Multibeam o-type device

FIELD: microwave engineering; high-power broadband multibeam devices such as klystrons.

SUBSTANCE: proposed O-type device has two multibeam floating-drift tubes in each active resonator with operating wave mode H201, diameter D of each tube being chosen from condition D = (0.4 0.45)λ, where λ is wavelength corresponding to center frequency of device operating band. Input and output active resonators with floating-drift tubes asymmetrically disposed relative to opposite walls of these resonators are proposed for use. Input active resonator can be connected to energy input directly or through input waveguide, or through input passive resonator and input waveguide. Output active resonator can be connected to energy output through one output passive resonator and output waveguide or through two output passive resonators and input waveguide. Two multibeam floating-drift tubes are disposed in each active resonator including intermediate ones.

EFFECT: enhanced output power, efficiency, and practical feasibility, simplified design, facilitated manufacture, assembly, and adjustment of device.

11 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to electronic microwave equipment, namely a powerful broadband multibeam devices Of the type such as the multibeam klystrons (MLK).

The important direction of development amplifying klystrons is the increase in the average and pulsed output power, band of operating frequencies while maintaining the complex operating characteristics of the device, such as a low supply voltage, low mass and dimensions, etc. One of the main requirements to the klystron with the administration of special electrode electron gun (the grid) is the need to ensure high electric strength of the klystron (minimum number of breakdowns in the gun).

Known for powerful multi-beam klystrons with resonators on core oscillations [1]. In such klystrons electron beams pass through a separate passage channels in the total span of the pipe in the toroidal resonator. Nicobariensis low current of the electron beams easier to focus grouped and efficiently transmit the energy to the high-frequency field. Power output is formed by summing the capacities given field many low-rays. The result can significantly reduce the operating voltage and in some cases to reduce the dimensions and weight of the klystron and its power sources. In addition, from what liczenie total perveance can be significantly increased bandwidth gain such a klystron.

However, when creating klystrons with average power exceeding 10 kW medium-wave and short-wave part of the centimeter wavelength range using multi-beam design with resonators on core oscillations encounters difficulties associated with the need to resolve conflicting objectives. To ensure broad band amplification it is necessary to reduce the diameter of the passage pipe, and to provide a large power level, good calarasanu, low current density from the cathode and electrodiagnostic need to increase the number of rays and the diameter of the passage pipe.

When using traditional cavity toroidal type maximum diameter of passage pipe is about half of the working wavelength. When this partial beams are located on one or more circles. The large diameter passage pipe leads to a change in the amplitude of the electric field along the radius. This leads to reduced efficiency of the interaction between an electron beam and to the heterogeneity of the modulation of the electron beams in the outer and inner rows span channels, and consequently a fall in efficiency.

When the reduction of the working wavelength of the klystron allowable diameter of passage pipe is reduced accordingly. Also decreases the achievable pulse and the average m is nosti, while maintaining the required electrodiagnostic.

The strength is determined by several factors - the size of the electric field in the interelectrode gaps electron gun, as the electrode surface, the vacuum level in the device and so the Magnitude of the electric field strength depends on perveance one beam and the magnitude of the accelerating voltage, which is at a known number of points completely determine the output power of the klystron [1].

Known for the design of the klystron average power with a total vacuum shell two partial MLK [2]. The input and output resonators partial MLK pairs linked together to form the input and output active cavities of the klystron (twin-tube resonators), and the intermediate resonators (one-pipe resonators) partial MLK is not associated with the neighboring resonators. All resonators are dvuhkosournymi coaxial (antiphase). This design allows you to have a wider bandwidth compared to odnosezonnye resonators. However, the diameter of passage tubes in this type of resonators can be no more than a quarter of the wavelength, which limits the power output level of each partial MLK. Ensuring a high level of output power as impossible because of the difficulty of heat removal from the average the jumpers duhsasana resonators. This design has an output pulse power of about 15 kW to 500 MHz bandwidth and efficiency of the device is ~15%.

Used in this design twin-tube klystron input and output resonators have an increased sensitivity distribution of the electric field to the discontinuities that occur when the load input and output resonators, which reduces the efficiency of the klystron.

The objective of the invention is to provide a multi-beam pulsed mnogomasshtabnogo device O-type (for example, klystron) with increased output power (pulse and average) in a sufficiently wide bandwidth and high efficiency.

In the present invention increase the output power of the device is achieved by selecting a given value of the diameter of passage pipe active resonators. In this case, the proposed design provides high efficiency in a given frequency band. Additional efficiency is achieved by alignment affecting the rays of the electric field of the input and output active resonators, that is, the asymmetric location of the drift tubes in these resonator.

