Fire-fighting method and apparatus

FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for volumetric fire extinguishing in closed space.

SUBSTANCE: method involves separate feeding cooled gaseous aerosol with progressively increasing temperature to upper space of room to be protected at the command of control system; additionally supplying sprays of fire-extinguishing powder mixed with products of solid fuel combustion across the whole room volume or locally in lower room part at maximum speed, wherein quantity of supplied aerosol, initial time, direction and necessity of fire-extinguishing powder supply is determined from fire spread speed and nature. Fire-extinguishing substance is supplied in accordance with the following program. Under false operation of control system or in the case of small fire apparatus is given a command to supply gaseous aerosol. If fire covers the full room volume apparatus is given a command in 5 - 10 min to supply gaseous aerosol and, when needed, if fire is not extinguished, apparatus is given a command to additionally supply fire-extinguishing powder. If fire is accompanied by explosion and in the case of room air-tightness failure apparatus is given a command to simultaneous supply gaseous aerosol and fire-extinguishing powder. Fire-extinguishing apparatus comprises at least one aerosol generator AG 1, at least one powder extinguisher PE 2 with solid-fuel displacing gas generator GG 3, control system for operating fire-extinguishing composition supply connected to aerosol generator and powder extinguisher. Control system has sensors 4 and control-and-triggering means 5. Aerosol generator and gas generator GG 3 are provided with cooling inert nozzles. Control system is programmed to actuate aerosol generator and powder extinguisher in dependence of fire nature.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, reduced time of space filling with fire-extinguishing composition and, simultaneously, increased economy and safety to people, possibility to extinguish fires at early stage in large rooms with dense equipment arrangement in the case of people present and in rooms with large quantities of pressurized combustible materials which may explode with creation of high-power fire sites distributed across the whole room volume; increased consumption of fire-extinguishing composition and reduced volumetric concentration thereof, increased reliability of fire-extinguishing system in temperature range from -60° to +60°.

10 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to fire and can be used for total flooding closed volumes (production, warehouse, special compartments and the like), blocking the spread of fire, prevention of gas explosions, to protect consumer and industrial electronics, power equipment, transport.

The invention can find primary use in the oil and gas industry, with significant amounts of protected areas, a high degree of clutter equipment, a considerable amount of combustible gas and ridersriley substances under pressure, able in the case of technological accidents to create a powerful fires with the explosion throughout the volume.

Fighting fires in such enterprises by traditional methods (gas, water, foam, powder extinguishing pipes) ineffective due to the low speed of filling the entire room fire extinguisher through the supply pipe (see Aniano. Technical means of extinguishing fires in chemical plants. M.: Chemistry, 1976). Selection of fire extinguishing means depends on the type and scale of the fire. Therefore, each extinguishing agent has its own advantages and disadvantages. So, for example, gas compositions, especially halog the access hydrocarbons, too expensive, is only effective in tight areas, have high toxicity and environmental hazard. Dry chemical piped, have a tendency to caking and sticking on the wall of the pipe, which makes them difficult to store and feed in the form of clouds in the amount of protected areas, and cleaning powder from the premises is difficult and uneconomical, especially after a false alarm system.

These deficiencies are deprived of the means of fire, based on the feeding amount of the protected premises gaseous aerosol generated in the generator during the combustion of solid aerosolforschung fuel (see RF patent №2001646, class. And 62 With 37/00, 1993). The aerosol generator has high performance, small dimensions and weight, does not require care in a long (up to 15 years) period of operation, reliable in performance, is cheaper than any fire extinguishing several times, does not require cleaning of the premises and does not damage electronics and material values after activation (by analogy with gas systems).

However, application of the methods of fire fighting only used as a fire extinguishing composition of single aerosol does not provide reliable fire in large quantities due to the fact that the volume to be protected, as a rule, not sealed 100%, and an aerosol having a temperature of more than 800 To significantly Le is th air resulting in leaking of the aerosol in the upper scale, therefore, the estimated fire extinguishing concentration in lower amounts may be insufficient. In addition, when extinguishing fires in explosive environment when the fire started after an explosion and subsequent depressurization of the premises, this way gas fire, becomes ineffective due to leakage of the aerosol in the upper scale. In these cases, are forced to resort to more traditional method of fire suppression is to serve in an unpressurized volume razvodami pipes extinguishing powder. However, it is also not achieved the desired effect, because the time is too big and is 60...120 s, and in addition, the powder is fed in a continuous stream from the canals distributing pipe down on the floor area and does not provide a suppression in the upper scale (Smirnov EXAMPLE, by the Installation of fire suppression. - M.: Takir. 1998. - 104).

