Irrigation apparatus for greenhouses, hot houses and orchard plots

FIELD: irrigation systems used for automatic watering of plants on restricted area plots.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulating vessel with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary vessel, two float valves, one of float valves being adapted for supplying of water into accumulating vessel and other float valve being adapted for cutting-off water supply. Valve floats are arranged in auxiliary vessel disposed below accumulating vessel bottom and connected by means of flexible pipes with hermetically sealed vessels provided with porous bottoms deepened into soil. When water is sucked through porous bottoms into soil, water level in auxiliary vessel is lowered and float valves are opened, with water being delivered into accumulating vessel through one of float valves. When predetermined water level is reached, valve for discharge opening is opened, water is supplied into low-pressure irrigation system and is further delivered through second float valve into auxiliary vessel. As a result, water level in auxiliary vessel is increased to cut-off water supply into accumulating vessel.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to irrigation systems and can be used to implement automatic irrigation limited - greenhouses and gardens.

It is known device [1], which contains a water tank, a yoke rigidly mounted on the axis of the shut-off valve placed on his shoulders sliding cargo, movement of which is limited by the magnetic stops. At one end of the rocker arm is vessel-counter, on another vessel, the evaporator is placed in it a soil with plants. Wall and the bottom of tank-evaporator perforated. The height of the vessel shall be taken not less than the depth of the germination of the root system of plants. The evaporator is in the area of irrigation. Drainage capacity between adjacent parts of the soil in natural (monolithic) condition is simulated by selecting the number of perforations in the vessel of the evaporator.

The disadvantage of the described device is inaccurate accounting for changes in soil moisture due to its location is not in the natural (monolithic), and as isolated from the whole array of pieces, placed in a vessel of the evaporator. In this case distorted the true value of soil moisture due to the following reasons:

the lack of influence on soil moisture in the vessel-evaporator molecular and mainly capillary forces underlying layers (the flesh to the level of the water table), which, studies show hydrology and soils, have a great influence on soil moisture;

more intensive evaporation (not only from the surface as the soil, in its natural state, but also from the sides and from the bottom through the perforation), which leads to more rapid drying of the soil in the vessel, the evaporator compared to soil in the natural state. During high temperature balance is disturbed rocker and begins the process of water supply, i.e. the periods between the position "Open" and "Closed" are reduced, which leads to disruption of irrigation regime. In addition, it is known that the water absorption of the soil, i.e. the ability to absorb and filter moisture and change in this regard, the humidity, depends on the presence of cracks, voids, cracks, moves worms and roots. Therefore, the water absorption of the soil in the vessel-vaporizer - basic array and soil simply the underlying array will vary, as between the walls of the vessel-evaporator alcove in the main array, which includes a vessel-evaporator when the tilt of the beam, there are gaps, the parameters of which change depending on the angle of the beam. It is necessary to account for the variability of water absorption in the space of the main body of the soil.

The known device does not provide the water supply in the high-pressure irrigation system. It n is provided by the regulation of irrigation norms for water supply in low-pressure systems.

More closest prototype is a device [2], which contains the cumulative water tank, fitted with a venting hole is blocked by a valve, and the exhaust manifold, an auxiliary vessel, the position of which can be adjusted in height and connected by a flexible pipe to the exhaust pipe of the storage tank, a pipe for supplying water into this tank through the float valve, the float which is located in the auxiliary tank, and the outlet is connected with a storage capacity of Flex with a device for accurately controlling the flow of water, such as a valve on the end, sealed vessels with porous bottoms that are installed in the area of the proposed irrigation on a given the depth and the United flexes with the auxiliary capacity. On the outlet pipe from the storage tank after accession to the flexible pipe connecting the exhaust manifold with a specified capacity, installed the adjusting valve, and flexible conduits connecting the auxiliary airtight container vessels with porous bottoms, screw clamps to change the flow areas of these pipelines.

