Pulse-current simulator of nuclear reactor kinetics

FIELD: analog computer engineering; verifying nuclear reactor reactivity meters (reactimeters).

SUBSTANCE: proposed simulator has m threshold devices, m threshold selector switches, m series-connected decade amplifiers, m electronic commutators, n - m - 1 series-connected decade frequency dividers, first group of m parallel-connected frequency selector switches, second group of n - m frequency selector switches, and group of n - m parallel-connected mode selector switches. Integrated inputs of threshold selector switches are connected to output of high-voltage amplifier and output of each threshold selector switch, to input of respective threshold device; output of each threshold device is connected to control input of respective electronic commutator; inputs of electronic commutators are connected to outputs of decade amplifiers and outputs are integrated with output of group of mode selector switches and with input of voltage-to-frequency converter; output of inverting amplifier is connected to input of first decade amplifier and to that of group of mode selector switches; input of first group of frequency selector switches is connected to output of voltage-to-frequency converter and to input of first decade frequency divider and output, to integrated outputs of first group of frequency selector switches and to input of division-chamber pulse shaper input; each of inputs of second group of frequency selector switches is connected to input of respective decade frequency divider except for last one of this group of switches whose input is connected to output of last decade frequency divider; threshold selector switches and frequency selector switches of first group, as well as m current selector switches have common operating mechanism; mode selector and frequency selector switches of second group have common operating mechanism with remaining n - m current selector switches. Such design makes it possible to realize Coulomb law relationship at all current ranges of simulator for current and frequency channels.

EFFECT: ability of verifying pulse-current input reactimeters by input signals adequate to signals coming from actual neutron detector.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of analog computing techniques and can be used for calibration of measurement devices reactivity of nuclear reactors (reectometer).

A device simulation of the reactor [1], comprising three serially connected integrator, an additional integrator, summing amplifier, multiplier and inverting amplifier.

The drawbacks are the only value specified reactivity and play reactivity in simplified form: odnogruppovoy model of delayed neutrons.

Known kinetics simulator of a nuclear reactor [2], containing the measuring amplifier is covered by the feedback, consisting of six RC-chains, inverting amplifier, the group of input resistors with keys set the value of reactivity, the resistors forming the output current with the keys to select the current value, the switch of the sign of the reactance, the inverter voltage, frequency, pulse shaper current fission chamber and the high-voltage amplifier. In this simulator addressed the shortcomings associated with odnogruppovoy simplified model of delayed neutrons and expanded the range of values specified reactively.

The disadvantage of this simulator is that when in pulsed-current mode, it provides the mitaly, adequate the actual signal pulse-current sensor on one of my current bands. When adequate simulation of the output signals of the simulator in all its current sub-bands should be the ratio I=Q* F (Coulomb's law), where I is the output current at the current output of the simulator, the corresponding current pulse current camera division of real neutron detector, F is the frequency of the current pulses at the frequency output of the simulator corresponding to the frequency of the pulse current pulse current fission chamber, Q is the unit charge pulse current fission chamber.

The invention solves the problem of creating a pulsed-current kinetics simulator of a nuclear reactor, which allows to increase the reliability of the verification of reectometer with pulsed-current input.

The technical result, which is achieved by the solution of the set task is to ensure that all current sub-bands of the simulator execution ratio of Coulomb's law for current and frequency channels, which allows verification of reectometer with pulsed-current input on the input signals, adequate signals with real neutron detector.

The technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the known pulse-current kinetics simulator of a nuclear reactor containing sequentially VK is Uchenye measuring amplifier, covered by the feedback, consisting of six RC-chains, and inverting amplifier, the group of input resistors with switch keys, combined with the input of the measuring amplifier, high-voltage amplifier with an input connected to the output of the inverting amplifier, the n parallel-connected sequential chain of resistors forming the output current and keys select the amount of current in each of which the beginning is combined with the output voltage of the amplifier, and ends - with a current output of the simulator, the selector switch of the sign of the reactance, the first input connected to the output of the measuring amplifier and the second input with the output of the inverting amplifier, and the output switch combined with the keys of the group of input resistors, the inverter voltage, frequency and pulse shaper current fission chamber, the output of which is frequency output of the simulator, added m threshold devices, m keys to select the threshold, the m series-connected decade amplifiers, m e switches, n-m-1 series-connected decade of frequency dividers, the first group of m connected in parallel key selection frequency, a second group of n-m keys to select the frequency band of the n-m connected in parallel key selection mode, and the combined inputs of keys choice of threshold enter uceni to the output of high voltage amplifier, and the output of each of the key selection threshold is connected to the input of the threshold device, the output of each of which is connected to the control input of the electronic switch, the inputs of electronic switches connected to the outputs of decade amplifiers, and the outputs combined with the output of the group of selection keys mode and the inverter input voltage - frequency output of the inverting amplifier is connected to the input of the first decade of the amplifier and to the input of a group of selection keys mode, the input of the first group of selection keys frequency is connected to the inverter output voltage and frequency to the input of the first decade of the frequency divider, and the output is combined with the outputs of the second group of selection keys frequency and with the input of the shaper current pulse fission chamber, each of the inputs of the second group of selection keys frequency connected to the input of its decadal frequency divider, except the last in this group of keys, whose input is connected to the output of the last decade frequency divider, and the keys of the choice of the threshold and keys to select the frequency of the first group have the same drive with the first m keys select the current value and selection keys mode and keys to select the frequency of the second group have the same drive with the remaining n-m keys to select the current value. Voltage threshold Ui (C) of the i-th threshold device is selected

p> Ui=Ri* Q* Fmax, where

where m=lg (Imax/Q* Fmax);

Imax=I1- maximum output current simulator, [And];

Fm maximum frequency Converter voltage - frequency corresponding to the maximum output voltage of the inverting amplifier [pulse/sec];

Ri=Unom/Ii - resistance of the first resistor to generate an output current [Om];

Unom is the nominal output voltage of the high voltage amplifier [In];

Ii=10Ii+1- the current value of i-current range [A];

Q is the unit charge pulse current camera division [To].

The features that distinguish the proposed kinetics simulator from the prototype, the presence of m threshold devices, m keys to select the threshold, the m series-connected decade amplifiers, m e switches, n-m-1 series-connected decade of frequency dividers, the first group of m connected in parallel key selection frequency, a second group of n-m keys to select the frequency band of the n-m connected in parallel key selection mode. The combined inputs of keys choice of the threshold is connected to the output of the high-voltage amplifier, and the output of each of the key selection threshold is connected to the input of the threshold device, the output of each of which is connected to the control input of the electronic switch, the inputs of electronic switches connected to o the DAMI decadal amplifiers, and the outputs combined with the output of the group of selection keys mode and the inverter input voltage - frequency output of the inverting amplifier is connected to the input of the first decade of the amplifier and to the input of a group of selection keys mode, the input of the first group of selection keys frequency is connected to the inverter output voltage and frequency to the input of the first decade of the frequency divider, and the output is combined with the outputs of the second group of selection keys and frequency to the input of the shaper current pulse fission chamber, each of the inputs of the second group of selection keys frequency connected to the input of its decadal frequency divider, except the last in this group of keys, the entrance of which connected to the output of the last decade frequency divider, and the keys of the choice of the threshold and keys to select the frequency of the first group have the same drive with the first m keys select the current value and selection keys mode and keys to select the frequency of the second group have the same drive with the remaining n-m keys to select the current value. Voltage threshold Ui [In] the i-th threshold device is selected

Ui=Ri*Q* Fmax,

wherewhere m=lg(Imax/Q* Fmax);

Imax=I1- maximum output current simulator [Ah];

Fmax is the maximum frequency of the inverter voltage - frequency corresponding to maximum the output voltage of the inverting amplifier [pulse/sec];

Ri=Unom/Ii - resistance of the first resistor to generate an output current [Om];

Unom is the nominal output voltage of the high voltage amplifier [In];

Ii=10Ii+1- the current value of i-current range [A];

Q is the unit charge pulse current camera division [To].

