Method and stand for researching electromagnetic radiation deformed until destruction of solid body, for example, sample of rock

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes mounting a sample between panels of capacitor converter of electromagnetic radiation, deforming thereof in loading device. Loading device has oppositely mounted in metallic body of loading device metallic rods, force detector and registration system. Compressing external force is applied to sample from first metallic rod through force detector body and it is destroyed due to reaction force of conic indenter of second metallic rod. Metallic body of loading device is a first plate of capacitor converter, second plate - second metallic rod, mounted in bushing of dielectric material, placed in metallic body. Stand has screen, frame, capacitor converter, loading device, force detector and registration system. Between ends of metallic rods force detector and sample are positioned. Second metallic rod is provided with conic indenter.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical solution relates to mining and can be used for studies of electromagnetic fields emitted by the rock samples in the process of their destruction, in order to predict the dynamic manifestations of rock pressure when developing rockburst-hazardous fields.

There is a method of study of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) tensile and tear samples of solids in the form of metal rods of cylindrical shape on special presses, providing the necessary breaking strength (Electromagnetic effect at metallic fracture. Ashok Misra // Nature, vol.254, March 13, 1975 - p.133-134), according to which a deformable metal cylindrical rod is placed on the press axis is made in the form of a semicylinder metal plate, which is used as the first capacitor plates and the side surfaces of which make the allotment to connect to the first input of the recorder, which is used as a storage oscilloscope, and a deformable metallic cylindrical rod is used as the second capacitor plates, is connected to the second input of the Registrar and kasemset.

The disadvantage of this method is that you cannot use as a deformable to the destruction of the solid samples of solid dielectrics, such as rocks, as they is on its physical properties can serve as a capacitor plate and cannot be grounded. In addition, this method can be implemented only by using special discontinuous machines of considerable dimensions, which excludes the possibility of their moving manually in research.

There is a method of prediction of rock failure in avtv of the USSR №1740665, CL E 21 39/00, publ. in BI No. 22, 1992, including check-in time of the pulses AMY, measuring their amplitude and determining the rate of change of the maximum amplitude of the spectral component of the pulse in time, while an additional register minimum value of the rate of change of the maximum amplitude of the spectral component of the pulse and the moment of its occurrence determine the approximation of the fracture process.

The disadvantage of this method is that it is designed for reception of signals AMY rocks, and therefore ineffective in the experiments in the laboratory with samples of breeds of small size.

Closest to the claimed solution of the essential features of the method of research AMY deformed to fracture of a solid body in the form of a ring on the patent of Russian Federation №2190203, CL G 01 N 3/08, E 21 39/00, G 01 N 27/00, publ. in BI No. 27, 2002, which includes the installation of the ring on the stand between the plates of the capacitive sensor AMY, deformation of its tensile load applied by the I external force using a load device, includes frame and oppositely installed on it stationary and movable thrust, which posted a deformable solid body, while the movable thrust inform translational motion, transformation, using the specified capacitive sensor arise in the process of cracking the deformable solid signal of the EMP and the registration of its registration system. External force from the load device to the deformable ring is passed through the semi-cylindrical protrusions, which is provided with movable and stationary thrust and are wearing a deformable ring. The translational movement of the mobile deadlift reported using rolling screw handwheel mounted on the frame of the load device, and record the force arising in the stationary thrust at the moment of rupture of the aforementioned ring is installed on it strain gauge. Signals capacitive and strain sensors register synchronously with the first and second channels of the recording system, respectively, and the results of the Desk is additionally judged on the time interval between the occurrence of the signal of the EMP and the time of the destruction of deformable solids.

The disadvantage of this method is the limitation, as it allows you to destroy only rings and only tensile what recalls. Another disadvantage of this method are considerable dimensions and weight implements its stand, including the press for the destruction of samples of rock that cannot move to the place of measurement manually.

Known device for measuring the characteristics of electromagnetic fields on avtv of the USSR №369518, CL G 01 R 29/08, publ. in BI No. 10, 1973, It contains anechoic chamber in the form of a closed object, the internal surface of which is covered with absorbent material, transmitting and receiving antennas and measuring equipment. The anechoic chamber is formed by two bodies of revolution with a common axis, facing the bases of one another, in the space between them is established, the transmission and reception antenna mounted with the possibility of angular displacement around the circumference with a radius equal to or close to the radius of the grounds of bodies of revolution about their common axis.

