Multibeam klystron

 

The invention relates to the field of vacuum microwave devices, in particular low-voltage the multibeam klystrons average power used as final amplifiers in the transmitters, radars, communication systems and other radio facilities operating in continuous and quasiempirical modes in the shortwave part of the cm and the long-wave part of the millimeter ranges. The technical result is the creation of a low-voltage, multi-beam klystron average power, working in continuous and quasiempirical modes in the shortwave part of the cm and the long-wave part of the millimeter ranges and with high-efficiency, high gain and a wide band of amplified frequencies. In the multibeam klystron containing electron gun and collector, input, output, and intermediate resonators in waveguides, the nodes of the input and output of microwave energy, which are vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window, the nodes of microwave interaction, located in the waveguides periodically along their length in the field maxima of the transverse component of the electric microwave field mA transverse component of the magnetic microwave field, thus the nodes of microwave interaction provided adjacent channels, the axes of which are perpendicular to the axes of the waveguides according to the invention, each node of microwave interaction is made in the form of a number of parallel metal plates, arranged parallel to the walls of the waveguide and perpendicular to the axis of the transit channel. In addition, the output node of microwave energy in the form of waveguide connected to the waveguide of the output resonator by means of electrodynamic elements of communication in the areas of maxima of the transverse component of the magnetic microwave field, and a vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window is located in an electrodynamic elements of communication. And electrodynamic elements of communication can be made in the form of segments of waveguides, as well as electrodynamic elements of communication may contain resonant aperture located on the side of the output resonator. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to the field of vacuum microwave devices, in particular low-voltage the multibeam klystrons average power used as final amplifiers in the transmitters, radars, communication systems and other radio facilities operating in erooga ranges.

Known multibeam klystron average power (RF patent No. 2075131, IPC H 01 J 25/10, published, 10.03.1997) containing multibeam electron gun, a collector of electrons, the nodes of the input and output of microwave energy, input, output, and intermediate odnosezonnye ring resonators. Resonators made in the form of rolled into the ring segments of the U-shaped waveguide. The dimensions of the resonators provide in the operating frequency range of the excitation of the standing wave type H100. In waveguides resonators space between wall with a rectangular protrusion and the flat wall forms an annular microwave-gap, along which are periodically migrating channels so that their axes are parallel to the axis of the resonator. To prevent excitation of resonators on other types of waves, at least one of the resonators has a radial slit located diametrically opposite in the plane of the input/output energy. The trenches were installed absorptive elements.

However, this design of the klystron is not suitable for use in the shortwave part of the cm and the long-wave part of the millimeter ranges, because in this range of wavelengths used resonators have very small the flight channels, limiting the total current multibeam electron flow in the range 0.4-0.6 A. it is Therefore not possible to implement high output microwave power (above one watt) and high gain (above 35 dB) when working in continuous and quasiempirical mode with low (not more than five kV) accelerating voltage on the resonators.

Also known multibeam klystron average power (RF patent No. 2125319, IPC H 01 J 25/10, published 20.01.1999 g) containing multibeam electron gun, a collector of electrons, the nodes of the input and output of microwave energy, input, output, and intermediate duhsasana linear resonators, made in the form of short-circuited at the ends of the segments of the coaxial waveguide. The dimensions of the resonators provide in the operating frequency range of the excitation of the standing wave type H011. The space between the inner conductor and the wall of the waveguide forms in the direction of motion of electrons two consecutive microwave clearance. Span channels are located along the axis of the waveguide linearly in two rows so that their axes are perpendicular to the axis of the waveguide, the distance between adjacent spans the channels were the same, and the length of each of the number of channels does not exceed 0.25Closest to the claimed is multiple-beam klystron (U.S. patent No. 3248597, NCI 315-5.16 published 26.04.1966, containing several electron gun and a collector of electrons, the nodes of the input and output of microwave energy, input, output, and intermediate odnosezonnye linear resonators, made in the form of short-circuited at the ends of the waveguides. The dimensions of the resonators provide in the operating frequency range of the excitation of the standing wave type H10n. Along the waveguides in the region of the maxima of the transverse component of the electric microwave field periodically hosted sites microwave interaction in the form located on opposite walls of the waveguide of the two pole pieces with adjacent channels, the axes of which are perpendicular to the axes of the waveguides resonators. Pole pieces form a single microwave cavity in the direction of electron motion. Between the structures of microwave interaction in the area of maximum transverse component of the magnetic microwave field are reflecting electrodynamic elements of type inductive aperture made in the form of rods. Node input of microwave energy, containing a vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window is located in the input resonator, and the bonds of the E.