The combination of the above features allows you to provide on any of the selected current sub-bands of the simulator output pulse current signal simulator to the real signal pulse current camera division, subject to the Coulomb law.

The drawing shows a diagram of pulsed electric-current kinetics simulator of a nuclear reactor.

The simulator contains a group 1 input resistor with switch keys, measuring amplifier 2, is covered by feedback, consisting of six RC chains, the switch 3 the choice of the sign of reactivity, inverting amplifier 4, the high-voltage amplifier 5, group 6 chains of resistors forming the output current and keys select the size of the current group 7 threshold devices with keys choice of the threshold, the group of 8 electronic switches, group 9 decadal amplifiers, the group 10 of keys mode is selected, the inverter 11, the voltage-frequency group 12 decadal frequency dividers, the first group of 13 keys to select the frequency, the second group 14 keys frequency selection and formirovanie the ü 15 current pulse fission chamber.

Group 1 input resistor with switch keys connected on the one hand to the input of the measuring amplifier 2, and on the other to the output of the switch 3 the choice of the sign of reactivity. The first input of the switch 3 is connected to the output of the measuring amplifier 2, is covered by feedback, consisting of six RC chains. The output of the amplifier 2 is connected with the input of the inverting amplifier 4 and the second input of the switch 3 is connected to the connection point between the output of the inverting amplifier 4, the input voltage of the amplifier 5, the input of the first decade of the amplifier group 9 decadal amplifiers and input group 10 of keys mode selection. Group 7 threshold devices with keys select the threshold from the keys connected to the output voltage of the amplifier 5 and to the input group 6 chains of resistors forming the output current and keys select the current value, the output of which is a current output of the simulator. Group 7 threshold devices with keys select the threshold from the threshold device is connected to respective control inputs of the electronic switches of the group 8 of the electronic switches, the inputs of which are connected to the corresponding outputs of decade amplifiers group 9 decadal amplifiers, and the outputs combined with the output of the group 10 of keys mode is selected and input to the Converter 11, the voltage-frequency. The outputs of the first group 13 and W the Roy group 14 key selection frequency connected to the input of the shaper 15 current pulse fission chamber, the output of which is frequency output of the simulator. Each of the inputs of the second group 14 key selection frequency connected to the input of one of the decadal frequency dividers group 12 decadal frequency dividers, except the last in this group of keys, which is connected to the output of the last decade frequency divider. The entrance of the first group 13 keys to select the frequency is connected to the output of the inverter 11, the voltage-frequency and with the input of the first decade of the amplifier group 12 decadal amplifiers.

Pulsed-current simulator works as follows.

Work current channel simulator is identical to the operation of the prototype. Namely, if necessary, to form a signal with a positive reactivity switch 3 is set to the position “+” and with the closure of one of the keys group 1 input resistors begins the process of increasing the output of the signal amplifier 2 and the inverter 4. The rate of change of the output signal, the value of which is determined by the selected input resistor corresponds to the rate of change of the current from the detector is installed in a nuclear reactor. The output signal from the inverter 4 is fed to the input voltage of the amplifier 5. The output voltage of the amplifier 5, a signal is generated with a nominal level of 100, which, through one of the selected key group 6 resistors forming closing the current supplied to the current output of the simulator. At this level of the output voltage of the amplifier 5, the output resistance of the simulator in the range of operating currents of the simulator 10-9-10-3And respectively 100 d - 100 ohms, which is close to the values of the output resistance of the real neutron detector.

A negative value of reactivity is established by switching the switch 3 in position “-”. Starts the discharge of the capacitors in the feedback circuit of the amplifier 2. The current at the current output of the simulator is reduced from nominal to minimum values.

The basis for the construction of the pulse channel simulator accepted the position, according to which for any of the selected current ranges simulator on its frequency output relative to the current output should be the ratio of Coulomb's law, characteristic of the real neutron detector:

I=Q* F, where

I is the current at the current output of the simulator [Ah];

F - frequency current pulses at the frequency output of the simulator [pulse/sec];

Q is the unit charge pulse current camera division [To].