The disadvantage of this setup is that it does not include the loading and degradation of the tested body that is necessary to obtain the studied electromagnetic signal.

A device for measuring the electric component of an electromagnetic pulse on avtv of the USSR №788044, CL G 01 R 29/08, publ. in BI No. 46 for 1980, It consists of a transmitter, a transmission line and Registrar of the pulse voltage, the sensor is made in the form handle the AC two-wire transmission line with an open end, turned to the source of electromagnetic pulse.

A disadvantage of this device is that it does not provide for the formation of the investigated pulse, as it doesn't contain a load device.

Closest to the claimed solution of the essential features is the stand by RF patent No. 2190203, CL G 01 N 3/08, E 21 39/00, G 01 N 27/00, publ. in BI No. 27, 2002 for research AMY deformed to fracture of a solid body in the form of a ring, including enclosed in an electromagnetic shield base, capacitive sensor and a load device, comprising a frame mounted on the base, the opposite set of stationary and movable thrust, and a fixed rod mounted on the wall frame on the inner side, and a registration system. Mobile link is connected with a movable screw at the opposite end provided with a wheel, thus the mobile and stationary thrust provided with semi-cylindrical protrusions that are deformable ring, and placed between the plates of a capacitive sensor mounted on the grounded base of the stand. One of the plates of the capacitive sensor is installed through an insulating gasket and connected with the first channel registration system, and the second is connected to the grounded base. On the stationary thrust installed strain gauge, is United with the second channel registration system.

The disadvantage of this stand is a limitation, as it allows you to destroy only rings and only a tensile load. Another of its lack of significant size and weight that does not allow you to transfer it manually.

The technical objective of the proposed solutions is to ensure the availability of research AMY signals when the deformation of the samples of solids, including rocks, compressive external force by registering parameters associated with the deformation AMY with condenser transducer and the force generated using a load device, using the force sensor.

The problem is solved in that in the method of research AMY deformed to fracture of a solid body, for example of a rock sample, comprising placing it on the stand between the plates of a capacitor Converter AMY, deformation by application of external force through the load device, comprising a metal housing connected with a grounded base, and oppositely installed in its axial cavity of the first and second metal rods between which is placed a deformable solid body, while the first metal rod inform translational motion in the fracture process of deformation the dummy solids register external force using the force sensor and the signals with AMY by using a capacitor of the Converter, moreover, the external force and the signals EMP register synchronously with the first and second channels of the registration system, according to the technical solution to a deformable solid body exert a compressive external force via the body of the force sensor and then through the intermediate plate from the linear motion of the first metal rod load device, which is made in the form of a bolt and is mounted in the axial hole of the first metal, the centering sleeve of the load device by rotating the head of the bolt. Deformable solid body destroy due to the reaction force from the opposite side using made in the form of a conical indenter of the end of the second metal rod load device, which is made in the form of a bolt and is mounted in the axial hole of the second centering sleeve of the load device. Mentioned centering sleeves are threaded on the external and internal diameters and installed from the side with the threads on the inner diameter of the end sections of the metal housing, a load device, made in the form of a hollow circular cylinder. The conical indenter second metal rod pressed against the deformable solid body during forward movement of the second metal rod by turning his head is. Grounded metal housing of the load device is used as the first plates mentioned condenser transducer AMY, and as his second plates of the second metal rod. The second centering sleeve load device is made of dielectric material, such as ebonite. Thus, the translational motion of the first metal rod and the reactive force from the side of the conical indenter, the second metal rod ensure the destruction of deformable solids, on the banks of emerging cracks occur electric charge fluctuations that accompanied AMY allowing emerging AMY using capacitor Converter AMY and explore its features.