Closest to the claimed method of extinguishing the technical essence and the achieved effect is the way of the fire, including the filing of burning in the hearth, the fire extinguishing composition in the form of a flow of aerosol generated by the combustion channel pyrotechnic charge of aerosolforschung fuel aerosol generator, and extinguishing powder, optionally fed into the hearth fire of the fighting with help of an injector, the acting from the main flow of the aerosol (see RF patent №2095099, class. And 62 With 13/22, 1994).

The effectiveness of extinguishing a fire in a known manner is provided by filling in minimal time highly effective fire extinguishing composition consisting of a mixture of aerosol and extinguishing powder, which, being heavier aerosol gradually settles in lower volumes and provides extinguishing the bottom of fires.

However, the known method of fire suppression has the following disadvantages. If any, even a minor fire in the scope of the protected premises served the entire aerosol and all of the powder, which is wasteful in itself, as well as the need arises cleaning powder in any case, when it triggers fire, even a false signal to the automatic control system when there is no fire. How dangerous biologically, as the combustion of solid aerosolforschung fuel occurs at a temperature of not less than 1500 K, after the filing of a homogeneous powder aerosol-powder mixture will have a temperature of about 800 K, and the volume of the room after mixing with air of at least 400 For that person mortally dangerous. In addition, the efficiency of this method decreases when extinguishing a fire in a depressurized space, for example, after the explosion, as a uniform high temperature and rosolino-powder mixture is lighter than air, so carried away through the formed openings. The method has low efficiency is also due to the fact that when the contact of the powder with a stream of high-temperature aerosol it is sintered and substantially loses its fire extinguishing properties.

A known system for total flooding systems, including generators with solid aerosolanteil composition and the device initiating generators when running after actuation of the sensors at the command of the control system (see RF patent №2081640, class. And 62 With 13/22, 1992). Aerosolgenerating generators placed in the protected area so that at each point of the space was created extinguishing concentration of the aerosol.

However, this system due to the fact that the aerosol having a temperature above 800 K, lighter than air, does not provide all the uniform volume concentration of aerosol - top it is always higher. In case of depressurization of the premises inevitable leakage of aerosol from the upper volume. The lower the generators will not be able to compensate for its consumption, leakage, as formed by natural draft up because of the temperature difference (the phenomenon of free convection).

The technical task to be solved by the invention is the provision of a high efficiency fire, reducing the filling time of the protected volume agnethas the m composition and at the same time improving the efficiency and security of the person of the fire extinguishing process at an earlier stage in areas with large internal volume, and/or a high degree of clutter equipment, and/or the possible presence of people and/or with the presence of significant quantities of flammable substances under pressure, able in the case of a technological accident to explode and create in short time a powerful fires throughout the volume of leaking areas, at high flow of extinguishing agent and a relatively small fire extinguishing concentration in 1 m3due:

- selection of an optimum direction and mode of extinguishing composition in the protected volume, depending on the nature of the fire,

- ensure optimal feed composition, fire extinguishing concentration and temperature of the fire extinguishing substances,

- reduce the time of transportation of the fire extinguishing composition in the fire.

Additionally solves the problem of operational reliability of fire-fighting systems in conditions of wide operating temperature range (-60°C to +60°C).

The goal of the project, the proposed method is solved in that in the known method of fire suppression, based on the feeding amount of the protected premises at the command of the control system fire extinguishing composition in the form of gaseous aerosol produced during the combustion of solid fuels in an aerosol generator, and extinguishing powder, optionally submitting the imago in the flow of products of combustion of solid fuel, what's new is that at the command of the control system separately served chilled gaseous aerosol variable gradually increasing the temperature in the upper volume of the protected premises, and the mixture extinguishing powder and combustion products of solid fuel serves jets with a maximum speed or throughout the volume of the protected premises, either locally at the bottom of the premises, and the quantity of supplied gaseous aerosol, as well as the beginning, the direction and the need for supply of fire extinguishing powder is determined by the speed and nature of the spread of fire in the premises, the system control supply of extinguishing agent into the protected premises operates according to the following program:

- when a false alarm and control system or a minor fire command is issued for the supply of gaseous aerosol;

- in case of fire in the entire volume of space command is issued for the supply of gaseous aerosol and, if necessary, if the fire is not extinguished, after 5...10 min the command to the additional supply of extinguishing powder;

- in case of fire from the explosion and subsequent depressurization of the space command is issued on the simultaneous delivery of aerosol and gaseous extinguishing powder.