It is provided as follows. Selects the number n used in the circuit simulator current subranges and values of the upper limits generated currents in them, the number m of decadal amplifiers in accordance with the expression m=lg(Imax/Q* Fmax) (gain what about the voltage decadal amplifier is equal to 10) and the number n-m-1 decadal frequency dividers (divider ratio of the frequency decadal frequency divider is equal to 10). Selected Fmax is the maximum frequency of the inverter voltage - frequency corresponding to the maximum output voltage of the inverting amplifier 4 [pulse/sec]. Selects the resistors generate an output current in accordance with the expression Ri=Unom/Ii. Selected voltage threshold trigger Ui [V] for each of the m threshold devices in accordance with the expression Ui=Ri* Q* Fmax.

For further explanation of the operation of the pulse channel set specific values Imax, Q, n (n is the number of the current sub-bands of the simulator corresponding to the number of parallel-connected sequential chain of resistors forming the output current and keys select the current value in group 6). Select the charge Q=10-13K, corresponding to a neutron detector based on pulsed-current camera type SIC-15. Select seven of the current sub-bands of the simulator used in the calibration of reectometer in most practical cases. Upper limits are formed on these sub-bands currents is 10-9, 10-8, 10-7, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4, 10-3A. Set the maximum frequency of output pulses of the simulator corresponding to the maximum voltage at the output of inverting amplifier 4: Fmax=106pulse/sec. Calculate the parameters m, n-m, n-m-1, the nominal amount corresponds to the additional elements, introduced into the circuit simulator in accordance with the invention, as well as resistance Ri of the resistors forming the output current of the simulator and the voltage thresholds triggering Ui [V] for each of the above devices:

m=lg(Imax/Q* Fmax)=4,

n-m=3,

n-m-1=2,

R1=Unom/I1=100/10-3=105Ohm

R2=Unom/I2=100/10-4=106Ohm

R3=Unom/I3=100/10-5=107Ohm

R4=Unom/I4=100/10-6=108Ohm

R5=Unom/I5=100/10-7=109Ohm

R6=Unom/I6=100/10-8=1010Ohm

R7=Unom/I6=100/10-9=1011Ohm

Fe1=R1*Q* Fmax=105*10-13*106=0,01 B,

Fe2=R2*Q* Fmax=106*10-13*106=0,1,

Fe3=R3*Q* Fmax=107*1013*106=1,

Fe4=R4*Q* Fmax=108*10-13*106=10th Century

Select the first current subrange of the simulator with the upper limit of the generated current of 10-3And, having closed the first key in the group 6 of the resistors forming the output current and keys select the current value (here and below used the following numbering key: in groups of 6, 10, 13, 14 - numbering the key is down, and in the group of 7 - right to left). Simultaneously will be closed are located on the shared drive of the first key group 7 threshold device and the first key of the first group 13 keys to select the frequency. Thus the output voltage of the amplifier is connected to the first threshold device with a threshold of 0.01, and the output of the inverter 11, the voltage-frequency connected to the input of the shaper 15 current pulse fission chamber. Each threshold device 7 is configured so that when the voltage at its input is below the threshold it includes connected therewith, the switch group 8, and at a voltage above the threshold level - disables it.

