Method for phase-explosion effect in well

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes lower heat energy source and implosion chamber into well. Heat effect is applied and phase-explosive process is launched by opening implosion chamber. Implosion chamber is opened after reaching maximal temperature of well liquid at the very beginning of its decrease. Then phase-explosive process launch temperature is decreased. At second object method includes lower heat energy source and air implosion chamber into well. Heat effect is applied and phase-explosive process is launched by opening air implosion chamber. Air implosion chamber is positioned at distance from heat energy source, where well liquid temperature provides for launch of phase-explosive process, or air implosion chamber is opened with a delay. By these, excessive energetic potential of phase-explosive process is prevented with destruction of casing column and cement stone. Power of phase-explosive process is limited by use of air chamber under pressure.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl

 

The present invention relates to means for oil extraction and groundwater.

Known methods of implosion and thermoerosional processing of wells, which are analogues of the proposed method. [4]. In the processing of wells in both cases is called short-term implosion effect on the reservoir. Such exposure in oil wells used for almost instantaneous movement of the downhole fluid inside the air chamber and creating a vacuum at the bottom with the goal of entering the reservoir fluid in the borehole. At the same time the conditions for the fall of the liquid column in the well to the bottom, which creates a hydraulic shock. When thermoerosional processing before the opening of the air chamber using a source of thermal energy is an intensive pre-heating of the well fluid. All this clears the bottom zone of the well from clogging elements.

The disadvantage thermoerosional how well treatment is the relative incompleteness of the use of a potential energy source of thermal energy for physical and mechanical impact on the well.

Closest to the claimed physical essence is a way of bottomhole zone treatment wells to improve oil recovery (protot is p), where are thermobaric conditions for running fasovannogo process using conventional air implosion chamber [1].

The disadvantage of the prototype is the inability of the lower thermal threshold temperature start fasovannogo process, as well as lowering excessive potential fasovannogo process when an explosive boiling well (working) fluid, resulting in this latter case, to the destruction of the casing and cement stone.

The task-specific solutions technical issues to reduce thermal threshold start (initiation) fasovannogo process, strengthening, and, if necessary, to control and/or suppression of excessive energy potential exposure when an explosive boiling well (working) fluid.

The task, according to the invention, is solved in that in the method fasovannogo impact in the well created and/or used thermobaric conditions in the well to start, as well as to limit and suppress fasovannogo process by means of implosion chamber, the pressure in which:

1. To reduce the temperature of the start fasovannogo process pressure implosion chamber reduced below atmospheric.

2. For restrictions and/or suppress excessive energy potential phase is on-going process in the borehole, the pressure in the air implosion chamber increases above atmospheric.

The method is based on the dependence of the spinodal value for the maximum temperature of the hot fluid from the pressure.

Fesovareves process is the realization of a state of metastable liquids [2, 3] through its transition to a stable two-phase state (phase explosion). The region of existence of metastable superheated liquid is enclosed between the so-called binodal (saturation line) and spinodal. Otherwise, binodal represents the characteristic linear dependence of the boiling points of the liquid from the pressure, and spinodal characterizes the dependence of the maximum temperature of the hot fluid from the pressure. Spinodal is the boundary limit of the existence of superheated metastable liquid, depending on temperature and pressure.

The most well-known dependence of the boiling point of the fluid from the pressure changes. For example, in ordinary cases, the water boils at a temperature of 100°and high in the mountains it will boil at a temperature of 80-90°C. If for some reason

the pressure was 1.5-2 times higher than the atmospheric one, the water will boil at a temperature exceeding 100°C. When the boiling of water at low pressure (e.g. in the mountains), the cost of thermal energy is small, however, when the pressure increases the boiling point and the respectively, increase energy costs. This example illustrates vindaloo dependence. About, albeit in less dramatic form, is the dependence of the temperature limit superheated liquid from the pressure, i.e. the dependence of the spinodal. And in this case, with increasing pressure increases the temperature of the critical state of superheated metastable fluid and also increase the cost of thermal energy.