As gaseous aerosol can be applied chilled composition based products is gorania solid fuel, containing gases CO2N2N2O, CH4and fine condensed solid fraction alkali metal salts (for example, K2CO3, KCl and others), mainly with size less than 2 microns.

Gaseous aerosol at the beginning of the operation of the aerosol generator has a temperature at the outlet is equal to the ambient temperature, and in the end, the aerosol generator is not more than 550 K, the mixture of aerosol and air in the protected area after the operation of the aerosol generator has a temperature of 320 K.

The mixture extinguishing powder and products of combustion of the solid fuel powder fire extinguisher served in the volume of the protected space at an angle between 10° to 80° to the horizon with maximum speed.

A jet of a mixture of extinguishing powder and combustion products of solid fuel are directed primarily towards each other.

Control supply of the fire extinguishing composition is carried out automatically and/or manually.

Implementation of the proposed method of extinguishing composition in the protected volume, depending on the nature of the fire (local fire, fire in the whole volume and /or fire from the explosion and the like) provides a reliable filling in the requested amount of the fire extinguishing composition in the minimum time optimal number and status the PTO: one or aerosol or sequentially spray and then powder, or both substances at once.

The use of the fire extinguishing composition in the form supplied separately in the scope of the protected premises aerosol and gaseous extinguishing powder allows, first, to reliably cover extinguishing composition as the upper volume of the room (aerosol lighter than air)and to implement a reliable quick fill extinguishing powder lower volumes. This effectively to make a fire in large quantities in a depressurized areas. Secondly, to save only the aerosol (without powder) with an insignificant risk of fire and false alarm sensors. Thirdly, the use of the fire extinguishing composition of gaseous aerosol and aerosol-powder mixture having a low specific gravity, good permeability, allows you to fill in all the protected premises inert environment in the shortest possible time (5-10 s), including cluttered and large height and volume of the objects.

Gaseous aerosol produced during the combustion of solid fuels in high-speed aerosol generator having a cooling inert nozzle, is formed in the minimum time and served in the volume chilled to a temperature that excludes negative impact on man and oborudovanie this using only one spray at a small local fire or false alarm sensors eliminates unnecessary consumption of extinguishing powder, contamination of the premises powder, which simplifies and cheapens the process.

The supply of extinguishing agent at the command of the control system allows, according to the program, to identify the origin, the direction and the need for supply of fire extinguishing powder in the amount of the protected premises. Supply of fire extinguishing powder and aerosol powder fire extinguisher at an angle of between 10° to 80° to the horizon with a maximum speed provided by the upper stage nozzle in the form of a Laval nozzle, provides a rapid fill extinguishing substance of lower volumes and reliable extinguishing of the most dangerous lower fires, for example, spilled after the accident of the oil.

The technical problem is also solved by a fire extinguishing system comprising a feeder in the amount of protected premises fire extinguishing composition consisting of at least one aerosol generator, and an associated control system supply of fire extinguishing composition consisting of sensors and control starting device, which is new is that the feeder of the fire extinguishing composition further comprises associated with the control system at least one powder extinguisher with solid fuel pressurization gas generator having the discharge pipe with the upper stage nozzle, and aerosols the first gas generator and a pressure generator powder fire extinguisher is supplied with cooling inert nozzles, and control system supply of extinguishing agent is programmed to actuate the feeder extinguishing agent as follows:

- when a false alarm sensors in the protected area or minor fire command is issued to enable only the aerosol generators,

- in case of fire in the whole volume of the room is the command to turn on all of aerosol generators and, if necessary, if the fire is not extinguished, through the time delay automatically the command to enable powder fire extinguishers,

- in case of fire from the explosion and subsequent depressurization of the space command is issued for the simultaneous inclusion of all aerosol generators and pressure of the gas generators powder fire extinguishers.

Fuel pressure gasifier powder fire extinguisher is made mostly of inert aerosol composition.

For cooling the products of combustion of solid fuel pressurization of the gas generator to a temperature below the sintering temperature of the powder in the casing pressure gas generator installed inert deploymeny nozzles, for example, in the form of a set of plates or tubes.

For ejection of the mixture of powder and products of combustion of the solid fuel powder fire extinguisher at an angle of between 10° to 80° to the horizon the maximum speed of the latter is equipped with a discharge pipe with upper nozzle on the end in the form of a Laval nozzle.

