Method of determining mass fraction of high explosive in elastic explosive containing fluoroplastic-4, plasticizer dos, and rubbers skd and skn-18 or bnks-18
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to determining mass fraction of high explosive, such as hexogen, octogen or tetranitropentaerythritol, in deflagrating explosives and can be used in control of manufacture quality for elastic explosives containing special additives, such as indicated above. Sample elastic explosive is rolled into tape 0.2-0.3 mm thick and treated with carbon tetrachloride. High explosive present in sample is dissolved in acetone and residue is removed from the solution. Resultant solution is evaporated and remaining high explosive is dried and weighed.
EFFECT: assured determination safety, increased determination accuracy, and reduced consumption of materials and time.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
The invention relates to methods for determining the mass fraction of high explosives (he) in elastic CENTURIES, containing processing AIDS - fluoroplastic-4, plasticizer DOS and polymeric binder is a rubber SKD and SKN-18 or BNKS-18, intended for the manufacture of the charges of a variety of geometric shapes for different purposes (detonating cords, wiring etc), and can be used for quality control production data the elastic CENTURIES.
Blasting EXPLOSIVES are the basis of elastic CENTURIES. The decrease in mass fraction of blasting EXPLOSIVES in elastic CENTURIES leads to decrease in characteristics such as sensitivity to initial pulse, the speed of detonation, critical diameter, which leads to changes in the explosive properties of charges, up to the failure of the charge. The increase of mass fraction of blasting EXPLOSIVES increases the risk of production and handling of products, as well as to changes in a number of explosive characteristics. Therefore, the optimal control mass fraction of blasting EXPLOSIVES is of great importance to assess the suitability of this elastic CENTURIES.
There is a method of determining the mass fraction of RDX in elastic CENTURIES EG-85 (see THE 84-1127-87, GR No. 030/000800 from 01.02.88 g), which is a composition based on the RDX, a polymeric binder and additives. In quality the ve polymer binder is used a mixture of rubber SKD and SKN-18 or BNKS-18. As technological additives are used fluoroplastic-4 and plasticizer DOS. This method is based on potentiometric titration of RDX in the environment of the acetone solution of Quaternary ammonium hydroxide base in isopropyl alcohol. The method is used for the prototype.
The method includes the following successive stages:
1. Determination of the coefficient of microemboli RDX the party, which was used in the manufacture of substances EG-85.
The determination is carried out in the environment of the acetone solution of hydroxide of Quaternary ammonium bases. The results of the build definition titration curve and find the point of equivalence. The coefficient of microemboli RDX calculated according to the formula, using the correction factor to a solution of Quaternary ammonium hydroxide base, determined by potentiometric titration of the exact weight of benzoic acid dissolved in acetone.
2. Determination of the mass fraction of RDX in elastic CENTURIES EG-85.
A portion of the sample substances EG-85 dissolved in acetone at room temperature. Dissolution may take up to 16 hours. Then the resulting solution is titrated with a solution of Quaternary ammonium hydroxide base. The results build titration curve and find the point of equivalence. Fraction of total mass of RDX expect p the formula, given a certain early factor tiremote RDX.
The disadvantages of the prototype should be considered:
- a long time of dissolution of the sample (16 hours);
- risk process and the additional complexity associated with the necessity of determining the coefficient of microemboli RDX;
- the long duration of analysis (at least two days);
- the need for preparation and determination of the correction coefficient of a solution of Quaternary ammonium hydroxide base;
- the complexity of determining the equivalence point and the processing results;
- the use of scarce reagents (Quaternary ammonium hydroxide base) and expensive equipment (pH meter or ionomer glass-pair of silver chloride electrode);
the insensitivity of the electrodes, the need for additional processing and testing them on the potential difference.
An object of the invention is to develop a method of determining the mass fraction of blasting EXPLOSIVES in elastic CENTURIES, containing as a polymeric binder rubber SKD, SKN-18 or BNKS-18 and technological additives (fluoroplastic-4, plasticizer DOS), which allows to obtain reliable data while saving time, money, and enhance the safety analysis. As blasting EXPLOSIVES elastic Wmget to contain RDX, HMX or ten.
The task is solved by the fact that the analyzed sample elastic CENTURIES previously acalculia in leaf thickness of 0.2 - 0.3 mm, followed by the separation blasting EXPLOSIVES from a polymeric binder and additives according to the following scheme:
a) remove the polymer binder by processing carbon tetrachloride at a temperature of 70÷80°C for 1 hour;
b) dissolve blasting EXPLOSIVES in acetone at a temperature of 50÷60°C for 1 hour;
c) insoluble residue technological additives are removed from the solution;
d) the resulting solution is evaporated and the residue blasting EXPLOSIVES is dried at a temperature of (60±3)°C for 1 hour.