The problem is solved also by the fact that in the stand for research AMY deformed to fracture of a solid body, for example of a rock sample, comprising enclosed in an electromagnetic shield capacitor Converter AMY, a load device, comprising a metal housing connected with a grounded base, and first and second rod, oppositely mounted in the axial cavity of the metal housing, the first metal rod is installed with the possibility of translational motion, Dutch is to force the registration system, including amplifiers, analog-to-digital Converter and computer, and shielded cables according to the technical solution of the metal case load device made in the form of a hollow circular cylinder, which is the first plate of capacitor Converter AMY. The first and second metal terminals of the load device made in the form of bolts and mounted in the axial hole respectively, the first and second centering bushings load device having a threaded internal and external diameters and installed from the side with the threads on the inner diameter of the end sections of the metal housing of the load device. The first centering sleeve load device is made of metal, and the second of dielectric material, such as hard rubber, and has the form of a bolt. Between installed in a hollow circular cylinder load device, the first and second metal cores sequentially placed force sensor in metal body, an intermediate plate and a deformable solid body. The first and second metal rods installed with the possibility of translational motion by turning their heads, and the end of the second of them, situated on the side of deformable solids, has formcontacto indenter. The second metal rod serves as a second plate of the capacitor of the Converter. Consider the stand allows to implement the above described method and provides the study of signals EMP during the deformation of solids compressive external load.

The essence of the proposed technical solution is illustrated by a specific example and the drawings, in which figure 1 shows a General view of the stand, figure 2 - metal case load device in the form of a hollow circular cylinder with a partial longitudinal section and registration system (wiring diagram).

The inventive method research AMY deformable to destruction of solid bodies (hereinafter - deformable solid body), such as a rock sample, implemented using the proposed stand designed for this purpose (figure 1), consisting of a metal casing 1 load device 2, a frame 3 with a grounded base 4 and system 5 registration (figure 2). The load device 2 are combined in one design with capacitor Converter 6 AMY.

Metal case 1 load device 2 is made in the form of a hollow circular (in cross section) of the cylinder having an internal diameter of the thread on the side of both end sections, in which is screwed into the first 7 and second 8 centering sleeve having an axial hole the party and the threads on the external and internal diameters. In the axial hole of the first centering sleeve 7 is installed first metal rod 9, is made in the form of a hexagonal bolt 10. The second centering sleeve 8 has a hexagonal head, in its axial hole has a second metal rod 11 made in the form of a hexagonal bolt 12 having at one end a conical indenter 13.

Between the first and second metal cores 9 and 11 sequentially from the first metal rod 9, a force sensor 14 placed in a metal casing, the intermediate plate 15 and deformable body 16, such as a rock sample.

Metal case 1 load device made in the form of a hollow circular cylinder, at the same time is the first plate of capacitor Converter 6 AMY, a second plate which serves as a second metal rod 11.

System 5 registration (figure 2) includes the amplifiers 17 and 18, an analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 19 and the computer 20. The force sensor 14 through a shielded cable 21 is connected to the inputs of the amplifier 17 (the first channel system 5 registration). The contact 22 of the first casing (metal housing 1) condenser transducer 6 to the first conductor shielded cable 23 is connected to the first input of the amplifier 18 (second channel 5 registers is). The second plate (second metal rod 11) condenser transducer 6 is connected with a movable contact 24 and the second housing shielded cable 23, which is connected to the second input of the amplifier 18. The output of the amplifier 18 is connected to the first input of the ADC 19 and the output of the amplifier 17 to the second input of the ADC 19. The ADC output 19 is connected to the input of the computer 20.

In the wall of the metal housing 1 has two through holes: 25 and 26, the first sliding contact 24, the second for the lead terminals 27 of the sensor 14 forces.

The load device 2 consists of a metal casing 1 in the form of a hollow circular cylinder having threads on the inner diameter side end sections, in which is screwed into the first 7 and second 8 centering sleeve with axial holes and threaded on the external and internal diameters. The first centering sleeve 7 is made of metal, has the form of a disk and two nests on the outer side for a socket wrench (not shown), and the second centering sleeve 8 is made in the form of a bolt of dielectric material, such as ebonite.

