Method for restoration of contaminated soil, ground and water
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.
The present invention relates to the field of environmental protection, in particular to the protection of soil resources from industrial pollution.
Known methods for cleaning agricultural land contaminated with various chemicals (Galiulin R.V. Inventory and remediation of soil cover in agricultural landscapes, polluted with numerous chemicals // Agrochemistry. No. 7-8, 1994. - P.132-143).
Known method of remediation of soils contaminated with lead (Ephraim L.L., Black N.A. Ways to eliminate the negative effects of lead on plants // Bulletin of ARIFA, No. 92, M., 1982. - P.16-18.
There is a method of protection Chernozem soils from anthropogenic pollution (Ivonin V.M., Shumakova G. Protection of the black from man-made pollution / Improvement and use of the degraded soils. - 1991. - S-109.
There is a method of reducing the amount of pollutants in plant products (Molchan IM Breeding and genetic aspects of the content of pollutants in plant products /Agricultural biology, №1, - 1996. - P.55-56.)
Known biological methods of reducing pollution (Osipov A.I. Alekseev, Y. Biological methods of reducing contamination of plants by heavy metals Chemistry in agriculture. No. 1. - 1996 - p.4-5), consisting in the use of herbs ameliorants, in particular rape.
Famous pic is b eliminate pollution of soils // Amidala, No. 2. - 1990. - C-23 through deposition of heavy metals to form insoluble precipitates.
A common drawback of these methods of remediation of man-made contact with soil is that cleaning and restoring soil fertility are used only agrotechnical methods, as a rule, long and expensive.
There are other ways to clean up soils, including the introduction of a contaminated environment of different cultures of microorganisms acquiring crude oil and petroleum products (see, for example, the patents of the Russian Federation No. 2019527, CL 02 F 3/34, 02 At 15/04, 1993; No. 2041172, CL 02 F 3/34, E 02 In 15/04, With 12 N 1/20, 1993; No. 2057724, CL 02 F 3/34, 1994; No. 2077397, CL 09 H 1/10, From 09 To 3/32, With 12 N 1/20, 1993; No. 2127310, With class. 12 N 1/20, 02 F 3/34, In 09 With 1/10, 1996; No. 2142955, CL 12 N 1/26, 02 And 3/34, In 09 With 1/10, 1999).
The disadvantage of the methods is that they provide only the neutralization of toxic oil and prevent further exposure to toxins of oil on the ground, but did not provide for the elimination of already inflicted damage. In the full reclamation of contaminated soil remains on the share of natural factors; the process is long and unreliable. In these methods also lack an integrated approach, combining all the factors recovery - microbial, agrophysical, agrochemical, biological, etc.
There is a method of biological remediation of oil is polluted soils (RF Patent No. 2176164, In 09 With 1/10, 2001), providing the soil contaminated by oil or oil composition of microorganisms, including destructive oil and oil products, with subsequent seeding of plant green manures. Microorganisms are introduced in the form of medicines obtained on the basis of them.
This method of remediation of oil-contaminated lands, as above, is not clear, coherent technologies, is not taken into account the degree of pollution, especially that with a high content of oil products in soil and ground seeds of green manure crops can not grow.
The closest way, selected as a prototype, is a method of bioremediation of fertile land, oil-contaminated together with formation waters in the steppe, steppe, semi-desert zones (RF Patent No. 2097401, From 09 To 17/00, And 01 In 79/02, 1997). Biological reclamation includes phased in over several years farming and phyto-reclamation clean up soil by treatment with adsorbents, tilling, snow retention, cultivation, application of mineral and organic fertilizers, harrowing, sowing salt - containing herbs, perform blagonamerenny agricultural practices in the form of deep tillage, detention of runoff water, flushing water, soil chemical ameliorants, zapihivanija green is th weight for green manure.
The main disadvantage of this method of reclamation - the restoration of oil-contaminated soils prolongated - 3 years, in addition, regular use of mechanical soil treatment (selevinia, deep tillage, cultivation, harrowing, and so on) leads to large economic costs.
The technical result - the development of the most reliable, environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of contaminated soil, which is achieved by selection with contaminated surface soil samples with the release of these indigenous destructors pollutant and their experience, and after mechanical removal of the contaminant from the soil surface provide consistent treatment section water-soluble humates and at least twice the processing of accumulated aboriginal destructors, followed by tilling the soil, application of lime with mineral fertilizers in the form of nitrate, double superphosphate and potassium chloride and sowing green manure crops, chopping and plowing them into the soil and compacting.