The disadvantage of the described device is the difficulty in operation, namely, that to ensure the ecene off the supply of water in the collection tank after filling via float valve, installed on the applicable pipeline, it is necessary to provide the desired difference in water levels in storage and auxiliary tanks. Water flow in the auxiliary capacitance also depends on the hydraulic resistance of the irrigation system. If the differential is less than the required, and the hydraulic resistance of the irrigation system is small, the float valve will not work and the water supply is off. If the difference would be more correct, and the hydraulic resistance is high, then in the auxiliary tank can get too much water that it will result, i.e. it will be used unproductively. Because the irrigation norm, and consequently, the water level in the storage tank may change quite often depending on the vegetative development of plants, weather conditions and other factors, and the hydraulic resistance of the system is generally unknown and can vary depending on operating conditions, to ensure the normal operation of the device should be exactly and often to adjust the height position of the auxiliary capacitance and the magnitude of opening of the adjustment valve on the exhaust pipe of the storage tank. This is done by trial and spent a considerable amount of time, which reduces the effectiveness of the disorder.

The purpose of the invention - improving efficiency and simplifying operation of the device. This goal is achieved by the fact that the device containing the cumulative water tank, an auxiliary tank connected by means of flexible pipes, provided with screw clamps, pressure vessels with porous bottoms installed in the soil in the area of the proposed irrigation at the specified depth, the pipe for supplying water in the collection container via installed on it a float valve, the float which is located in the auxiliary tank, and the outlet is connected with a storage capacity of a pipeline provided with a device for precise control of water flow, for example a valve, the exhaust manifold with the installed valve attached to the exhaust device of the storage tank equipped with float valve, the outlet of which is connected by a pipe to the exhaust pipe of the storage tank in place to location on it valve, and the outlet pipe with the auxiliary tank, which is the specified float valve. When this auxiliary tank is located below the bottom of the storage tank.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of the device; figure 2 - piping with valves and auxiliary capacity.

the Device consists of the accumulation tank 1, installed on the base 2. In the bottom of the tank has a vent with a saddle, which is the exhaust valve 3. To the valve attached metal rod 4 passing through the guide sleeve 6 mounted on the bracket 5. By the end thrust 4 is attached to the flexible rod 7. The other end of the traction bar 7 is attached to the float 8 so that the length of the rod 7 can be adjusted. To the upper part of the float 8 is attached a flexible retaining rod 9, the upper end of which is fixed on the fixed bearing 10, is made known and rigidly connected with storage capacity. The length of this thrust is such that the float 8 cannot fall below the positions shown in figure 1 by the dotted line, i.e. does not reach the upper end of thrust 4. To the outlet attached to the exhaust manifold 11 is installed on the valve 32. Next to the accumulation tank is an auxiliary capacity, located at a height below the bottom of the storage tank. Water supply to the device is done through the pipeline 14 is installed on the valve 15. This pipeline is attached float (ball) valve 16, the float 17 which is placed in the auxiliary tank 13. To the output pipe float valve 16 is attached to the pipe 18, the other end of which is omitted in the accumulation tank 1. The pipe 18 is attached to the outlet 19 is a shut-off valve 20. The pipe 18 is installed a device for accurately controlling the flow of water, for example, the valve 21. In the auxiliary capacitance 13 is a float 22 another float valve 26, the inlet of which is connected by a pipe 12 with the exhaust pipe 11 in place until the location of the valve 32 and the exhaust pipe connected to the pipe 27, the end of which is omitted in the auxiliary tank 13. This capacity attached flexible pipes 23, which have their other ends attached to the sealed vessels 24 with porous bottoms (tensiometers). Such vessels are used as humidity sensors. These vessels are tightly installed in the soil in the irrigation zone to a predetermined depth corresponding to full or partial depth of the location of the root system of plants. Figure 1 is conventionally shown 2 vessel 24, although the number can be anything. When this auxiliary tank 13 should be a corresponding number of sockets for the connection of the pipes 23. These pipelines are installed screw terminals for regulating the cross section of the piping 23. To exclude the ingress of atmospheric moisture in the auxiliary tank 13 above it comes with a removable visor 29. To the auxiliary capacitance 13, if necessary, can be attached via pipelines 30C valves 31 additional auxiliary tank 28.