Sudden release of pressure causes an explosive boiling of the liquid and starts fasovannogo process. To implement this process in the water, it is heated under pressure in a sturdy container to okolomindalny temperature of 280-290°With, then quickly dropping the pressure to normal atmospheric and she vzryvoobrazno boil. Suppose that the depressurization occurs in the conditions, when the pressure is two times greater than atmospheric, in these conditions for the implementation of fasovannogo process the temperature of the heating should already be 290-310°C. Heated to the temperature of the water, of course, vzryvoobrazno boils and depressurization to atmospheric pressure, and the energy of the explosion will be more. In this case, the energy of the explosion cubic meter water with a temperature of 300°With the equivalent explosive energy 15 kg of TNT. Even more will be the energy of the phase explosion, if you reset on the pressure to normal atmospheric share.

In conditions, when the pressure end of the vacuum on the order of less than normal atmospheric temperature okolomilitarnego value of the heating water is almost minimal. Its value is 240-270°C. In oil wells natural deep warm-up does not reach this temperature, although the pressure is often measured in many tens of MPa. However, in some places on Earth are abnormally high

temperature of groundwater, the so-called thermal waters that provide geothermal heat power plants. thermal water comes to the station from deep wells. Groundwater geothermal fields are under great pressure, severely overheated usually to a temperature of 240-280°C.

If you omit into the well vacuumizing implosion chamber, which created a deep vacuum with a pressure of from about 0.1 normal atmospheric (and it is this pressure condition in the chamber, we invest in the term or concept “vacuumization”), and open it in front of geothermal water horizon, i.e. create almost instant depression in superheated metastable water, some amount of water in the borehole and near-well space when running fasovannogo process vzryvoobrazno boils. This will be a sharp increase in the pressure, as if, e.g. the measures was blown up quickmatch powder charge, and then there will be a vacuum, as if it was opened coupled with gunpowder charge implosion air chamber. Thus, fasovannym way by converting natural, potential, thermal, geothermal energy into kinetic, physical and mechanical can be done or how to repeat traditional influences thermoerosional method for increasing the inflow of fluid into the well.

1. The proposed method using vacuumizing implosion camera allows you to use extremely low temperature threshold okolomilitarnego condition of the well fluid to reduce the temperature of the start fasovannogo process. However, in oil wells due to the lack of the temperature of the well fluid even at the deepest vacuum implosion camera cannot directly run fesovareves process, although in many oil wells, the temperature of the oil-water mixture exceeds 100°when the pressure of many tens of MPa. There is a need in additional warming of the downhole fluid. To do this,

to use traditional practically proven methods, types and devices used in thermoerosion how well treatments.

To raise the temperature and press the Oia, chemical exposure and conversion viscous clogging elements in a lighter and more breathable fraction of hydrocarbon and other compounds used sources of thermal energy. Usually these sources are turbonagnetatelya compositions and various pyrotechnic charges and heating elements. They can all be used while achieving okolomilitarnego threshold state heating of the well fluid. For downhole fluid is the minimum value is 240-270°With temperature, while providing an opening vacuumizing implosion camera start fasovannogo process in the well.

Most common in practice has thermoerosional method of well treatment using powder charges. As shown by measurements of the temperature in the device, where the source of thermal energy are powder charges operating mode thermogenerator, well at removing 9-10 m from the combustion zone temperature here reaches - 200°C. When approaching the combustion zone by the nature of the melting temperature of the samples determined that the temperature continuously increases [4], and can legitimately be put on the destruction of already 2-4 m from the combustion zone it reaches 240-270°that is quite enough for the start fasovannogo process.

Well in a limited and largely confined space of possible heat transfer is significantly reduced. When significant powerful energy thermal influence exerted on the borehole with the use of modern pyrotechnic charges, inevitably reaching a threshold okolomilitarnego state of the downhole fluid near the combustion zone. Especially powerful dissipation have modern powder compositions, created on the basis of ballistic missile fuel. In practice, the wells used multiple charges, consisting of a large number of standard charges, which while burning emit a significant amount of thermal energy within a few seconds. As shown by the research of thermal processes in the well, this time is sufficient to achieve maximum temperature [4].