This design of the klystron is suitable for use in the shortwave part of the cm and the long-wave part of the millimeter ranges. It total current multibeam electron flow can be significantly higher than 0.5 And through the use of a large number of electron guns. Therefore this klystron is possible to realize large values of the output microwave power (above one kilowatt). However, in the desired wavelength range at low accelerating voltage on the resonator (in multiple units of kilovolts) and a small current density in electron beams (not higher than 10 A/cm2) e efficiency does not exceed 10-15%, and the gain of 10-15 dB, because the presence of nodes of microwave interaction between input, output and intermediate resonators only one microwave-gap does not provide a high efficiency of interaction of electron beams with the microwave field. In addition, the klystron can operate with high output microwave power only in a pulsed mode, because in continuous and quasiempirical modes in known constructions conclusions of microwave energy destroyed a vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window.

The invention is directed to solving the task of creating the bottom is in the shortwave part of the cm and the long-wave part of the millimeter ranges, with high-efficiency, high gain and a wide band of amplified frequencies.

To solve the problem in the multibeam klystron containing electron gun and collector, input, output, and intermediate resonators in waveguides, the nodes of the input and output of microwave energy, which are vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window, the nodes of microwave interaction, located in the waveguides periodically along their length in the field maxima of the transverse component of the electric microwave field, and electrodynamic reflecting elements located between the nodes of microwave interaction in the area of maximum transverse component of the magnetic microwave field at the nodes of microwave interaction provided adjacent channels, axis which is perpendicular to the axes of the waveguides according to the invention, each node of microwave interaction is made in the form of a number of parallel metal plates, arranged parallel to the walls of the waveguide and perpendicular to the axis of the transit channel. In addition, the output node of microwave energy in the form of waveguide connected to the waveguide of the output resonator by means of electrodynamic elements of communication in the areas of Maxim the electrodynamic elements of communication. And electrodynamic elements of communication can be made in the form of segments of waveguides, as well as electrodynamic elements of communication may contain resonant aperture located on the side of the output resonator.

The nodes of microwave interaction, containing several microwave gaps in the direction of electron motion, allow you to implement them in a cascading interaction of electrons with transverse component of the electric microwave field of the standing wave. Calculations show that due to this, in the input and intermediate resonators intensity modulation of the electron beam velocity, which determines the magnitude of the gain of the klystron will be proportional to the quality factor Q and the number P of the microwave gaps in the nodes of the microwave interaction, and the output resonator, the intensity of the exchange of energy between the microwave field generated by the electron bunches, which determines the magnitude of the electronic efficiency, will be proportional to Q and R in units of microwave interaction of the resonator. In order in the input and intermediate resonators intense modulation of the beam velocity was achieved at a wavelength ofinput signal and at an accelerating voltage V, the period length L IU is cstuuyxm implementation in the microwave clearances terms of spatial-phase matching between the microwave field and the emerging electron bunches. In the output resonator to provide high electronic efficiency with the help of this expression is determined by the length of the first period of the host microwave interaction, and the length of subsequent periods should be reduced according to the law, providing in the microwave clearances condition spatial-phase matching as inhibition of electron bunches.

Reflecting electrodynamic elements located in the waveguides of the input, intermediate and output resonators, provide sites of microwave interaction synchronizing the phase of the microwave field in the microwave gaps.

The execution of the output node of microwave energy in the waveguide, which is connected to the output waveguide resonator in the areas of maxima of the transverse component of the magnetic microwave field through electrodynamic elements of communication, containing a vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window, allows to reduce the share of output of microwave energy passing through each vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window is proportional to the number N of electrodynamic elements of communication and thereby prevent destruction of the vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window when the klystron in a continuous and quasiempirical modes with large values of lahoratory output resonator, required for efficient interaction of electron bunches with the microwave field in the microwave gaps.

Since the coefficients of the modulation of the electron beam velocity in the input and intermediate resonators, as well as the magnitude of the energy exchange in the output resonator is proportional to the quality factor Q of the resonators and microwave gaps P in units of microwave interaction, the required values of gain and electronic efficiency can be implemented at lower values of Q by increasing the R.

Thereby, it is possible to increase the bandwidth of the resonator and, therefore, increase the band of amplified frequencies.

This allows us to conclude about the presence in the claimed invention “inventive step”.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a view of the klystron from the front; Fig.2 is a side view, and Fig.3 is a top view of Fig.4 - node microwave interaction; Fig.5 is a view of a plate node of microwave interaction with adjacent channels.