Consider forming a signal corresponding to the negative reactivity. When this current channel simulator works as described above, in the pulse channel, the following occurs. In the initial state, the output voltage of the high voltage amplifier 5 above the threshold level connected to the first threshold device, therefore, controlled by this threshold device switch group 8 disabled as well as the rest of the switches of group 8. Thus, the input to the Converter 11, the voltage - frequency signal is not available and, accordingly, the frequency output of the simulator is no signal. In the process of reduction of the output voltage in sociolingo amplifier 5, it reaches the first threshold value, when this first threshold device connects through the switch to the input of the inverter 11, the voltage - frequency chain of four series-connected decade amplifiers group 9, the entrance of which is filed with the output voltage of the inverting amplifier 4. Since the achieved output voltage of the amplifier 5, the threshold voltage is four orders of magnitude lower than the nominal voltage of this amplifier (Fe1=0,01; ur=100 V), this time at the output of inverting amplifier 4, the voltage also four orders of magnitude below the maximum voltage of the amplifier corresponding to the maximum frequency of the Converter 11, the voltage-frequency. This voltage is amplified by four order by a chain of four decadal amplifiers, resulting in the input of the Converter 11 receives a voltage corresponding to the maximum output frequency of 106pulse/sec. Pulses with a frequency of 106pulse/sec from the output of the Converter 11 through the first key of the first group 13 keys to select the frequency fed to the input of the driver 15 and the frequency output of the simulator is a signal simulating the output pulses of the neutron detector. At the same time for output current simulator on the current output (I=Fe1/R1=0,01/105=10-7A) and the frequency output of the simulator on the frequency output (106pulse/sec) is yspolnjatsja the ratio of Coulomb's law:

Q=I/F=10-7[A]/106[pulse/sec]=10-13K.

This ratio will be continued during the ongoing testing of the simulator signal of negative reactivity.

Similarly will be practiced by the simulator negative reactivity when selecting one of the first m current ranges: 10-4And (Fe2=0,1, connected three decadal amplifier), 10-5And (Fe3=1 In the connected two decadal amplifier), 10-6And (Fe4=10 V, connected one decade amplifier). That is, when running the simulator on one of the first m of the current sub-bands will first take place only when the signal at its current output, and by reducing the output current to the level of 10-7And will receive the signal frequency output of the simulator that satisfies the relation of Coulomb's law with respect to the signal current output of the simulator. When choosing a current sub-band m+1 (in this case, the fifth current sub-range with the upper limit of the generated current of 10-7(A) included both located on the shared drive keys: the fifth key from a group of 6 keys to select the value of the output current, the first key group 10 of keys mode is selected and the first key of the second group 14 keys to select the frequency. This is the mode that corresponds to the prototype of the invention, when the output of inverting the of silicula 4 is directly connected to the input of the inverter 11, the output of which, in turn, is connected to the input of the driver 15, and immediately after you turn the simulator on its current and frequency outputs appear signals that satisfy the ratio of Coulomb's law. Similarly simultaneously receive the signals on the current and frequency outputs of the simulator when choosing a sixth current range with the upper limit of the generated current of 10-8And, when jointly included: the sixth key from a group of 6 keys to select the value of the output current, the second key group 10 of keys choice of mode and the second key of the second group 14 keys to select the frequency. In this case, the output of the inverting amplifier 4 is still connected to the input of the Converter 11, the output of which is connected to the input of the driver 15 through the first decade frequency divider group 12 decadal frequency dividers, which provides a divide by 10 output frequency of the Converter 11, thereby executing the ratio of Coulomb's law for the outputs of the simulator. Indeed, when the selected primary output current of 105And the output of the inverter 11, the pulse frequency is equal to 106pulse/sec, and after division by 10 decadal frequency divider to the input of the shaper 15 will be filed pulses with a frequency of 105pulse/sec. Accordingly, the output of the simulator will be run by the ratio of Coulomb's law:

Q=I/F=10-8[A]/10sup> 5[pulse/sec]=10-13K.

This ratio will be maintained in the process of reduction of the output signal simulator that accompanies negative reactivity.

When choosing a seventh current range with the upper limit of the generated current of 10-9And will be included: the seventh key from a group of 6 keys to select the value of the output current, the third key from group 10 of keys and mode selection, and the third key of the second group 14 keys to select the frequency. The output of the inverter 11 is connected to the input of the shaper 15 two decadal frequency divider from a group of 12, which provide a divide by 100 output frequency of the Converter 11. Thus, in this case, there is an execution ratio of Coulomb's law:

Q=I/F=10-9[A]/104[pulse/sec]=10-13K.

Similarly, but in reverse order will be processes in the circuit simulator in the formation of signals with positive reactivity.