Aerosol generator for cooling the aerosol is supplied with inert tubular deployemnt the nozzle in the form of a set of tubular, for example, steel elements arranged in the housing of the gas generator coaxially in the direction of exit of the aerosol.

The use of fire in the inventive system of separate sources of extinguishing composition, namely aerosol generators and powder fire extinguishers solid propellant pressurization gas generators associated with the General management system supply of extinguishing agent in the amount of the protected premises, allows to choose the optimal mode of extinguishing composition (best direction, best composition, fire extinguishing concentration and temperature) and the mode of fire depending on the nature of the fire. Thus placement of a fire extinguishing system directly in the protected area and the absence of distributing pipes for supplying fire extinguishing composition greatly reduces the time of delivery in flashpoint.

Due to the fact that the system of controlling the supply of the fire extinguishing composition comprising sensors and control starting device, associated with each aerosol generator and powder extinguisher, is the reliable actuation of each source of extinguishing composition, as well as the beginning of the deployment area is s and the direction of flow of fire extinguishing powder and aerosol powder fire extinguisher at the right time.

The use of the device for extinguishing composition with cooling nozzles allows you to feed the amount of the protected premises aerosol in the beginning to the ambient temperature, which reduces leakage of aerosol in the upper scale and has no adverse effect on people who have wandered into the flow of the aerosol, and then gradually increasing the temperature to 550 K, which increases fire-extinguishing aerosol effect.

The use of inert cooling nozzles in powder fire extinguisher can reduce the temperature of the powder below the temperature sintering, which provides the use of the total volume of the powder filling powder extinguisher.

Due to the fact that powder extinguisher is equipped with a discharge pipe with upper nozzle on the end in the form of a Laval nozzle, is provided by the orientation of the feed of the mixture of powder and products of combustion of the solid fuel powder fire extinguisher at an angle of between 10° to 80° to the horizon with maximum speed and thus provides a reliable filling of the fire extinguishing agents even most of the lower volume of the room.

Optimal location in the protected volume of supply of extinguishing agent fire extinguishing systems for reliable feeding in the upper volume of gaseous aerosol, and in the rest of the mixture onigashima the powder and the products of combustion of a solid fuel fire extinguisher, effectively extinguishing a fire of any nature, including in large quantities.

Due to the constructive execution of the fire extinguishing system is provided by the possibility of its operation in severe conditions of temperature from -60° to +60°Since, including in the Far North, while the system is running reliably for a long time (10 years) without maintenance, as solid aerosol generators run on conversion of rocket and space technology with probability P>0,9998.

Thus, the inventive method and extinguishing system for its implementation provide a high efficiency of fire for a short time in large volumes, and/or with a high degree of clutter equipment, and/or explosive substances, while ensuring the safety and cost-effective mode of fire.

For the implementation of the proposed method extinguishing media use fire-extinguishing system scheme is shown in figure 1. and figure 2 (General view layout options for the location of the accelerating nozzle).

Fire extinguishing system includes a feeder in the amount of protected premises fire extinguishing composition consisting of at least one aerosol generator 1, at least one is of a powder fire extinguisher 2 solid propellant pressurization gas generator 3 and the control system of the supply of extinguishing agent from the sensors 4 and the control-triggering device 5. The sensors 4 are connected with the remote control the supply of extinguishing agent, which is part of the device 5. Aerosol generators 1 and pressure generators 3 powder fire extinguishers 2 are connected through a cable network 6 with a control-triggering device 5.

Aerosol generators 1 and powder extinguishers 2 placed directly in the volume of the protected space so that at each point in space has created the necessary fire extinguishing concentration of aerosol extinguishing powder.

Aerosol generator 1 includes an explosion-proof metal housing 7 reusable placed inside it charge 8 solid fuel aerosolforschung composition, electronization 9 and the device temperaturerange - inert tubular deploymeny nozzles 10, made in the form of a set of tubular, for example, steel elements arranged in the housing 7 coaxially in the direction of exit of the aerosol.