Mass share of blasting EXPLOSIVES (X1) in percent is calculated by the formula:
where m1is the mass of sediment blasting EXPLOSIVES, g;
m2is the mass of the sample elastic BB, ,
The technical result is that there is no need to use in the analysis of control sample for blasting EXPLOSIVES (thereby reduces the danger of the process), but also expensive and difficult to handle pH meters or INMETRO. The reagents used in the analysis by the proposed method are available. The total time required for analysis by the proposed method is about 4 hours (the La comparison - for the actual analysis method prototype must have at least two days). The method is simple and requires no special skills.
The results of determining the mass fraction of blasting EXPLOSIVES in elastic CENTURIES, containing as a polymeric binder rubber SKD and SKN-18 or BNKS-18 and technological additives (fluoroplastic-4, plasticizer DOS), the proposed method are presented in table 1. Calculations are for norms of tolerance of contents for blasting EXPLOSIVES (85±2) %. As blasting EXPLOSIVES used RDX, HMX and PETN.
The calculations were performed in the following sequence:
10 (n=10) parallel definitions of xifor each blasting EXPLOSIVES were calculated arithmetic meanand standard deviation of Siby the following formulas:
- assessed the results of parallel measurements for the presence of abnormal values:
Compared UBtable-valued criterion for excluding abnormal results Um(Um=2,294) for a given sample size f (f=n-2=10-2=8) at p = 0.95. Abnormal values among the obtained xino, because Uin<Um:
UHuck is ogen =1,47<2,294; UHMX=1,58<2,294; UHeater=1,47<2,294.
- identified unbiased estimates of σifor Si:
where M9=1,028 (correction factor from table), n is the number of tests.
- calculated the coefficient of variation:
From table 2 it is seen that the results of analyses No. 2, 4, 6, and 9 do not fit into the norm of tolerance (85±2)%. Conducted during the processing of the results of check for the presence of abnormal values according to the criterion set forth in GOST 11.002-73 showed that the results of No. 2, 4, 6 and 9 abnormal and should be excluded. The remaining results are underestimated from the norm, perhaps due to incomplete dissolution of the RDX because of the presence of rubbers and complexity determine jump capability.
The invention is illustrated by the following examples of implementation:
The analyzed sample elastic CENTURIES weighing 0.25 g pre atualizando in leaf thickness 0.25 mm, weighed, placed in a conical flask with a capacity of 100 cm3. In the flask was poured 50 cm3carbon tetrachloride and lead to dissolution of the polymer binder at a temperature of 70°C for 1 hour. If the solution boils, the flask add the required amount tetrachloride angle of the ode.
Nerastvorim residue is placed in a pre-dried and weighed beaker 50 cm3, poured 40 cm3acetone and lead the dissolution of blasting EXPLOSIVES at a temperature of 50°C for 1 hour. In the case of the boiling solution, in a glass add the required amount of acetone. Nerastvorim the remainder of technological additives are removed from the solution and washed with 15 cm3acetone, adding a wash solution to the solution analyzed for blasting EXPLOSIVES in acetone.
Then, the solution in the beaker is evaporated almost to dryness, the residue is blasting EXPLOSIVES is dried at a temperature of (60±3)°C for 1 hour, cooled and weighed.
The sequence of actions similar to that shown in example 1.
Changed the following conditions analysis:
- temperature dissolution of the polymeric binder in carbon tetrachloride 80°C;
- temperature dissolution of blasting EXPLOSIVES in acetone 60°C.
The results of determining the mass fraction of blasting EXPLOSIVES in elastic CENTURIES according to the examples shown in table 1 (example 1 - No. of analyses 1÷5, example 2, no analysis 6÷10).
Changing temperature regimes in example 2 upwards (the temperature of dissolution of the polymer binder in carbon tetrachloride > 80°C, the temperature of the dissolution of blasting EXPLOSIVES in acetone > 60° C) leads to a rapid boil these solvents (boiling point of carbon tetrachloride ~ 77,5°and the boiling point of acetone ~ 57° (C) and rapid evaporation, which creates an explosive situation.
Changing temperature regimes in example 1 in the downward direction (the temperature of dissolution of the polymer binder in carbon tetrachloride < 70°C, the temperature of the dissolution of blasting EXPLOSIVES in acetone < 50° (C) leads to incomplete dissolution of the polymeric binder and, as a consequence, restricting access to high EXPLOSIVES when its subsequent dissolution. Mass fraction of blasting EXPLOSIVES get low relative to the true values. For example, RDX were obtained the following values: 80,4 %, 83,2 %, 82,1 %, 79,8 %, 81,7 %.
As can be seen from the data of tables 1 and 2, the proposed method with sufficient accuracy allows you to define flexible CENTURIES the mass proportion of such high EXPLOSIVES like RDX, HMX or PETN. Thus the relative error of the proposed method is from 1.2 to 1.3 % at a confidence level of 0.95.
The proposed method allows to determine the mass fraction of blasting EXPLOSIVES when the decrease or increase in its percentage content of the elastic CENTURIES.