As a Converter, the voltage-frequency can be used chip 1108 FG1; measuring amplifier, the inverter and the high voltage amplifier can be performed on the chip AD, AD; threshold device on the Comparators CSA supplied input limiters voltage; a switch - on chips CP; decadal frequency dividers - counter IE, and resistors to build the project output current can be used resistors MPX, MSG.

References

1. Byakugan. Electronic simulations and their application to the study of automatic control systems. Moscow. 1963, str, RES.

2. RF patent №2211485, G 06 G 7/48, bull. No. 24, 2003

1. Pulsed-current kinetics simulator of a nuclear reactor containing series-connected measuring amplifier covered by the feedback, consisting of six RC chains, and inverting amplifier, the group of input resistors with switch keys, combined with the input of the measuring amplifier, high-voltage amplifier with an input connected to the output of the inverting amplifier, the n parallel-connected sequential chain of resistors forming the output current and keys select the amount of current in each of which the beginning is combined with the output voltage of the amplifier, and ends - with a current output of the simulator, the selector switch of the sign of the reactance, the first input connected to the output of the measuring amplifier and the second input with the output of the inverting amplifier, and the output switch is combined with a key group of input resistors, the inverter voltage, frequency and pulse shaper current fission chamber, the output of which is frequency output of the simulator, characterized in that it additionally introduced m threshold devices, m is Luca choice of a threshold, m series-connected decade amplifiers, m e switches, n-m-1 series-connected decade of frequency dividers, the first group of m connected in parallel key selection frequency, a second group of n-m keys to select the frequency band of the n-m connected in parallel key selection mode, and the combined inputs of keys choice of the threshold is connected to the output of the high-voltage amplifier, and the output of each of the key selection threshold is connected to the input of the threshold device, the output of each of which is connected to the control input of the electronic switch, the inputs of electronic switches connected to the outputs of decade amplifiers, and the outputs combined with the output of the group of selection keys mode and the inverter input voltage - frequency output of the inverting amplifier is connected to the input of the first decade of the amplifier and to the input of a group of selection keys mode, the input of the first group of selection keys frequency is connected to the inverter output voltage and frequency to the input of the first decade of the frequency divider, and the output is combined with the outputs of the second group of selection keys and frequency to the input of the shaper current pulse fission chamber, each of the inputs of the second group of selection keys frequency connected to the input of its decadal frequency divider except the last in this group of keys, the entrance to the which is connected to the exit of the last decade frequency divider, moreover, the keys of the choice of the threshold and keys to select the frequency of the first group have the same drive with the first m keys select the current value and selection keys mode and keys to select the frequency of the second group have the same drive with the remaining n-m keys to select the current value.

2. Pulsed-current kinetics simulator of a nuclear reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the voltage threshold Ui, (B), the i-th threshold device is selected

Ui=Ri·Q·Fmax,

wherewhere m=lg (Imax/Q·Fmax);

Imax=I1- maximum output current simulator, [And];

Fmax is the maximum frequency of the inverter voltage - frequency corresponding to the maximum output voltage of the inverting amplifier, [pulse/sec];

Ri=Unom/Ii - resistance of the first resistor to generate an output current [Om];

Unom is the nominal output voltage of the high voltage amplifier [In];

Ii=10 Ii+1- the current value of the i-th current range [A];

Q is the unit charge pulse current fission chamber, [To].



 

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The invention relates to computer technology and can be used for circular networks

FIELD: electromechanical systems.

SUBSTANCE: device containing engine, first reducer, first rotation angle sensor, digital computing machine, first digital input-output device, first amplifier, additionally has second reducer, second rotation angle sensor, third rotation angle sensor, second amplifier, first phase-code converter, second phase code converter, third phase-code converter, first generator of broad-pulse modulated signal, second generator of broad-pulse modulated signal, serial interface adapter, second digital input-output device, interconnected by appropriate links.

EFFECT: higher precision, higher quality of transfer processes in a system when decreasing level of generated interference.

1 dwg

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