Charge 8 solid aerosolforschung fuel to maintain a maximum flow of aerosol and, accordingly, the performance of the aerosol generator 1 is made of quickmatch composition (for example, FR-4)having a burning rate of more than 20 mm/s at a pressure in the combustion chamber of the gas generator 30-40 ATM. The same purpose is inert deploymeny nozzles 10 in the form of a set of TRU is striated elements (pipes), mounted coaxially in the housing 7 of the core 1 in the direction of exit of the aerosol. He does not slow down the thread because of all the known constructions of deployemnt has the lowest aerodynamic resistance (aerosol moves through direct channels inside and outside the pipe). In addition, deploymeny nozzles 10 of this design has two important functions:

- provides due to the developed surface of the heat transfer rapid and complete cooling of the aerosol in the beginning of the process and gradually, as the warm pipe, increasing its temperature to an acceptable value (550 K) at the end of the gas generator;

- due to the intense heat and high velocity aerosol in pipes occurs first, the rapid freezing of the composition of the products of combustion of solid fuel, which allows to obtain not coagulated particles of alkali metal salts of the minimum size (0.5 to 2 μm), effectively linking the oxygen of the air during the fire, and secondly, it prevents them from sticking to the wall of the pipe, which provides a high concentration of these particles in the volume filled by aerosol, and, accordingly, increases the fire-extinguishing efficiency.

Upon actuation of the gas generator 1 is formed of an inert (non-corrosive) gas aerosol-based products of combustion of solid fuel, containing the x gases CO 2N2N2O, CH4and fine condensed solid fraction of salts of alkali metals (K2CO3, KCl and others) with a size of 0.5-2.0 μm, linking the oxygen and extinguishing the burning. The size of the applied charge is determined by the volume of the protected premises, based on the required fire-extinguishing concentration aerosolforschung composition of 50 g per 1 m3.

Powder extinguisher 2 contains metal explosion-proof housing 11 is filled with extinguishing powder 12. Inside the housing 11 in the thickness of the powder 12 posted by solid-fuel gas generator 3 to obtain the aerosol which is connected with electronization 13 launch. On the housing 11 attached node ejection powder 12 in the form of outlet pipe 14 with upper nozzle 15 at the end, made in the form of a Laval nozzle. This nozzle is designed to provide maximum ejection velocity of the mixture powder 12 and aerosols (products of combustion of the solid fuel gas generator 3). For cooling the products of combustion of solid fuel pressurization of the gas generator 3 is below the sintering temperature of the powder 12 in the case of inert installed deploymeny nozzles 16 in the form of a set of plates or tubes. The use of the design of powder extinguisher 2 solid fuel pressurization of the gas generator 3 with deployemnt the nozzle 16 is substantially luceat operational and functional capabilities of the fire extinguishing (storage without pressure, a more complete (without sintering) using powder, a mixture of aerosol and powder in a proportion by weight of 1:10 has an extremely high extinguishing efficiency).

The accelerating nozzles 15 in the form of a Laval nozzle for powder fire extinguisher 2 provides the ejection of the mixture of powder and combustion products of solid fuel at an angle of between 10° to 80° to the horizon with maximum speed. Optimal supply jets of powder with a spray angle of 45° to the horizon to meet each other. It is necessary to quickly extinguish fires of various combustible substances, especially in lower volume areas.

The principle of powder fire extinguisher 2 based on pseudoseizure layer of powder 12 upon receipt of an aerosol spray from a pressure gas generator 3 in the body cavity 11 with the subsequent release of extinguishing powder 12 in the form of gas-powder jet, consisting by weight of from 10% aerosol and 90% of the powder into the protected volume.

Electronization 9 launch of the aerosol generator 1 and electronization 13 starting powder fire extinguisher 2 are connected by lines initiation cable network 6 with a control-triggering device 5.

The number of aerosol generators 1 and powder fire extinguishers 2 in the fire suppression system may be any, and they can be combined in modules or batteries with any combination of sources of supply agnethas the first composition. The number of aerosol generators 1 in such a fire extinguishing system is calculated based on the volume of the protected areas and the creation of optimal fire extinguishing concentration of the aerosol in the whole volume. And the amount of powder fire extinguishers 2 is calculated based on characteristics of the object and the type of possible fire, or to create a fire extinguishing concentration of powder in the entire volume, or surface coating equipment or floor with a layer of powder of a certain thickness (usually 1.5 to 2.0 kg/m2). Accordingly, the accelerating nozzles 15 goes up (up to 80°) or down (up to 10°) (figure 2).

The control system can operate in automatic mode or in manual. A signal to start a fire extinguishing system comes from the fire alarm system or manually from the “start” button on the operator's console or manual starter.