In these figures the above symbols:

1 - electron gun,

2 - input resonator,

3 - intermediate resonator,

4 - output resonator,

5 - waveguide output node of microwave energy, made in the form of a linear resonator,

6 - electrodynamic elematics microwave energy to a load,

9 - node microwave interaction in the input resonator,

10 - node microwave interaction in the intermediate resonator,

11 - node microwave interaction in the output resonator,

12 plates in units of microwave interaction,

13 - span channels for electron beams,

14 - electrodynamic reflecting elements,

15 - vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window,

16 - resonant diaphragm,

17 - collectors electrons,

18 pole tips of the magnetic focusing system

19 - magnets

20 - electrodynamic reflecting elements having a transfer characteristic, such as nodes microwave interaction (11).

The klystron consists of the electron gun (1), the input line resonator (2), an intermediate linear resonator (3), the output of the linear resonator (4)), which are made in the form of short-circuited at the ends of the waveguides. The output node of microwave energy is made in the form of short-circuited at the ends of the waveguide (5). The waveguides of the output resonator (4) and the output node of microwave energy (5) are interconnected in the areas of maxima of the transverse component of the magnetic microwave field through several electrodynamic connection elements (6). Node input of microwave energy (7) is located in the waveguide (2). This site has a vacuum-tight the dielectric is of the waveguide (8). Along the waveguide (2), (3) and (4) periodically there are nodes microwave interaction(9), (10), (11), formed by the plates (12). Through the walls of the waveguide and through the plate in the transverse direction are migrating channels, the axes of which are perpendicular to the axes of the waveguides. In the waveguide (2), (3) and (4) between the structures of microwave interaction(9), (10), (11) are electrodynamic reflecting elements (14). In electrodynamic connection elements (6) are vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window (15) and the resonance of the diaphragm (16). In the klystron there is also a reservoir of electrons (17), pole pieces (18) magnetic focusing system and the magnets (19).

The operation of the klystron is as follows.

Electronic guns (1) is formed electron beams that fall within the span channels (13) of the nodes of microwave interaction (9)-(11) and focus the longitudinal magnetic field configuration which is determined by the pole pieces (18) of the magnetic system. The input microwave signal in the input waveguide resonator (2) through the inlet node of microwave energy (7) and excites in him the electromagnetic field of the standing wave type H10nthat in the microwave gaps formed between the plates (12) of the nodes of microwave interaction (9), modulates the electric is de QIand RI- the quality and number of microwave gaps in the nodes of the microwave interaction resonator (2), respectively. After passing through the resonator (2) electron beams enter through the passage channels in the microwave gaps nodes microwave interaction (10) of the intermediate resonator (3), where it is additional modulation speed and grouped in bunches. In this case, the intensity modulation speed will be proportional to (QIPI)(QCRPCR), and the modulation current is proportional to (QIP2I)(QCRP2CR), where QCRand RCR- the quality and number of microwave gaps in the nodes of the microwave interaction resonator (3), respectively. Of the resonator (3) clots are in the microwave gaps nodes microwave interaction (11) of the output resonator (4). Passing through the microwave gaps, the electron bunches excite the resonator (4) electromagnetic field with an intensity proportional to (QoPo), where Qoand Ro- the quality and number of microwave gaps in the structures of microwave interaction resonator (4), respectively. So the resulting gain of the klystron will be proportional to (QIQCRQo)(R2IP2CR is when the number of microwave gaps PIPCRand Rowithin 2-10 on one or more orders of magnitude higher compared to known multi-beam klystron (see prototype), in which through the use of odnozalnyh linear resonators (PI=PCR=Po=1) the gain is proportional to (QIQCRQo). Flying through microwave gaps nodes microwave interaction of the output resonator (4), the electron bunches, giving the microwave field, its kinetic energy is gradually decelerated. Therefore, to ensure high electronic efficiency should the distance between the plates (12) in units of microwave interaction (11) decrease by law, provide in the microwave clearances condition spatial-phase matching between the microwave field and the electron bunches as they are braking. From the waveguide output resonator (4) the energy of the electromagnetic field parts transformed via electrodynamic connection elements (6), which are the resonance of the diaphragm (16) and a vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window (15) in the waveguide (5) of the output node of microwave energy, from which the total energy of the microwave field through the hole in the wall of the waveguide (5) is fed through the waveguide path (8) to load the Oh (4) resonators can be made in the form of short-circuited at the ends of sections of rectangular waveguide. The dimensions of the waveguides resonators (2)-(5) provide in the operating frequency range of the excitation of the standing wave only type H10n. For this purpose, the size of the wide side and these waveguides should be larger than half wavelengththe input microwave signal within the resonant bandwidth of the resonators(2), (3), (4) and (5), and the size of their narrow wall b must be equal to or less than A. Widthplates (12) in units of microwave interaction(9), (10), (11) must be less than 0,5and the diameter of the sphere, within which there are holes span channels (13) shall not exceed 0.25wherethe wavelength in the waveguide. The period L=+d, in which are located the plate (12) in units of microwave interaction(9), (10), (11), must be equal to or less than b/P, where P is the required number of microwave gaps in the nodes of the microwave interaction, d is the thickness of the plates (12),- the length of the microwave clearance. And must satisfy the conditiond. In the input (2) and intermediate (3) resonators for the given values of wavelengthinput and outcaste (9), (10), is determined from the expression. The nodes of the microwave interaction (11) of the output resonator (4) using this expression L is determined first microwave clearance. For subsequent microwave gaps the value of L should be reduced according to a certain law, such as linear. The phase shift of the transverse component of the electric field in the microwave gaps adjacent nodes microwave interaction must be equal to (2k+1)therefore , the nodes of microwave interaction should be located along the waveguides, resonators with a period of Lp(k+0,5)where k=1, 2, 3, 4 is determined by the transverse dimensions of the electron gun (1) and pole pieces (18) of the magnetic system.