Features multibeam instrument of O-type containing electronic gun, the input and output power, collector and electrodynamic system, including input and output active resonators, each of which RA is medeni two-beam passage pipe, intermediate active resonators and the first output of the passive resonator, the electromagnetic associated with the output of the active resonator, the input, output and intermediate active resonators, each of which are placed on two-beam passage pipe, made in the form of segments of waveguides with a working form of oscillations N201and the diameter D of each beam passage pipe is selected from the condition

D=(0,4-0,45)λ,

where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency of the operating band of the device.

In the present invention, the input active electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input waveguide through the gap of communication performed in their common wall located perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis of both the drift tube entrance of the active resonator, while the minimum distance from the wall to the input of the active resonator with a gap due to the surface of the beam passage pipe may be 2-2 .5 times less than the smallest distance from the opposite wall of the entrance of the active resonator to the surface of the beam passage pipe.

In the present invention, the input active electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input of the passive resonator, made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations of H201through two slits communication calorieburning in their common wall, placed parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the two-beam passage pipe input active resonator and located opposite the centers of the beam passage pipe input active resonator, while the minimum distance from the wall to the input of the active resonator with cracks due to the surface of the beam passage pipe may be 2-2 .5 times less than the smallest distance from the opposite wall of the entrance of the active resonator to the surface of the beam passage pipe.

In the latter two cases, the input passive electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input waveguide through the gap of communication in their common wall, and the communication gap offset from the axis of the input of the passive resonator.

In the present invention, the first output of the passive resonator is made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations N201while the first output passive electromagnetic resonator is connected to the output of the active resonator through two slits communications, which are made in their common wall that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the two-beam passage pipe the output of the active resonator, while the minimum distance from the wall of the output of the active resonator with a gap due to the surface of the beam passage pipe can be the in 2-2,5 times less than the smallest distance from the opposite wall of the output of the active resonator to the surface of the beam passage pipe.

The first output of the passive resonator may be a solenoid connected with the output waveguide through the gap of communication in their common wall, and the communication gap offset from the axis of the first output of the passive resonator.

The first output of the passive resonator may be connected with the second output of the passive cavity through at least one slit of the connection (for example, through the gap of communication that is offset from the axis of the first output of the passive resonator), performed in the common wall of these resonators, while the second output passive electromagnetic resonator is connected with the output waveguide through the gap of communication in their common wall.

Use in the invention odnozalnyh active resonators, each of which is made in the form of a segment of the waveguide with a working form of oscillations N201unlike duhsasana coaxial resonators prototype allows each passage pipe with a diameter of more than a quarter of the wavelength that gives the possibility to increase the number of rays and, therefore, the output power of the device while maintaining the required electrodiagnostic.

The placement of all the active resonators, including intermediate resonators, two mn is Poluchenie span pipe allows you to simplify, compared with the prototype, the design of the instrument, as well as to simplify its configuration.

The calculated and experimental data showed that the proposed design of the device, the diameter of each of the drift tubes D must be in the range of 0.4-0.45 wavelength corresponding to the center frequency of the operating band of the device. Increasing the diameter of the passage pipe more than 0.45 specified wavelength leads to a large non-uniformity of electric field distribution in the channels of the drift tubes and, consequently, a decrease in efficiency and gain of the klystron, which reduces power output. The decreasing diameter of the passage pipe is less than 0.4, the specified wavelength leads to the impossibility of placing a floating pipe a sufficient number of rays necessary to ensure the output power), which does not allow to provide high strength and durability of the device at high levels of output power. The specific value of the diameter of passage pipe device is selected from a specified range of values taking into account the most dense packing of channels in the span of the pipe, which in turn is selected based on the required diameters and number of channels, as well as from a specified range of operating frequencies.

Input active electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input waveguide directly or (in the helicene gain) through the passive input resonator. The input waveguide is connected to the input energy.

An asymmetrical arrangement of the drift tubes relative to the opposite walls of the input of the active resonator leads to the reduction of non-uniformity of the electric field in the channel of the drift tubes, which allows to increase the gain of the device and its efficiency.

To ensure the bandwidth of the device output active electromagnetic resonator is connected with the output waveguide through one or (for greater operating band of the device) two series-connected passive resonator. An output waveguide connected to the output energy.

An asymmetrical arrangement of the drift tubes relative to the opposite wall of the output of the active resonator leads to the reduction of non-uniformity of the electric field in the channel of the drift tubes, which allows to increase efficiency of the device.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

1 schematically depicts a multibeam mnohorozmerny the klystron.

On figa and 2B depict embodiments of the input of the active resonator with asymmetrical location of the drift tubes relative to its opposite walls (figa - input active resonator with an input waveguide, PIGB - input active resonator with input passive resonator and the input waveguide).

and figure 3 shows the output Akti is hydrated resonator with two output passive resonators and the output waveguide.