Controlling the actuator unit 5 is programmed as follows:

- when a false alarm sensors 4 in the protected area or minor fire command is issued to enable only the aerosol generators 1,

- in case of fire in the whole volume of the room is the command to turn on all of aerosol generators 1 and, if necessary, if the fire is not extinguished, through the time delay automatically command on the e powder fire extinguishers 2,

- in case of fire from the explosion and subsequent depressurization of the space command is issued for the simultaneous inclusion of all aerosol generators 1 and powder fire extinguishers 2.

The proposed method of fire suppression is as follows. Upon detection of a fire in the protected area of the trigger sensors 4, and the control command and launch unit 5 depending on the nature of fire includes fire suppression system. Submit a command to actuate the aerosol generators 1 and powder fire extinguishers 2. Control starting device 5 takes the command as follows:

- when a false alarm sensors 4 or insignificant fire command is issued for the supply of gaseous aerosol

- in case of fire in the entire volume of space command is issued for the supply of gaseous aerosol and, if necessary, if the fire is not extinguished, after 5...10 min the command to the additional supply of extinguishing powder,

- in case of fire from the explosion and subsequent depressurization of the space command is issued on the simultaneous delivery of aerosol and gaseous extinguishing powder.

When this cooled gaseous aerosol variable gradually increasing temperature serves in the upper volume of the protected premises, and the mixture extinguishing powder and products of combustion of the solid fuel on the try or the entire volume, either locally in the lower amount, depending on the size and nature of the fire, or do not submit if there is a small fire. Fast-acting aerosol generators 1 and powder extinguishers 2 allow you to fill in the minimum time the entire volume of the protected areas, because the aerosol penetrates quickly into the upper volume, and the powder from the fire extinguisher in a mixture with preemptive his spray quickly fills the lower volume of the room.

Method of fire suppression and extinguishing system in the experiment were implemented as follows. In the protected area volume of 1250 m3representing the shelter of the gas compressor unit (GCU), uniformly at the walls of the set 8 of aerosol generators 1 (see figure 1, 2) in a metal explosion-proof housing 7, each of which were placed a charge of 8 solid fuel - desyatikilogrammovy checker aerosolforschung fuel grade FR-4 (manufacturer fcdt “Union” , Lyubertsy) and coronarography inert cooler - deploymeny tubular nozzles 10 from a set of steel pipes (80 pieces) with a length of 0.8 m and a wall thickness of 2 mm Is constructive performance deploying tubular nozzle 10, namely: length, pipe diameter, thickness the walls of the pipe and the number of pipes provides in the beginning of the process the temperature of the aerosol is of the order of 300 K through 5 with R the bots 500 K, and in the end - 550 K. in Addition, the side walls evenly between aerosol generators 1 set 8 powder fire extinguishers 2 with pressure aerosol generators 3, each of which contains one kilogram aerosolforschung fuel grade FR-4, and inert cooler aerosol - inert deploymeny nozzles 16 in the form of a set of steel tubes (15 pieces) with a diameter of 8 mm, a length of 150 mm and a wall thickness of 1 mm extinguisher 2 was filled in 80 kg of extinguishing powder 12 grade Vixon ABC, and in his case 11 was set at an angle of between 10° to 80° to the horizon the discharge pipe 14 for ejection powder 2 m in length with upper nozzle 15 at the end in the form of a Laval nozzle. Twelve generators 1 and eight fire extinguishers 2 could separately from each other to create a fire extinguishing concentration of a substance in a volume of 1250 m3(or one spray, one or powder).

All fire extinguishers 2 and generators 1 through the cable network 6 were associated with a control-triggering device 5 and hung throughout the volume of the sensors 4, two types of light - 6 pieces fired at the flash gas or turbine oil, and heat - 12 pieces, responsive to the rate of rise of temperature in the volume.

The task of testing this method and system fire fighting minim is the emotional suppression volume of fire in the shelter HPA was first set separately for aerosol generators 1, then separately for powder fire extinguishers 2, and in the last stage for their joint work on commands from the control starting apparatus 5. The experiment was simulated all types of possible fires:

- local in a small area of the floor from the Strait of turbine oil;

volume without an explosion from the spray pressure of the burning turbine oil throughout the volume;

volume without an explosion from a gas torch at the break of the pipeline pumping natural gas and simultaneous Strait turbine oil;

- volumetric deflagration explosion after the breakthrough of the pipe and partially filling the room with natural gas with its subsequent ignition random sparks.