Reflecting electrodynamic elements (14) in waveguides(2), (3), (4) can be made in the form of segments of a rectangular waveguide with length Lo<0,5and transverse dimensions a and bo<0.5 b.The waveguide (5) can be short-circuited at the ends and having a length and transverse dimensions are the same as those of the waveguide resonator (4), but instead of nodes microwave interaction (11) are electrodynamic reflecting elements (20) made in the form of segments of a rectangular waveguide. The length and transverse dimensions of these segments of the waveguide are selected so that the transfer function was equivalent to the transfer characteristics of the nodes microwave interaction (11).

The waveguides electrodynamic connection elements (6) can be made in the form of segments of a rectangular waveguide with length LW(2m+1)/4 and transverse dimensions a and bW<0.5 b, where m=1, 2, 3, 4 is determined by the size of the reservoir (17) and pole pieces (18). The ends of the waveguides (6) are located on the broad walls of the waveguide resonators (4) and (5). Resonant aperture (16) is located in waveguides (6) between the end side of the cavity (4) and vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window (15). Vacuum-tight dielectric window (15) can be made in the form of a half-wave dielectric resonator of cylindrical forms the broad wall, opposite the wall on which the waveguides are electrodynamic connection elements (6).

Claims

1. Multibeam klystron containing electron gun and collector, input, output, and intermediate resonators in waveguides, the nodes of the input and output of microwave energy, which are vacuum-tight dielectric microwave window, the nodes of microwave interaction, located in the waveguides periodically along their length in the field maxima of the transverse component of the electric microwave field, and electrodynamic reflecting elements located between the nodes of microwave interaction in the area of maximum transverse component of the magnetic microwave field, and the nodes of microwave interaction provided adjacent channels, the axes of which are perpendicular to the axes of the waveguides, characterized in that each node of microwave interaction is made in the form of a number of parallel metal plates, arranged parallel to the walls of the waveguide and perpendicular to the axis of the drift channel and the axes of the waveguides.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the output node of microwave energy in the form of waveguide connected to the waveguide of the output resonator by means of the electrodynamic elementia microwave window is located in an electrodynamic elements of communication.

3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the electrodynamic connection elements made in the form of segments of waveguides.

4. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the electrodynamic connection elements provided with a resonant diaphragms arranged on the output side of the resonator.

 

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The invention relates to the field of vacuum microwave devices

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SUBSTANCE: proposed O-type device has two multibeam floating-drift tubes in each active resonator with operating wave mode H201, diameter D of each tube being chosen from condition D = (0.4 0.45)λ, where λ is wavelength corresponding to center frequency of device operating band. Input and output active resonators with floating-drift tubes asymmetrically disposed relative to opposite walls of these resonators are proposed for use. Input active resonator can be connected to energy input directly or through input waveguide, or through input passive resonator and input waveguide. Output active resonator can be connected to energy output through one output passive resonator and output waveguide or through two output passive resonators and input waveguide. Two multibeam floating-drift tubes are disposed in each active resonator including intermediate ones.

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12 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics; radio.

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7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

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4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

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FIELD: electronic equipment.

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EFFECT: technical result - increase durability, power output and efficiency.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

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