Method to form decorative face surface of concrete articles

FIELD: building materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for decorative finishing of concrete and reinforced concrete articles. Method comes to laying relief forming member in mould, covering it and laying concrete of decorative face layer. Used as relief forming member is porous hydrophilic material with layer of powder gas generator and layer of colouring agent applied in succession to its surface. Moisture permeable cloth is used as covering and structural concrete, as decorative face layer.

EFFECT: simplified process, increased service life of face surface of concrete articles.

1 ex, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of building materials and can be used for the decorative concrete and concrete products and structures in the manufacturing process.

There is a method of making decorative items (see A.S. USSR №1217819 on CL 04 In 14/02) through preparation of granules, mixing them, the subsequent pressing in the form of hardening and grinding of the front surface, while the granules are made of double-layer kernel of cement-sand mixture, which roll shell of pigments of different colors, and before mixing the granules treated dusty mixture.

For the preparation of granules, rolling them shell requires special equipment which is difficult to fit into existing technology. The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of grinding products that allows you to get the relief surface. Moreover, part of the pigment granules is not associated with structural concrete and among themselves, which reduces the durability of the decorative surface.

These drawbacks are partially eliminated in the known method the relief of finishing concrete surfaces (see A.S. USSR №6900043, BI No. 39, 1979), which consists in the manufacture of matrices of the molding pastes, laying and fixing them in the form, the application of specially prepared mortar or concrete is and colored cements, and then molding in the usual manner.

The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the manufacture of matrices, the presence of a large number of components for their preparation. In addition, when laying matrices require special devices for locking them in the form that creates certain difficulties when replacing and cleaning the data relationbetween.

The closest technical solution is the way to finish textured concrete obtained in the polymer film (see M. Leszczynski, Chermenin NR, Khutoryanskiy MS and other employee Handbook construction laboratory mill. - Kiev: Budivelnik, 1980. - 256 S.), namely, that on the bottom of the form is laid polymer (polyethylene) film. The film is placed a layer of decorative concrete and in the future are made by the conventional technology.

The disadvantage of this method is the need for more use of specially prepared decorative mortar or concrete colored cements, which complicates the technology and allows you to get the desired colors from a limited palette of colored cements and their deficiency. In addition, the outer decorative layer of colored cement has a relatively low durability.

The present invention is to simplify the technology, enhancing the decorative effect and increase durability to those of lyceums is th the surface of concrete products.

This task is solved in that in a method of producing a decorative front surface of concrete products, including layout of relationbetween in form, covering him, laying concrete decorative face layer, according to the invention as relationbetween use of porous hydrophilic material coated on its surface successively with a layer of powder of a blowing agent and a layer of powder pigment, as cover for use moisture-permeable fabric, and concrete decorative face layer stack structural concrete.

Thus, the proposed method of producing a decorative front surface of concrete products is characterized by the following unknown distinguishing features:

- use as relationbetween porous hydrophilic material;

- by applying to its surface over the entire area sequentially a layer of powder of a blowing agent and a layer of pigment;

- use as a coating moisture-permeable fabric;

- laying in the quality of the concrete decorative face layer - structural concrete.

The claimed method of obtaining a decorative front surface of concrete products allows you to get a decorative front surface with a given color and architectural palette, increased $ what vechnosti and maximum factory readiness while reducing complexity at the expense of all of the proposed solutions.

The use of porous hydrophilic of relationbetween (for example, clay gravel) improves the conditions of hardening of the top surface, as in the beginning, when vibrating forms, relationbetween absorbs excess water, and then, as the setting and hardening of concrete, gives the accumulated water. The result is improved conditions for curing increases the strength of the surface layer, its toughness and durability.

The application of flux of blowing agent (e.g., aluminum powder) increases frost resistance, water resistance and durability, the formation of compacted top layer with increasing monotonously as eye-catching as a result of interaction of the blowing agent and the alkaline environment produced during cement hydration gas forms a porous structure of the lower face layer of concrete with partial hydrophobization of micropores. At the same time under the influence of gas pressure occurs seal the front surface and the migration of the pigment particles with vtaplivaniem” them in the front surface of the concrete, which leads to its permanent staining. In the result, there is no need to use for the top layer of decorative concrete, colored concrete, and used structural concrete.

The use of moisture-permeable fabric to cover reliefcooperative the El provides migration of water to the porous relationbetween, first, “top - down” from the concrete during vibration forms when relationbetween absorbs excess moisture, then bottom - up, hardening, when hardening the concrete takes away moisture from porous relationbetween. The use of moisture-permeable fabric also prevents the penetration of bubbles generated gas with particles of pigment at the bottom of the front layer of concrete. In addition, the fabric protects relationbetween and pallet forms from sticking on them concrete.