Multibeam mnohorozmerny the klystron, schematically depicted in figure 1, contains an electronic gun 1, header 2, the energy input 3, output power 4 and electrodynamic system 5 that includes the input of the active resonator 6, the intermediate active resonators 7 and the output of the active resonator 8, each of which contains the span of the pipe 9.

On figa depicts the input of the active resonator 6, the solenoid is connected directly to the input waveguide 10 through the slot 11 in their common wall 12, which is located perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis of both the drift tubes 9.

On figb depicts the input of the active resonator 6, the solenoid is connected with the input of the passive cavity 13 through two slits connection 14 in their common wall 15 that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of both the span of the pipe 9, and the communication gap 14 located opposite the centers of the drift tubes 9. Input passive electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input waveguide 10 through the slot connection 16 in their common wall 17, and the communication gap 16 is displaced relative to the axis of the input of the passive resonator.

For improving the uniformity of electric field distribution in the floating pipe input active resonator serves to position the span of the pipe 9 is closer to the slits 11 (figa) or 14 (figb) so that the distance from the wall 1 or 15 with cracks due to the passage of the pipe 9 was less than the distance from the respective opposite wall input active resonator 6 to span the pipe 9. It is experimentally shown that the introduction of the mentioned asymmetry, in which the smallest distance L1 (figa) or L11(figb) from the wall to the input of the active resonator with a gap due to the passage of the pipe in 2-2,5 times less than the smallest distance L2 (figa) or L21(figb) from the opposite wall of the entrance of the active resonator to the span of the pipe, reduces the differential wave resistance (ρmaxminin the span pipe from 2.5 to 3.2 times (with the symmetric location of the drift tubes relative to the opposite walls of the cavity) to 1.2-1.5 times.

Figure 3 shows the output of the active resonator 8, a solenoid connected with the first output of the passive resonator 18 (with a working form of oscillations N201through two slits connection 19 in their common wall 20 that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of both the span of the pipe 9, and the communication gap 19 is located opposite the centers of the drift tubes 9, as any shift in the position of cracks due on 19 relative to the centers of the drift tubes leads to decrease communication output active and the first output of the passive resonators. The first output of the passive resonator 18 electromagnetic associated with the second output Passy is essential resonator 21 (with a working form of oscillations N 101) through the slot connection 22 in their common wall 23, and the communication gap 22 is offset relative to the axis of the first output of the passive cavity 18, as the symmetrical arrangement of the slits 22 bond relative to the axis of the cavity 18 are not capable of providing communication with the cavity 21. The second output of the passive resonator 21 electromagnetic associated with the output waveguide 24 through the slot connection 25 in their common wall 26.

For improving the uniformity of electric field distribution in the floating pipes the output of the active resonator serves to position the span of the pipe 9 is closer to the cracks connection 19 so that the distance from the wall 20 with slots connection 19 to the span of the pipe 9 was less than the distance from the opposite wall of the output of the active resonator 8 to span the pipe 9. The introduction of the mentioned asymmetry, in which the smallest distance L111from the wall 20 of the output of the active resonator with 8 slots connection 19 to the span of the pipe 9 in 2-2,5 times less than the smallest distance L211from the opposite resonator 8 to span the pipe 9 also allows you to reduce the differential wave resistance (ρmaxminin the span pipe from 2.5 to 3.2 times (with the symmetric location of the drift tubes relative to the opposite walls of the cavity) to 1.2-1.5 times.

The klystron, schematically depicted in figure 1, works as about what atom. The input microwave power is supplied to the input energy of 3 and excites in the input active resonator 6 microwave oscillations. While microwave energy is supplied from the input power 3 to the resonator 6 either directly through the input waveguide 10 (figa), or connected in series through the input waveguide 10 and the input of the passive resonator 13 (figb). E-rays passing through the input of the active resonator 6 is modulated by the speed of microwave energy. In the span of multibeam pipes 9 accelerated electrons overtake the slower. In the intermediate active resonators 7 e-rays induce the microwave field, which in turn additionally modulates the electron beams. The result is a grouping of electron beams in bunches. The extraction of energy from the electron beam occurs in the output of the active cavity 8 by inhibition of electron bunches in a high frequency field of the resonator. Enhanced microwave power from the output of the active resonator 8 is output from the klystron through the output energy 4. While microwave energy is delivered from the resonator 8 to the output power 4 or via the first output of the passive resonator 18 and the output waveguide 24, or through two series-connected output passive resonator 18 and 22 and the output waveguide 24 (figure 3).

The proposed design is tested in experimental powerful Shirokov losna the klystron (containing seven active resonators, working as fluctuations in N201and the diameter of each pyatnadtsativekovoy span pipe 0.43 wavelength corresponding to the Central frequency of the operating band of the device and two passive output resonator located according to figure 3), working in the medium part of the centimeter range with an average output power of 12 kW, a frequency band of 200 MHz, a gain of 40 dB.