Experiments have shown that the aerosol creates a fire extinguishing concentration when triggered, all of the generators 1 in the amount of 1250 m330, in the upper third of the volume - 3, and in the upper half of the volume for 8 sec. And above due to the temperature gradient and lower density of the aerosol is created ultra-high concentration in the air ~110 g/m3. Then after 30 seconds there is a gradual mixing of the aerosol with the air cooling of the aerosol and lowering it to the lowest volume. Although preliminary cooling of the first portions of the aerosol in an inert, tubular cooler - nozzle 10 of the gas generator 1 to the temperature environment is th air slightly increased the speed of construction of a fire extinguishing concentration (60 g/m 3in lower volumes from the floor. However, the aerosol was given another positive effect is created temperature conditions for human survival, who happened to be in the room (temperature <320). Much faster was created fire extinguishing concentration of extinguishing agent in lower volumes with additional emission directed to meet each other jets extinguishing powder mixed with aerosol fire extinguishers 2 (8).

Moreover, the optimum angle of release powder 12 from the fire extinguisher 2 for rapid extinguishing of fires in the lower volume was determined experimentally in the range from 20° to 45° to the horizon (depending on the nature of the fire).

Experiments on fire in the whole volume HPA using only fire extinguishers 2, when he carried out the emission and dispersion of the powder through the accelerating nozzle 15 in the form of a Laval nozzle, orientirovannyh vertically upwards (angle to the horizon - 80°) showed that the fire extinguishing concentration faster was created in the upper scale (10 s), and in lower quantities - 40...50 s after sedimentation of the powder. Therefore, the technical task of creating a fire extinguishing concentration of extinguishing agent in a large amount in a short period of time (8...10) is possible only by the combined method, namely: it is necessary to apply the spray at the top is bhamy, and the powder is at the bottom in the form of an aerosol powder spray, dispersed in a Laval nozzle to maximum speed and designed to meet each other. In this case it is possible to quickly (within 5...8 (C) to extinguish pockets of fire in the lower volume of powder in the top of the aerosol.

The proposed method of fire suppression and extinguishing system for its implementation are as follows. If unauthorized work light sensor 4, such as a solar flare, or one light sensor 4 reported a small local fire control starting apparatus 5 according to their program runs only aerosol generators 1. Filling the entire volume of the aerosol to the fire-extinguishing concentration (especially at lower volumes) occurs at 30 C. This is enough time for extinguishing and non-proliferation of local fire. People, who happened to be in the room when turned on aerosol generators 1 and material valuables and electronic devices from the cold spray does not suffer, and after airing the protected object can immediately be used. In addition, there is no need for cleaning powder and perezarazhenie powder fire extinguishers 2.

In the case of large fire with flash, but no explosion of the device 5 according to the signals of the sensors 4 includes all aerosol generators 1, as in the first case, that is giving begins in 3 c in the upper scale and ends after 30 seconds at the bottom. However, if after 5...10-minute excerpts of aerosol indoors differential thermal sensors 4 record the temperature risecontrol-starting device 5 automatically includes powder fire extinguishers 2 to eliminate the remaining pockets of fire. This kind of situation can be when fighting, for example, the volume of fire after the explosion of the gas turbine unit (GTU) gas-pumping unit, when heated parts GTU are sources of ignition, turbine oil, the supply of which failed because of the failure to block. In this case, you may re-ignite after a 10-minute exposure of the aerosol in the already extinguished the object after switching exhaust ventilation for ventilation or in the case of natural leakage of aerosol in the process of aging through the damaged ceilings or walls of the object, for example, from scattered parts of the GTU.

If deflagrating explosion in the volume of the object, all the sensors 4: light and temperature are included simultaneously, and the device 5 according to their program runs all aerosol generators 1 and powder extinguishers 2 at the same time. In the depressurized room is thrown out double the quantity of extinguishing substances for a short time (8...10). A large part of the aerosol is entrained through the opened apertures legco ratively elements of a building (usually this light ceiling or window). However, it is the first portions of cold aerosol isolate the core of the explosion of the oxygen from the air and prevents development of the fire in the middle and upper volumes. And the quenching is performed in a depressurized room spray-powder mixture emitted in the first 8...10 with the accident of fire extinguishers 2 directional jets.

Depending on the extent of the explosive object number of aerosol generators 1 and powder fire extinguishers 2 can be increased compared with the standards to extinguish normal fires without an explosion. This helps to protect any object from the fire after the explosion, and most importantly, prevents the development of an accident outside of the affected object.

Tests of the proposed method and the fire extinguishing system has shown high efficiency, operational reliability and performance when extinguishing fires of any complexity.