What's new is that with a contaminated object selected soil samples for isolation of active destructors pollutant aimed at finding biological product and use it in recovery techniques, then they are held, provide the favorable living conditions for aboriginal and made destructors pollutant, includes treatment of contaminated land water-soluble humates, hoeing, fertilizing, lime, planting green manure crops and perennial grasses.
The basis of biological drugs used to restore contaminated sites are the most effective, most adapted to the source of contamination, soil and weather conditions bacteria, selected by the proposed method. The essence of the method: pollution (heavy metals, chemicals, petroleum, petroleum products) are selected soil samples for gastropanel methods and from them are native destructors. The accumulation of the bacterial preparation is carried out in the fermentor MT-20 set for each culture the optimal parameters. The application of this method for producing the bacterial preparation, consisting of the most effective destructors pollutant, both economically and environmentally justified. The use of adapted source pollution, soil and weather conditions of the bacteria, destroying toxic substances, provides a programmed effect. The proposed method is used to allocate effective destructors oil, is part of the “remediation Technology neftezagryazneny lands on emergency stations and landfills way of activitati the indigenous microflora”, approved by the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation on February 21, 2002 No. 35-01-2/108. Positive conclusion of the State ecological examination approved by order of the Minister of Ministry of natural resources 13.02.2002, No. 70; “Technologies for remediation of contaminated land by way of activation of native microorganisms licensed properties LLC “LUKOIL-Western Siberia”, approved by the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation September 2, 2002 No. 552. A positive conclusion of the State ecological expertise of 19 July 2002; “Technologies for remediation of oil polluted soils in winter with the use of indigenous microorganisms destructors oil”, approved by the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation September 2, 2002 №551. A positive conclusion of the State ecological expertise of 19 July 2002, developed by ZAO NTC Elite complex.
The next element of this technology is the use of humic compounds. Humates effectively link the many toxic compounds, and also contain minerals and trace elements, which are a food source for aboriginal destructors. The use of humic substances allows you to associate a man-made compound contaminant, which have a negative effect on plants. Reducing the sicnosti pollutants through the use of water-soluble humates, created more favorable conditions for life as a native microflora made with a biological product, and for sowing plants.
Depending on the level of contamination in the processing of recoverable stretch of water-soluble humates and biological product on the basis of native microorganisms can be performed repeatedly. Re-use of humates and biologics planned on the basis of agro-chemical and microbiological analysis of soil.
When visual symptoms are apparent degradation of the contaminant produce loosening the soil with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizers and lime. Carrying out mechanical processing is necessary to provide increased aeration of the entire contaminated layer. Loosening can be performed by different tools, plough, harrows, cutters, stubble, cultivators and their various combinations, depending on the level of contamination and mechanical composition rekultiviruemye soil.
The application of mineral fertilizers and lime is one of the main methods of activation as introduced, and introduced flora. As a result of oil contamination of the soil microbiocenosis adapts to the new conditions, primarily begin to develop uglevodorodnaya microorganisms, requiring for their development Bo is lsoe amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. Microbial cell oil degrading bacteria consists of nitrogen and phosphorus, in the absence of these elements in the soil will cause the death of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. In this regard, the application of mineral fertilizers is essential for development and reproduction of microorganisms. In addition, the application of mineral fertilizers - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium needed for planting green manure crops as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the main elements of mineral nutrition of plants. And in terms of oil pollution, the availability of these compounds decreases drastically as the enveloping soil particles by oil film prevents the release of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil solution. The optimal level of soil acidity as for plants and microorganisms - 5,5-7,0 pH. On acid soils it is necessary to conduct liming with the aim of creating a favorable salt reaction of the soil environment for bacteria and the root system of plants, and increase the digestibility of essential macronutrients that are made with mineral fertilizers.