The device operates as follows. Under furrow irrigation, flooding, subsurface irrigation, and other low-pressure way first attach the pipe 11 to the irrigation system and fully open the valve 32. Then adjust the length of the flexible rod 7 determine the volume of water in the accumulation tank 1, which must be submitted in the irrigation system. This amount should correspond to the irrigation norm. After this well-known way is filled with water in the auxiliary tank 13, the tank 28, the flexible pipes 23 and vessels of 24 pre-installed in the soil. Screw clamps 25 installed on the piping 23, must be open. The air inside these nodes must go. Container 13 and 28 are set below the level of the bottom of the tank 1 at a small height above the ground. The floats 17 and 22 of the valves 16 and 26 should be free to lie in the auxiliary tank 13, and both valves must be in the Closed position. First piping 23 should be horizontal to the water under their own weight from the auxiliary tank 13 through the piping 23 filled in the vessel 24.

Next, open the valve 15 to the discharge pipe 14 and close the valve 20. Fully open the valve 21. First, in the absence of water in the accumulation tank discharge valve 3 under the dei is the influence of its own weight drops into the seat and closes the outlet. If soil moisture is low, due to capillary and molecular forces is sucking water from the upper soil layers depth (effect Sousa strength of the soil"), including vessels 24. This effect increases with decreasing soil moisture. The suction of water occurs through the porous bottom of the vessel 24. The porosity of each of the bottom is such that there is seepage through them only water, but excludes the penetration of air into the vessel 24. It is known that is created when water suction vacuum in vessels of 24 (tensiometers) accurately enough for practical purposes and conforms to the soil moisture range from full field capacity to a moisture content slightly below the lowest capacity. In this range, as it is known, is the growth and development of plants. When the suction decreases the water level in the auxiliary tank 13. The floats 17 and 22 of the valves 16 and 26 are omitted, and the last pass in the "Open"position. Water from the pipe 14 through valve 16, conduit 18 enters the holding tank 1 and fills it up to the specified level. The float 8 rises and opens the exhaust valve 3. Water from the pipe 11 is supplied to irrigation. In this case, the pipeline 12 through the float valve 26, it enters the auxiliary capacitance 13 and the tank 28. This is achieved due to the low location of these tanks. The level of the odes in them rises up to the original, and float valves go into the "Closed"position, i.e. stops the flow of water in the accumulation tank 1 via line 18 and in the auxiliary tank 13 through the pipeline 12.

The next cycle starts after due Sousa strength of the soil, and also due to its own weight of water, depending on the position of the pipes 23, again will decrease the level in tank 13 and 28. The time of filling of the storage tank 1, i.e. the frequency of watering can be adjusted in the following ways, based on the application of the law of flow through porous media (Darcy law):

1) number of vessels 24, as the volume of water sucked away from tanks 13 and 28 is directly proportional to the total area of the bottoms of these vessels;

2) change in the resistance of pipes 23, as consumption of water passing through them will be inversely proportional to the drop of pressure-dependent resistance (this can be done either by raising or lowering any pipe sections 23 relative to the water level in the auxiliary tank 13 and is communicated with the tank 28, or by adjustment of screw terminals 25 installed on the piping 23;

3) change in cross-sectional area of the auxiliary capacitance 13 and the tank 28 by attaching or detaching the tank 28 by means of valves 31 and conduits 30, because PR is this change volume, consequently, the time of suction of water by means of vessels 24. In addition, you can modify the specified time filling of the storage tank 1 by changing the length of the piping 23 (if there is a set of replacement pipelines), as the number of sucked water is inversely proportional to the path length of the flow.

If you water in the high-pressure irrigation system (sprinkler, drip-pulse irrigation and other), then the operation is performed as follows. The pipe 19 is attached to the irrigation system, the valves 32, 20 and 15 open. Then adjust the water in the irrigation system. This is done by regulating the time of filling a small volume in the storage tank 1. This amount is set by regulation traction 7. The supply (flow) of water through the pipeline 18 regulate by means of valve 21. Since the rate of flow through the valve is small, the filling time can be adjusted with sufficient for practical purposes accuracy. Then, as in the previous case of irrigation through low-pressure system, pour water into the vessel 24, flexible pipes 23 and container 13 and 28, allowing the air to come out of these nodes. When this float valves 16 and 26 will be in the Closed position. When the suction of soil water from the tank 13 and 28 these valves go into the "Open"position, and happens the supply for irrigation through the pipe 19. At the same time through the pipe 18 will be filling a predetermined volume of the storage tank 1 within the prescribed time. After completing this volume, the float 8 will raise the valve 3, and the water through the pipes 11 and 12 will go in the tank 13 and 28. Float valves 16 and 26 will go into Closed position, and watering will stop. When the volume of water from the storage tank 1 is small (when installing small durations), then supply the required amount of water in the auxiliary capacity regulating valve 32, than create the necessary resistance in the pipe 11. This permits operation of the valves 16 and 26. Then the cycle will resume after the extraction of water from the tank 13 and 28. The time between cycles is the same as in the first case, the use of the device for low-pressure irrigation systems.