The load device 2 is mounted in the following sequence. In a metal housing 1 establish the second centering sleeve 8, and the axial hole of the second metal core 11, which is rotating with a wrench placed on his golovka. Then, in the cavity of the metal housing 1 from the side of the indenter 13 of the second metal rod 11 has consistently set of deformable body 16, for example, a rock sample, then the intermediate plate 15, which provides electrical isolation of the second metal rod 11 from the metal housing of the sensor 14 forces and the first metal rod 9, then install the sensor 14 forces. Then set the first centering sleeve 7 and the axial hole in the first place the metal rod 9. The latter with a wrench by rotating the head 10 posylaut to the sensor housing 14 forces. Then, rotating the second metal rod 11, presses the deformable solid body 16 to the intermediate plate 15, and it is close to the sensor housing 14 forces. In this position, the conical indenter 13 closely pressed against the deformable body 16. The load device is prepared for operation.

Condenser transducer 6 is a cylindrical capacitor, the first plates of which used the metal case 1 load device (figure 2). As the second plates used for the second metal core 11 made in the form of a bolt mounted in the axial hole of the second centering sleeve 8 made of a dielectric, for example the EP ebony. Performing the centering sleeve 8 of the dielectric provides isolation of the second capacitor plates of the transducer 6 from his first trim. The first plate through the contact 22 is connected to the first housing shielded cable 23 to the first input of the amplifier 18, the second plate is connected through movable contact 24, passed through a hole 25 in the wall of the metal housing 1, the second housing shielded cable 23 to the second input of the amplifier 18.

As the force sensor 14 may be used any force sensor, the dimensions of which correspond to the diameter of the cavity of the metal housing 1. In particular, can be used strain gauge, made in the form of a sleeve, on the side surface of which is affixed a tensometric elements, forming a bridge circuit. The wires from the bridge circuit of the sensor 14 power via terminals 27 through a hole 26 in the wall of the metal housing 1, is connected with shielded cable 21 to the inputs of the amplifier 17. The internal parts of the sensor 14 power not shown.

The first plate of the capacitor of the inverter 6 (metal housing 1) through the frame 3 and the base 4 of the stand has a grounding 28 (figure 1).

The intermediate plate 15 is made of dielectric material and serves to isolate the sensor housing 14 forces from the deformable body 16 is of a rock sample. Metal the ski body 1 with all the inside elements set in a grounded screen 29 (figure 1).

The inventive method is carried out using the proposed stand having a load device 2 and capacitor Converter 6, as follows.

Turn out of the metal housing 1, the first 7 of the centering sleeve with the first 9 metal rod. Through the vacant end opening of the metal housing 1 is placed in a housing 1 of a deformable solid body 16, EMP which you want to explore, made for example, of the rocks, in the form of, for example, ROM (could be a different form). Then place the intermediate plate 15 and the force sensor 14, and then into the hole 26 of the output terminals 27 of the force sensor 14 and through the opening 25 to the movable contact 24. Then set the first 7 centering the sleeve in its axial hole place the first 9 metal rod in the form of a bolt. Then a second metal rod 11 report of the translational movement by rotating its head 12 and a conical indenter 13 presses the deformable solid body 16 through the intermediate plate 15 to the sensor housing 14 forces. Connect capacitor Converter 6 through the movable contact 24 to a shielded cable 23 (second his vein), the first conductor is connected to the contact 22 of the metal housing 1. The free ends of the cable 23 connected respectively to the second and first the passages of the amplifier 18. Connect the contacts 27 of the sensor 14 forces using shielded cable 21 to the inputs of the amplifier 17.

Loading and destruction of deformable body 16 is carried out in the following sequence. Apply power to the system 5 of the Desk. Set the wrench head 10 of the first metal rod 9 and rotating it, according to this rod 9 translational motion in the direction deformable body 16. The latter is clamped between the intermediate plate 15 and the conical indenter 13 fixed at this point, the second metal rod 11. Active force acting on a deformable body 16 by translationally moving the first metal rod 9, causes a reaction of resistance on the stationary side of the second metal rod 11. The conical indenter 13 of the rod 11 is embedded in the deformable body 16, destroying the latter and forming an electromagnetic field around it due to the oscillation of electric charges on the banks of the arising of cracks.

Arising electromagnetic field acts on the first and second capacitor plates of the transducer 6. Due to this form in the external circuit 24-23-18-19-20-19-18-23-22 electric current proportional electromagnetic signal resulting from deformable body 16.

Although the NGOs in synchronous mode, transmit a signal from the sensor 14 forces the electric circuit 14-27-21-17-19-20-19-17-21-27-14 and register in time change efforts applied to the deformable body 16.