After mechanical treatments can be sown green manure crops, which zamahivayutsya in the soil. Planting green manure crops (mix: winter rye, oats, wheat, triticale, rape, rape, clover, and others) provides the rapid expansion of the green biologically active mass is, which when death is the power source for the microbial community. The combination of cultures from rod (canola, clover, rape, and other) and fibrous (winter rye, triticale, oats and other) root system greatly improves the aeration of the soil, helps to restore natural biological processes. The introduction to this complex legumes - clover - provides the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, which is necessary to activate the activity of indigenous microorganisms and plant nutrition
The last stage of restoration works - seeding perennial grasses. The sowing of perennial grasses provides the formation recultivating of the site and the restoration of disturbed habitat. The selection of herbs for formation is depending on soil and climatic conditions. For Northern areas with organic hydric soils provides a seed mixture consisting of cattails, grass, sedge, brome, Timothy, clover, grass and so on; for the southern regions - brome, fescue, Timothy, clover, goat grass, alfalfa, clover, rape, rape, etc.
Seeds as green manure crops, and perennial grasses are processed biological products fungicidal and stimulating action, such as Integral, with the aim of increasing the immunity of plants to adverse soil conditions, the best is a fast rate, the maximum capacity of green mass.
A practical method has been tested with high economic effect on the area of over 3,000 hectares
The example 1
The method introduced in OOO LUKOIL-Western Siberia. After the removal of oil in the early-spring period of time the site has processed a water-soluble humates. In the soil at this time contained 228 g/kg of oil and oil products. When the optimal temperature +20+30°for the efficient operation of the microorganisms contained in backpropagate allocated to the proposed method, accumulated to a concentration of 3.7×109MCL/ml, was held processing microbiological preparation. After two weeks spent re-processing of a biological product. In early July, held loosening the soil, made of lime, ammonium nitrate, double superphosphate and potassium chloride. Planting green manure crops held on 8 July. To increase the resistance of plants to adverse effects caused by intensively developing mushrooms with oil pollution, seeds of green manure crops treated antifungal drug Integral. In mid-August manure crop to grind and leafy. After compacting the restoration site conducted sampling on the oil content and sowed the seed mixture of perennial grasses. The effectiveness of bioac the resource was 97%, the hydrocarbon content of the soil sample after complex activities amounted to 6.3 g/kg
By the end of the growing season more than 85% recultivating plot was covered with sown grasses.
Exemplary embodiment 2
In laboratory experiments the soil was saturated with copper to levels 6; 12; 18; 24; 30 mg/kg Maximum permissible concentration of this indicator in the soil 3.0 mg/kg
The first tillage was carried out with water-soluble humates. Depending on the concentration of copper in the soil availability of this item decreased 1.8-4.9 times. The toxic effect caused by the high content of copper in the soil was removed. The second tillage was conducted in two weeks, took repeated samples for copper content. The processes of degradation depended on the initial concentration, the most active was the reduction of copper in the soil with the pollution of 12 mg/kg In this embodiment has destructible 62% copper compounds. After the third treatment options pollution 6; 12; 18 mg/kg copper content of this indicator has decreased to acceptable standards. For purification of soil from high concentrations of C - 24, 30 mg/kg was required to spend 4 processing humates every 2 weeks.
Exemplary embodiment 3
Performed clean-up of soil around the storage of pesticides, goseva, Beloyarsky district. Sverdlovsk region, area is 500 m 2.
Soil samples were selected in the fall of 2001. The initial content of toxic substances in the samples exceeded the permissible concentration of 6.4-19,0 time. In the full scheme of the proposed technology during the spring - summer - autumn 2002 was carried out restoration work. Repeated samples were selected in the fall of 2002. The results are presented in the table. For 5 months reclamation works content DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane decreased to 1.0 mg/kg dry. soil, chlorophos - 0.5 mg
Thus, this method of reclamation of highly efficient, reliable and guaranteed.
|To reduce toxicity of contaminated soil, mg/kg (the territory of the warehouse storage of pesticides and mineral fertilizers, thosewho of Beloyarsky district, Sverdlovsk region, 2001-2002)|
|№p/p||Pollutant||The soil content|
|Autumn 2001||Autumn 2002|
SPO is about the remediation of contaminated soils, soil and water, including mechanical removal of excess pollutant from the surface of the soil, tilling the soil, compacting, mineral fertilizers, seeding and plowing of green manure crops, characterized in that the produce selection with contaminated surface soil samples with the release of these indigenous destructors pollutant and their hours, and after mechanical removal of the contaminant from the soil surface provide consistent treatment section water-soluble humates and at least twice the processing of accumulated aboriginal destructors, followed by tilling the soil, application of lime with mineral fertilizers in the form of nitrate, double superphosphate and potassium chloride and sowing green manure crops, chopping and plowing them into the soil and compacting.