When combined using vacuumizing implosion chamber with a source of thermal energy, which as discussed example is a powerful powder charge, the camera is set at 2-4 metres above the combustion zone, and it should be open after reaching the maximum temperature at the beginning of a recession. Usually 40-50% of the surrounding liquid passes from the explosion in pairs, and the rest of its net assets is to be atomized into tiny droplets, which would form a drip “dust” like fog [2, 3]. This action fasovanoe impact after traditional thermoerosional increases the pressure, increases the dynamic energy of the powder charge, throws the liquid column, causing and/or exacerbating the subsequent hydrodynamic shock. This residual potential thermal energy after heating under high pressure is converted to kinetic physical-mechanical. During the planting column of well fluid upward pressure drops in the well, which leads to saturation of the gas steam component fasovannogo process. The overload causes a very quick and rapid transition (condensation) of the gas phase in the liquid. This is facilitated by educated when implementing fasovannogo process (explosive boiling) the smallest droplets “fog drip”, which are “germ” of condensation. Condensation leads to the strengthening and deepening depression conditions in the borehole, causing the sudden influx of fluid due to near-wellbore.

The application of the proposed vacuumizing implosion chamber in which the pressure is below atmospheric, extremely restricts the flow of inert air, which, as any gas capable of compression and expansion being Present and not participating in fesovareves process (transformation), it reduces both physical and mechanical energy of phase explosion and subsequent depression effect.

Vacuum implosion effect in fesovareves the process, moreover, allowing an extremely lower temperature threshold okolomilitarnego state, is one of the strongest and most advanced methods of stimulation, because most fully realizes thermal energy opportunities. In relation to oil wells it will also be involved in the proteolytic process of boiling the heavy paraffin compounds included in the composition of oil and plugging. In experiments on the study of overheating of liquids in bubble chambers found that the evaporation vesicles (paraffins) at high pressures (final dilution) loses pronounced explosive nature” [3]. Vacuumization implosion camera provides extremely favorable low pressure final vacuum fasovannogo process. Nevertheless, it seems appropriate before processing layer the leaching of oil wells with water to reduce the oil content in oil-water mixture. When thermoerosional impact on oil wells there is a thermal pyrolytic conversion of heavy hydrocarbons into lighter [4]. With the inclusion of fasovannogo by the sa together with pyrolytic destruction of hydrocarbons under the impact of explosive boiling of superheated steam activated and their hydrolytic decomposition.

An example of a methodology for the early start (initiation) fasovannogo process in the well can serve as a comprehensive work on the processing of bottom-hole formation zone, held in the Republic of Tatarstan in oil wells are reported NGDU ito PO “VUGAR” [4]. They carried out the measurement of pressure (e.g., SLE. No. 1922, and No. 1988

Sabanchinskoye field) and temperature, as during operation of the powder charge, and subsequent opening of the air implosion chamber. All wells are characterized by uniformity of geological and engineering data, and therefore nature thermoerosional process and, accordingly, the results obtained were very close. Typical is well, oil reservoir which has a capacity of 2 m, located at a depth of 1175 meters.

In pre-washed well at the level of the productive formation was lowered thermoerosion device operating in the combustion mode of thermogenerator with vysokomehanizirovannym pyrotechnic powder charge VMPS weight 9-10 kg and air implosion chamber length of about 8-9 meters, the pressure inside which was normal atmospheric, i.e. R im = R ATM. The temperature in the immediate vicinity of thermogenerator was determined with the use of fusible materials, and temperature measurement in the field of headgear borehole is of Ribera (at a distance of about 10 meters from the charge) was carried out by an electronic sensor, created using silicon semiconductor diodes. Knowing the temperature in the combustion zone defined in the technical specifications thermogenerators device, the temperature in the immediate vicinity by melting the samples installed in the centralizer, and the temperature in the helmet by an electronic sensor, estimate the temperature distribution along the axis of the borehole. When conducting thermoerosional method of well treatment received from the electronic sensor thermograph records showed that the temperature of the well fluid after work thermogenerator within 38 seconds reached 200°C. in fact, when heated to extreme temperatures was higher because of implosion processing with low speed produced the rise of the downhole equipment. After an interval of 12 seconds, when the temperature fell to 133-134°With, was open air implosion camera. The temperature in the immediate vicinity of thermogenerator (at a distance of about 50 cm) was determined in wells when you apply fusible samples. She reached due to the impact of the hot powder gases 750-800°C. reasonably should put that in the place of opening of the valve chamber, the temperature of the well fluid there was at least 260-270°C.

Made in squag is not thermobaric conditions allow their implementation in fesovareves the process when using the snap-implosion chamber with a deep vacuum (vacuumizing), you want to open immediately after the operation thermogenerator. In this case, the early opening of the implosion chamber with inner vacuum starts (initiates) fesovareves process and will allow you to have a deeper and more perfect stimulation.