System 5 check generates waveforms AMY and load, which is judged on the parameters of the process of destruction.

The termination of the experiment is fixed by the magnitude of the translational displacement of the first metal rod 9 or angle to the cylinder head 10, which tazrout to the desired value of the distance between the edge of the conical indenter 13 and the surface of the intermediate plate 15.

After completion of the experiment, the first metal rod 9 and the first centering nut 7 turn, remove the force sensor 14 and the intermediate plate 15, and then from the axial cavity of the metal housing 1 remove the destroyed part of the deformable body 16.

Thus, the inventive method research AMY deformable compressive strength of rigid body 16, for example of a rock sample, together with the declared stand of similar purpose, including a load device 2 and capacitor Converter 6, provide research AMY deformable solids and, therefore, allow to solve the problem.

1. Method the study of electromagnetic radiation deformed to fracture of a solid body, for example of a rock sample, comprising placing it on the stand between the plates of a capacitor conversion is the determinant of electromagnetic radiation, deformation by application of external force through the load device, comprising a metal housing connected with a grounded base, and oppositely installed in its axial cavity of the first and second metal rods between which is placed a deformable solid body, while the first metal rod inform translational motion and in the process of destruction of deformable solids register external force using the force sensor and the electromagnetic radiation signal through capacitor of the Converter, and external force and the electromagnetic radiation signals recorded simultaneously by the first and second channels of the registration system, wherein the deformable solid body exert a compressive external force through the body of the force sensor and then through the intermediate plate from the linear motion of the first metal rod load device, which is made in the form of a bolt and is mounted in the axial hole of the first metal, the centering sleeve of the load device when turning the head of the bolt, and a deformable solid body destroy due to the reaction force from the opposite side using made in the form of a conical indenter of the end of the second metal rod load is knogo device, which is made in the form of a bolt and is mounted in the axial hole of the second centering sleeve load device, these centering sleeves are threaded on the external and internal diameters and installed from the side with the threads on the inner diameter of the end sections of the metal housing, a load device, made in the form of a hollow circular cylinder, and a conical indenter of the second metal rod pressed against the deformable solid body during forward movement of the second metal rod by turning his head, with a grounded metal housing of the load device is used as the first plates mentioned condenser transducer of electromagnetic radiation, and as his second plates of the second metal rod, and a second centering sleeve load device is made of dielectric material, such as ebonite.

2. Stand for the study of electromagnetic radiation deformed to fracture of a solid body, for example of a rock sample, comprising enclosed in an electromagnetic shield capacitor Converter of electromagnetic radiation, a load device, comprising a metal housing connected with a grounded base, and first and second IU allicance rods, oppositely mounted in the axial cavity of the metal housing, the first metal rod is installed with the possibility of translational motion, force sensor, a registration system, including amplifiers, analog-to-digital Converter and computer, and shielded cables, characterized in that the metal housing of the load device made in the form of a hollow circular cylinder, which is the first plate of the capacitor of the Converter of electromagnetic radiation, the first and second metal terminals of the load device made in the form of bolts and mounted in the axial hole respectively, the first and second centering bushings load device having a threaded internal and external diameters and installed by having threads on the inner diameter of the end sections of the metal housing, a load device, and the first centering sleeve load device is made of metal, and the second of dielectric material, such as hard rubber, and has the form of a bolt, and between installed in a hollow circular cylinder load device, the first and second metal cores sequentially placed force sensor in metal body, the intermediate plate and deformable those is about, while the first and second metal rods installed with the possibility of translational motion by turning their heads, and the end of the second of them, situated on the side of a deformable solid body has the shape of a conical indenter, while the second metal rod serves as a second plate of the capacitor of the Converter.



 

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4 dwg

FIELD: thermal and nuclear power stations; meter calibration in extremely pure water of condensate type and power unit feedwater.

SUBSTANCE: for pH-meter calibration ammonia whose concentration varies by 1.5 - 2 times is dosed in working medium. Electric conductivity and temperature of working-medium H-cationized sample are measured. Measurement results are processed in computer with aid of set of equations characterizing ionic equilibrium in source sample and H-cationized samples. Calculated pH value is compared with measurement results.

EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability of meter calibration in extremely pure waters.

1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

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