Example:

Of the concrete mixtures of the following structures:

(a) structural concrete:

- Portland cement with mineral additives M400 250 kg/m3

gravel river FR. 5-20 mm 1175 kg/m3

- sand river FR. 5 mm 600 kg/m3

- water 100 l/m3

b) for decorative concrete:

- Portland cement color M400 250 kg/m3

gravel river FR. 5-20 mm 1175 kg/m3

- sand river FR. 5 mm 600 kg/m3

- water 100 l/m3

For each of the three different methods (table 1, 2) were made 24 sample size 30×30×10 cm for testing decorative face layer (3 on the compressive strength according to GOST 22690-88 non-destructive methods; 15 - frost resistance according to GOST 10060.1-95 and subsequent strength test non-destructive methods; 6 - water resistant according to GOST 12730.5-84).

By the present method, first at the bottom is shaped to fit relationbetween (expanded clay gravel), on the surface of which is applied sequentially a layer of powder of blowing agent (aluminum powder), and then the pigment of the desired color. On relationbetween laid the floor in the form of a water-permeable fabric (cotton, fiberglass) in such a way as to prevent direct contact of the concrete with relationbetween during placement and vibration. Then, in the form laid structural concrete, the sample vibiraetsya and subjected to heat and moisture treatment according to standard mode. After CREATION form rasplavljaetsja, the product is removed from the mold coated with a decorative coating, the coating with relationbetween remains at the bottom of the form and after application of the layers of the blowing agent and pigment again ready for use. When this grease the bottom is not required.

The results of the test samples are shown in table 3. As can be seen from table 3, the samples made by the present method have the strength of the front decorative surface 1.6-1.7 times longer stand in the 2.0-3.5 times more cycles of alternate freezing and thawing, are highly resistant (2.2-2.5 times), are characterized by high durability color.

High aesthetic quality, high durability and frost resistance, simplifying technology and maximum factory readiness of products manufactured by Garrett, Borg is utilized by the present method, specifies the scope of their rational application: large-panel building envelope, primarily for housing and civil construction, including the Far North.

Porous hydrophilic (expanded clay gravel fractions 10-20 mm)
Table 1

Methods of obtaining a decorative front surface of concrete products
Kind of relationbetweenProcessing of relationbetweenType of coverageView concrete decorative face layerNotes
The analogue of (A.S. USSR №6900043, B. I. No. 39, 1979)
Matrix of the molding pastes-Emulsion MA-2 hydrophobicDecorative concrete color cement 
The prototype (employee Handbook of scrollborder)
The river gravel fractions 10-20 mm-Plastic filmDecorative concrete color cement 
According to the claimed method
Applying successively the blowing agent and pigmentMoisture-permeable fabric (cotton, fiberglass and

ETC)
Structural concrete 
Table 2

Methods of making concrete samples
No.Kind of relationbetweenThe type of coverage reliefwartrolView concrete decorative face layerThe thickness of the concrete face layer, mmTime of vibrocompaction,The mode of heat-moisture treatment at 85°C h
Analogue
1Matrix of the molding pastesEmulsion MA-2Decorative concrete20303+7+2
Prototype
2The river gravel fractions 10-20 mmPlastic filmThe same10-20The sameThe same
By the present method
3Gravel clay fractions 10-20 mmCotton fabric, fiberglassStructural concrete10-20The sameThe same

Table 3

Physico-mechanical properties of the surface layer of the samples after steaming
No.Compressive strength, MPaPermeability coefficient, cm/sTest frost after
50 cycles100 cycles150 cycles
Strength, MPaThe characteristic colorStrength, MPaThe characteristic colorStrength, MPaThe characteristic color
Analogue
112,35,1×10-1011,8No changes7,5There are cracks, loosening of the structure5,2The destruction of the surface layer
Prototype
211,94,8×10-1010,5The same5,9The same4,2The same
By the present method
319,82,1×10-1019,5No changes18,8No changesthe 15.6There were cracks

A method of obtaining a decorative front surface of concrete products, including layout of relationbetween in form, covering him, laying concrete decorative face layer, characterized in that as relationbetween use of porous hydrophilic material coated on its surface successively with a layer of powder of a blowing agent and a layer of powder pigment, and the coating use moisture-permeable fabric, and concrete decorative face layer stack structural concrete.



 

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FIELD: building materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for decorative finishing of concrete and reinforced concrete articles. Method comes to laying relief forming member in mould, covering it and laying concrete of decorative face layer. Used as relief forming member is porous hydrophilic material with layer of powder gas generator and layer of colouring agent applied in succession to its surface. Moisture permeable cloth is used as covering and structural concrete, as decorative face layer.

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