2. The pursuit of ever more powerful thermal effects on the well leads to the appearance of powder charges with enhanced power capabilities. Recent testing thermogenerators based vysokomehanizirovannyh pyrotechnic compositions (VMPS), which in its technical capabilities far exceed even the charges on the basis of ballistic rocket fuel (heat of combustion VMPS 12500 kJ/kg against 4900 kJ/kg of rocket fuel), showed their high efficiency. However, during testing, there were cases of emergency warp wells. The cause of the accident was unclear. In our opinion, the use of powerful charges is very high superheat temperature of the downhole fluid. In case of accidental opening of the air implosion camera at the moment of optimum combination of pressure and temperature starts fesovareves process (mechanism) with an initially excessive energy potential. Even the conventional air implosion of the camera causes if the lump intensive resulting tossing column of well fluid, accompanied by a long and deep depression in the borehole at which the unbalanced external lithostatic pressure, sometimes reaching hundreds of MPa, causes irreversible destruction of the casing and cement. In the processed interval is “shlopivanie” pipe, accompanied by sticking snap, and it is this nature of emergency situations was observed in the tests. Moreover, the occurrence of accidents cannot be ruled out when using ballistic missile fuel, composed of a large number of standard charges.

Cases sometimes accidents in the wells with the use of powerful propellant charges coupled with air implosion chamber, indicating the implementation fasovannogo process, at the same time indicate the need for restrictions and, if necessary, and complete suppression of excessive energy potential overheated metastable borehole fluid.

To prevent accidents in the well while maintaining the level of chemical exposure possible solution is the placement of air implosion camera away from heat source or open it with delay, when there will be a decrease in temperature and pressure to a safe value. This is feasible when the service is under the exact knowledge of thermodynamics of the process and especially the regimes of temperature and pressure near and in the vicinity of the source of thermal energy in the well.

As practice shows, near burning (and at a small distance from the combustion zone) is a powerful multiple propellant charge process of continuous temperature measurement and transmission of measured values to register a technically difficult to implement and so far such attempts have been unsuccessful [4]. Therefore, to prevent accidents it is necessary to use more than a simple technical solution. It is a natural extension of the above method to run fasovannogo process.

If the reduction temperature threshold explosive boiling of the well fluid and increase energy fasovannogo impact should be extremely minimize the pressure in the implosion chamber, for restricting power fasovannogo process to dramatically increase the pressure in the air chamber above atmospheric. Thus, in addition to the General reduction of the kinetic energy input increased amount of air will reduce the vacuum in the tossing of a column of well fluid and, therefore, to some extent, to reduce the difference between the well pressure and the ambient lithostatic pressure.

Compared with the prototype of the claimed invention allows to:

to reduce the temperature threshold run fasovannogo process in the borehole;

- to prevent accidents on the well is using a powerful propellant charges;

- more effectively clean the productive formations from clay formations and mudding;

- to increase the production rate of the well.

Sources of information

1. EN 2178065 C1, 10.12.2002.

2. Martynyuk MM Culprit of global catastrophes. Technology youth, 9, M, 1991, p.34-37.

3. Skripov V.P. Metastable liquid. M, 1972, s.312.

4. Kuznetsov A.I. Development of methods and tools for handling wellbore zones, osnovannyh on the use of geophysical instruments on wireline. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of candidate of technical Sciences, 1999, s.

1. The way fasovannogo impacts as well, including the descent into the well source of thermal energy and implosion of the camera, exposure to heat and run fasovannogo process the opening of the implosion chamber, wherein said implosion chamber open after reaching the maximum temperature of the well fluid at the beginning of its decline, thus reducing the starting temperature of fasovannogo process, which uses implosion chamber with a pressure below atmospheric.

2. The way fasovannogo impacts as well, including the descent into the well source of thermal energy and air implosion of the camera, exposure to heat and run fasovannogo process by opening the air implosion chamber, characterized in that the or susnow implosive the camera is placed far from the source of thermal energy, where the temperature of the well fluid runs fasovannogo process, or air implosion chamber open with delay than prevent excessive energy potential fasovannogo process with the destruction of the casing and cement, and the power fasovannogo process limit through the use of an air chamber under pressure.



 

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