The following results are obtained:

- provided level output pulse power of about 600 kW in the band of 200 MHz at high electric strength in the middle part of the centimeter range. In the pre-existing structures was not possible to achieve such a range of options;

- the efficiency of the klystron increased in comparison with analogues from 30 to 40%. The prototype has an efficiency of about 15% in a 500 MHz bandwidth in the shortwave part of the centimeter range.

The proposed design can be widely used to create powerful broadband devices O-type (e.g., klystrons) for use in electronic equipment.

Sources of information

1. Whippin. Evaluation of the ultimate capacity of the multibeam klystrons with resonators on core oscillations for modern radar. Radio engineering, 2000, No. 2, p.43-50.

2. ATV. Three powerful broadband low-voltage Mnogotochie the th amplifier klystron double-barreled design. Radio engineering, 2000, No. 2, p.51-53.

1. Multibeam device Of the type containing the electron gun, the input and output power, collector and electrodynamic system, including input and output active resonators, each of which are placed on two-beam passage pipe, the intermediate active resonators and the first output of the passive resonator, the electromagnetic associated with the output of the active resonator, characterized in that the input, output and intermediate active resonators, each of which are placed on two-beam passage pipe, made in the form of segments of waveguides with a working form of oscillations N201and the diameter D of each beam passage pipe is selected from the condition D=(0,4÷0,45)λwhere λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency of the operating band of the device.

2. Multibeam device Of the type according to claim 1, characterized in that the input active electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input waveguide through the gap of communication performed in their common wall located perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis of both the drift tube entrance of the active resonator.

3. Multibeam device Of the type according to claim 2, characterized in that the minimum distance from the wall to the input of the active resonator with a gap due to the surface of the beam passage pipe 2÷2.5 times less chennaionline distance from the opposite wall of the entrance of the active resonator to the surface of the beam passage pipe.

4. Multibeam device Of the type according to claim 1, characterized in that the input active electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input of the passive resonator, made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations N201through two slits communications, which are made in their common wall, placed parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the two-beam passage pipe input active resonator, and are located opposite the centers of the beam passage pipe input of the active resonator.

5. Multibeam device Of the type according to claim 4, characterized in that the minimum distance from the wall to the input of the active resonator with cracks due to the surface of the beam passage pipe in 2-2,5 times smaller than the smallest distance from the opposite wall of the entrance of the active resonator to the surface of the beam passage pipe.

6. Multibeam device Of the type according to claim 4 or 5, characterized in that the input passive electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input waveguide through the gap of communication in their common wall, and the communication gap offset from the axis of the input of the passive resonator.

7. Multibeam device Of the type according to claim 1, characterized in that the first output of the passive resonator is made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations of H201with the first pass output is passive electromagnetic resonator is connected to the output of the active resonator through two slits communication which are made in their common wall that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the two-beam passage pipe the output of the active resonator.

8. Multibeam device Of the type according to claim 7, characterized in that the minimum distance from the wall of the output of the active resonator with a gap due to the surface of the beam passage pipe 2÷2.5 times smaller than the smallest distance from the opposite wall of the output of the active resonator to the surface of the beam passage pipe.

9. Multibeam device Of the type according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that the first output passive electromagnetic resonator is connected with the output waveguide through the gap of communication in their common wall, and the communication gap offset from the axis of the first output of the passive resonator.

10. Multibeam device Of the type according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that the first output of the passive resonator electromagnetic associated with the second output of the passive cavity through at least one slit communication performed in the common wall of these resonators, while the second output passive electromagnetic resonator is connected with the output waveguide through the gap of communication in their common wall.

11. Multibeam device Of the type according to claim 10, characterized in that the first output of the passive resonator electromagnetic associated with the second output passive p is senatorem through the gap of communication, which is offset from the axis of the first output of the passive resonator.



 

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FIELD: microwave engineering; high-power broadband multibeam devices such as klystrons.

SUBSTANCE: proposed O-type device has two multibeam floating-drift tubes in each active resonator with operating wave mode H201, diameter D of each tube being chosen from condition D = (0.4 0.45)λ, where λ is wavelength corresponding to center frequency of device operating band. Input and output active resonators with floating-drift tubes asymmetrically disposed relative to opposite walls of these resonators are proposed for use. Input active resonator can be connected to energy input directly or through input waveguide, or through input passive resonator and input waveguide. Output active resonator can be connected to energy output through one output passive resonator and output waveguide or through two output passive resonators and input waveguide. Two multibeam floating-drift tubes are disposed in each active resonator including intermediate ones.

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