If the device supplies water for irrigation to the outdoors, Pets possibility of accounting for the effect of precipitation on the soil. For this purpose it is necessary to remove the protective shield 29. Then the water level in the tank 13 and 28 will be higher due to the falling precipitation. This will result in the rise of the floats 17 and 22, i.e. stops the flow of water through pipelines 14 and 12. If the device works on a protected ground, the impact of precipitation should be excluded by setting the visor 29. P and hot weather in all cases, the water in tank 13 and 28 will evaporate, that will also result in lower water levels in these tanks and to reduce the time between cycles. Thus, the proposed device is universal because it applies to all irrigation systems (high-pressure and low-pressure) in open and protected ground and takes into account all the weather factors.

In the absence of water supply network and when using the device for low-pressure irrigation system it can be powered from any capacity, raised to a certain height (tank etc), pre-fill pump or any other method.

The device is structurally simple, it has no electronics, and it does not require connection to an electrical outlet. This ensures safe operation and does not require skilled care. It can operate autonomously without a human presence that matters, when there is a possibility only occasionally (e.g. once a week) to exercise control over his work. The device is designed for the mass consumer. It allows, if it is made from chemically resistant materials, liquid fertilizer into the soil. The device mainly consists of commercially available parts and components: float valves 16, 26, the exhaust valve 3, used in plumbing, flexible and rigid pipelines, valves, etc. as the e of the float 8 can be used a piece of foam. The device monitors the actual soil moisture in a natural condition in the root zone. It is self-regulating because it automatically changes the mode of irrigation depending on soil moisture. The device allows you to adjust the irrigation rate and to change the time between watering.

Sources of information

1. RF patent №2053649, CL 01 And G 27/00, 25/16.

2. RF patent №2137354, CL 01 And G 27/00, 25/16.

Device for irrigation of greenhouses, greenhouses and garden plots containing cumulative water tank, an auxiliary tank connected with flexible pipelines located them screw clamps sealed vessels with porous bottoms (tensiometers)installed in the soil in the area of the proposed irrigation at the specified depth, the pipe for supplying water in the collection container via installed on it a float valve, the float which is located in the auxiliary tank, and the outlet is connected with a storage capacity of a pipeline provided with a device for accurately controlling the flow of water, for example, a valve, an exhaust pipe connected to the exhaust device tank and fitted with a valve, characterized in that it is provided with a float valve, the inlet of which is connected by a pipeline with vypusk the m cumulative pipeline capacity in place to location on it valve and the outlet pipe with the auxiliary tank, which is the specified float valve, when this auxiliary tank is located below the storage capacitor.



 

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FIELD: irrigation systems used for automatic watering of plants on restricted area plots.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulating vessel with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary vessel, two float valves, one of float valves being adapted for supplying of water into accumulating vessel and other float valve being adapted for cutting-off water supply. Valve floats are arranged in auxiliary vessel disposed below accumulating vessel bottom and connected by means of flexible pipes with hermetically sealed vessels provided with porous bottoms deepened into soil. When water is sucked through porous bottoms into soil, water level in auxiliary vessel is lowered and float valves are opened, with water being delivered into accumulating vessel through one of float valves. When predetermined water level is reached, valve for discharge opening is opened, water is supplied into low-pressure irrigation system and is further delivered through second float valve into auxiliary vessel. As a result, water level in auxiliary vessel is increased to cut-off water supply into accumulating vessel.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.

2 dwg

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