Thus, a more secure, inexpensive and simple method of determining the mass fraction t of the fir blasting EXPLOSIVES like RDX, HMX or PETN in elastic CENTURIES, containing as a polymeric binder rubber SKD and SKN-18 or BNKS-18 and technological additives (fluoroplastic-4, plasticizer DOS), and which allows to obtain reliable data while saving time and money.
1. The method of determining the mass fraction of high explosives (he) in elastic CENTURIES, containing processing AIDS - fluoroplastic-4, plasticizer DOS and polymeric binder is a rubber SKD and SKN-18 or BNKS-18, including the dissolution of blasting EXPLOSIVES of the sample elastic CENTURIES in acetone, characterized in that the analyzed sample pre acalculia to the sheet thickness of 0.2÷0.3 mm and remove the polymer binder by processing carbon tetrachloride at a temperature of 70-80°C for 1 h, and blasting EXPLOSIVES of the sample elastic CENTURIES dissolved in acetone at a temperature of 50÷60°C for 1 h, after which the insoluble residue technological additives are removed from the solution, the resulting solution is evaporated, the residue is blasting EXPLOSIVES is dried at a temperature of (60±3)°C for 1 h and determine the mass percent of blasting EXPLOSIVES by the gravimetric method.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the elastic CENTURIES as blasting EXPLOSIVES contains RDX.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the elastic CENTURIES as blasting EXPLOSIVES contain what it HMX.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the elastic CENTURIES as blasting EXPLOSIVES contains ten.
FIELD: analytical methods in food industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises providing food sample, adding it to separating funnel with filter, adding extractant, stirring resulting mixture, separating miscella by aspiration from separating funnel, distilling extractant therefrom, removing non-lipid substances from extract lipids, and weighing lipids. Distinguishing feature of invention is that stirring of extract mixture is accomplished via throwing off pressure in separating funnel until pressure provides boiling of extractant, whereupon pressure is returned to its initial value.
EFFECT: increased productivity of examination due to accelerated recovery of lipids and significantly prolonged service time of filter.
FIELD: oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes taking sample of water-oil-gas mixture in hermetic tank, exposure thereof and measurement of hydrostatic pressure P1. after exposure and forming of oil-water boundary water is let out and hydrostatic pressure P2 is measured again when oil-water boundary reaches bottom of tank, and mass concentration of water W is determined from formula W=(1-P2/P1). Device has hermetic tank with inlet and outlet branch pipes, temperature detectors and hydrostatic pressure detectors, relay detector of oil-water joint position mounted near tank bottom and blow branch pipe with valve for forcing liquid phase from tank by gas.
EFFECT: higher precision.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises direct visualization of image, which is formed in microscopic observation, processing the images, and determining the quality of the emulsion from the histogram of the water drop distribution in the fuel, mean size of drops, and dispersion of the results. The fuel sample of high viscosity is heated up to 50-60°С.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of determining.
1 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises controller, which receives the signals from the mass flow meter, and analyzer for determining the percentage of mass-fractions of the flow. The output signal of the controller, which corresponds to the enthalpy of fuel combustion, is fed to the throttle gate for control of the flow of natural gas on the basis of a parameter chosen in advance.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measuring.
21 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: indicator comprises filtering material made of two interconnected layers each of which is made of a mixture of ultra-thin perchlorovinyl fibers with a diameter of 5-9 μ and 0.5-1.2 μ. The first layer is provided with ferricyanide (II), and the second layer has a mixture of potassium ferricyanide (II) and potassium ferricyanide (III).
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity.
FIELD: analytical methods in fuel industry.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in using detector represented by a set of five piezo-sorption mass sensors modified with fixed phases having different sensitivity and selectivity while responses of sensors are recorded in turns. Identification of product is accomplished using "visual imprints" technique.
EFFECT: achieved rapidity in gasoline identification.
15 dwg, 1 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the values of the inform-parameter for various reference petrols, plotting calibration dependence of the inform-parameter on the octane number, determining the value of the inform-parameter of a sample of petrol to be analyzed, determining octane number of the petrol to be analyzed from the calibration curve, and measuring density and temperature of the sample. The value of the inform-parameter is determined from measuring the surface tension of the sample. The octane number is calculated within temperature range 10-40oC.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.
1 tbl cl, dwg
FIELD: industrial production of granulated explosives.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of industrial production of granulated explosives "Granulite DP" used for charging of blast-holes and bore holes at realization of blasting operations in the mining industry. The explosive compound contains: a ballistic or pyroxylin powder or their mixture in any ratio, a combustible additive - a mixture of dinitrotoluene or dinitronaphthalene, or their compositions in any ratio, and a mineral oil or diesel fuel in the ratio accordingly 5-96.03 : 3.97-95, and may contain or not contain ammonium nitrate. The purpose of the invention is production of the explosive compound with a high detonation capacity and a relative operability. production of the explosive compound with a high detonation capacity and a relative operability.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the explosive compound with a high detonation capacity and a relative operability.
1 dwg, 1 tbl