring length of rolled strip is in the form of optical sensor on base of light sensitive matrix having in bottom portion inlet opening. Said sensor is connected with converter. Measuring unit is spaced by distance b = (0.15 -0.22)B from one lateral edge of rolled strip and it is mounted in such a way that distance from inlet opening of measuring unit till surface of rolled strip along height is equal to 3 - 5 mm.

EFFECT: lowered metal consumption, enhanced consumers' properties of rolled strip due to high accuracy of cutting it.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the article to be tested on the working table, moving the nonflatness meter, determining the amplitude of nonflatness, and determining coefficients of nonflatness. The device comprises source of light, multielement photodetector, objective, and computer.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: measuring arrangements.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises unmovable base provided with the first cantilever, two carriages provided with drives controllable with a computer, pickup of linear movements, arrangement for mounting blade and first measuring channel connected with the computer. The first carriage is mounted on the unmovable base and is made for permitting movement parallel to the X-axis. The first measuring passage is defined by the optoelectronic head and units secured to the unmovable base, third carriage provided with an actuator controlled by a computer and pickup of linear displacements, second measuring channel, first and scone markers of the blade with actuating members controlled by a computer, arrangement setting the blade mounted on the first carriage and made for permitting rigid orientation of the blade in the vertical plane, second and third carriages arranged on the first and second cantilevers, respectively, and made for permitting movement parallel to the Z-axis, first and second markers of the blade, fiber optic heads of the first and second measuring channels arranged on the second and third carriages from the both sides of the study blade. The objectives of the fiber optic heads are mounted for permitting triangulation link of the photodetector with the sourced through the blade surface of the blade to be tested.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

6 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method and device with forming of even-signal basic line are based on direct measurements method different from zero, error signal is recorded having linear dependence from displacement value, which in turn depends on all measuring distances only from normal error signal with constant proportionality coefficient. This is achieved due to mounting of bright elongated lighting system before input pupils and also photo-detecting system with square receiver of square diaphragms of different sizes, realization of recording of distribution of radiation level in focus plane of receiver system and normalizing error signal to basic level.

EFFECT: higher precision and sensitivity.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; permanent way testing facilities.

SUBSTANCE: method of pulling contact system cable comes to the following: each rail 6 is read off by means of distance pickup 16 placed over rail and moved continuously in longitudinal direction of track and scanning in plane 20 passing square to longitudinal direction of track. Problem points of measurement 25 on rail defining geometry of switch are recorded as measurement values in polar system of coordinates. Polar coordinates for measurement values are converted into Cartesian coordinates and information is recorded in memory at continuous measurements of distance by means of measuring wheel after which lateral section for switch 1 is calculated basing on recorded measurement values. Actual measurement values are compared in definite points of measurement 25 with preset values of at least two of enumerated parameters kept in memory, namely, width of clearance between counter-rail and running rail, through clearance or state of tongue as to its wear, minimum width between edge of guide rail and side edge of running rail in curve, width of gauge and/or distance between counter-rails or guide surfaces and deviation of obtained values from preset values. In device for noncontact measurement of lateral section or rail-to-rail distance of track, each pickup 16 is arranged in area over corresponding rail 6 being essentially laser scanner 17 for reading problem points of measurement 25 defining geometry of switch which is made for reciprocation at angle of scanning (α).

EFFECT: provision of quick and accurate determination and evaluation of measurands of vital importance for switch.

4 cl, 6 dwg

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