The advantage of the invention over the known is to provide fire fighting, especially in large and hazardous locations, at an earlier stage, which prevents their development in a large-scale man-made disaster.

Technical appraisal and economic benefits of the proposed method and fire extinguishing system for its implementation over the known technical solutions SOS the SNF to reduce the filling time of the protected volume extinguishing substance 3-4 times, providing reliable and rapid extinguishing of fire in the depressurised after the explosion volume, creating safe for staff conditions of fire, increasing the efficiency of quenching of the local fire 2-3 times.

1. The way of fire, based on the feeding amount of the protected premises at the command of the control system fire extinguishing composition in the form of gaseous aerosol produced during the combustion of solid fuels in an aerosol generator, and extinguishing powder, optionally fed into the stream of products of combustion of solid fuel, characterized in that at the command of the control system separately served chilled gaseous aerosol variable continuously increasing temperature in the upper volume of the protected premises, and the mixture extinguishing powder and products of combustion of the solid fuel obtained in powder fire extinguisher with pressure of a solid propellant gas generator, serves jets with a maximum speed or throughout the volume of the protected premises, either locally at the bottom of the premises, and the quantity of supplied gaseous aerosol, as well as the beginning, the direction and the need for supply of fire extinguishing powder is determined by the speed and nature of the spread of fire in the premises, the system control supply of extinguishing agent into the protected premises shall operate as follows: when a false alarm and control system or a minor fire command is issued for the supply of gaseous aerosol in case of fire in the entire volume of space command is issued for the supply of gaseous aerosol and, if necessary, if the fire is not extinguished, after 5-10 min the command to the additional supply of extinguishing powder, when the fire from the explosion and subsequent depressurization of the space command is issued on the simultaneous delivery of aerosol and gaseous extinguishing powder.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that gaseous aerosol apply the cooled composition on the basis of products of combustion of solid fuels containing inert gases CO2H2N2O, CH4and fine condensed solid fraction of salts of alkali metals, mostly with size less than 2 microns.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the gaseous aerosol at the beginning of the operation of the aerosol generator has a temperature at the outlet is equal to the ambient temperature, and in the end, the aerosol generator is not more than K, the mixture of aerosol and air in the protected area after the operation of the aerosol generator has a temperature of not more than C.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture of extinguishing powder and products of combustion of the solid fuel powder fire extinguisher served in the volume of the protected space at an angle of 10 to 80° to the horizon with a maximum near the stew, when this jet extinguishing mixture of powder and combustion products of solid fuel are directed towards each other.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the control flow of extinguishing composition is carried out automatically and/or manually.

6. Fire extinguishing system, including feeder in the amount of protected premises fire extinguishing composition consisting of at least one aerosol generator, and an associated control system supply of extinguishing agent with sensors and control starting device, characterized in that the device for supplying fire extinguishing composition further comprises associated with the control system at least one powder extinguisher with solid fuel pressurization gas generator, with an aerosol generator and pressure gasifier powder fire extinguisher is supplied with cooling inert nozzles, and control system supply of extinguishing agent is programmed to actuate the feeder of the fire extinguishing composition in the following way: when a false alarm sensors in the protected indoors or minor fire command is issued to enable only the aerosol generators, in case of fire in the whole volume of the room is the command to turn on all of aerosol generators and, if necessary,e is whether the fire is not extinguished, through the time delay automatically the command to enable powder fire extinguishers, fire from the explosion and subsequent depressurization of the space command is issued for the simultaneous inclusion of all aerosol generators and powder fire extinguishers.

7. The system according to claim 6, characterized in that the fuel pressure of the gasifier powder fire extinguisher is made from an inert aerosol composition.

8. The system according to claim 6 or 7, characterized in that the cooling of the combustion products of solid fuel pressurization gas generator powder fire extinguisher to a temperature below the sintering temperature of the powder in the casing pressure gas generator installed inert deploymeny nozzles, for example, in the form of a set of plates or tubes.

9. The system according to claim 6, characterized in that the ejection of the mixture of powder and products of combustion of the solid fuel powder fire extinguisher at an angle of 10 to 80° to the horizon with maximum speed, the latter provided with a discharge pipe with the upper stage nozzle in the form of a Laval nozzle.

10. The system according to claim 6, wherein the aerosol generator to cool the aerosol is supplied with inert tubular deployemnt the nozzle in the form of a set of tubular, for example, steel elements arranged in the housing of the gas generator coaxially in the direction of you is ode of the aerosol.



 

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