# Dual power adder

The proposed device can be used in broadband communications systems, telecommunications and radar systems. In two-frequency power adder containing segments parallel coaxial lines of the same length L, the first and second inputs, useful and ballast loading. In the center of the braid segments performed annular gap width equal to the outer radius of the braid (half of its outer diameter (D), the distance between the cores of the segments is equal to 2D, the adjacent inner ends of the braids of both strands in the region of the gaps , and the ends of the wires of the strands are connected to each other directly. The distance H between the braids of the segments and the body of the adder is designed so that the characteristic impedance of a cylindrical conductor braid was equal to the wave resistance of the line segments. The technical result is to ensure at the same prototype longitudinal dimension L greater bandwidth frequency adder power that lets you implement while using national standard coaxial cables ratios of overlapping spectral bands (the tuning range of the carrier frequencies) of the order of 2.0 (octave). 3 Il.

Yo the x systems for various purposes as the element base device selection and compaction frequency channels.

The urgency of development of such dual power adders due to the increasing demands for device selection and compaction of communication systems, telecommunication and radar systems in terms of their bandwidth, weight and performance and manufacturability. To ensure requirements are now in the decimeter wavelength range of requirements necessary to implement a compact dual-frequency power adders suitable for addition in the payload (which often includes an antenna) not just two separate frequencies, and two carrier frequencies with a spectral - components, occupying around the carrier frequency band of the order of an octave (corresponding to the overlap factor_{with}spectral bands is approximately 2:_{}2) high reliability and compactness. It is also possible, when summed single-frequency signals, without having around the carrier frequencies of the spectral components, rebuilt themselves in the wavelength range with a coverage factor of 2...3. Often dual power adders are installed in close proximity the rain, snow, frost, dust, solar radiation, etc.

Known dual adders ground type described in: Feldstein, A. L., AVIC L. R., Smirnov, B. N. Reference elements waveguide technology. M: Soviet radio, 1967, pages 626-627. These adders consist of a tee with a useful load on the output, the remaining two shoulder which included filters. Each filter passes only the frequency band connected to a generator, and the frequency band of the other generator is located in a strip boom of the corresponding filter.

The drawbacks of such adders are two different filters, the possibility of a sharp increase in losses due to the mutual influence of generators, as well as the lack of a ballast load, which could dissipate the resulting inevitable mismatches echoes generators.

Also known dual adders balanced type described in the above-mentioned “Reference...” on page 627-629. These adders in the decimeter wave band performed with the use of allied or opposing bridges and two identical filters located between the bridges. The filters pass band of one of the generators, such as the first one. When the corresponding filter, and then the two halves are summarized in the payload of the second bridge. In the described adders necessary to add in the payload of the second bridge phase shifts are created as due to the properties of the bridges, and the offset filter in the case of the adder (or in space) on the appropriate portion of the length of the Central wavelength bandwidth of the first generator. The second generator is connected to the free input of the second bridge, and its signal is received in the payload directly (without dividing and filtering) on a vacant tract of the second bridge. As a result, all four outputs of the second bridge associated with the payload involved and such a dual frequency power adders are very sensitive to the inevitable mismatches with useful load (antenna) due to the lack of ballast loads for connections which have no free outputs, which could dissipate reflected from the payload of the waves. In addition, the currently known bridges UHF quite bulky and provide a summation of the signals of the first oscillator after dividing and filtering in the frequency band with the overlap factor_{with}not more than 1.4...1,5._{with}spectral bands not more than 1.5, which is clearly insufficient for modern broadband communication systems and telecommunications.

Also known dual-frequency adder containing two trendelburg directional coupler described in the as of the USSR # 302775, H 01 R 3/12, publ. 28.04.1971, this adder two diagonal shoulder of the first coupler is connected with two diagonal shoulders of the second coupler segments of transmission lines, the difference of the lengths of which are on the same operating frequency corresponds to an odd number of half-waves, and to another the working frequency is an even number of half-waves. This second pair of diagonal shoulder of the second directional coupler is connected with useful and ballast loading. Therefore, the waves reflected from the payload in the inevitable for practical use of the mismatches is dissipated in the ballast load and their influence on the mode of operation of summable generators connected to the second pair of diagonal shoulder of the first beamsplitter, largely attenuated. However, as noted in the description of the invention to the system of the USSR №578666, N 03 N 7/46, publ. 02.11.1977, in which speakers of the USSR # 302775, H 01 R 3/12 was taken into account in the examination, frequency range, which provides the m dual-frequency adder described in the as of the USSR # 302775, cannot be used in the summation of the carrier frequencies to the spectral bands of the order of an octave.

Also known dual power adder described in the just mentioned speakers of the USSR №578666, N 03 N 7/46, publ. 30.10.1977, In this adder, containing the input and output regdelvalue bridges, delay, useful and ballast load, connected in parallel to the input tredecillion bridge inverter and connected in series with additional input traditinally bridge, is provided in addition payload signals of different frequencies, the outputs of two different sources. Therefore the implementation of adder power could significantly weaken undesired influence reflected from the payload of the waves on the operation mode signal sources. The signal frequency f_{1}applied to the input of the first bridge, and the signal frequency f_{2}supplied to an additional input traditinally bridge, combined reflex. Then the total voltage of frequency f_{1}and f_{2}through the delay line is fed to the inputs of the output bridge. If the length of the delay line is selected so that it Rav is described in the payload. This design of adder allows you to renounce the use of filters with high selectivity, the implementation of which in the decimeter range very difficult.

However, despite the fact that as a result of the rejection filter and the introduction of additional elements (reflex, traditinally bridge) managed, according to the claims by the speakers of the USSR №578666, to extend the operating frequency range, in the above-mentioned adder is still present delay line (actually is a segment connecting a transmission line, usually coaxial), the length of which should be equal at the same time as the even number of half-waves of one frequency and odd number of half-waves of another frequency. It is obvious that the simultaneous implementation of these two conflicting requirements is not possible to radically improve the situation and to effectively summarize the spectral bandwidth around the carrier frequencies f_{1}and f_{2}(or single-frequency signals f_{1}f_{2}during perestroika), since at frequencies f_{1}+f_{1}f_{2}+f_{2}wheref_{1},f_{2}- appropriate detuning frequencies, the condition of the phasing of the signals in the CF No. 578666 does not effectively summarize the spectral bandwidth of the order of an octave.

It is also known frequency summation device described in U.S. patent No. 4061990, CL 333-10, H 01 R 5/18, 1977, It contains a quarter-wave directional coupler, to three of the four shoulders which are connected to signal sources and environment elements. In this device there is no delay line, which are both summable signal. Therefore, broadband summable signals is mainly determined by the band properties of a quarter-wave directional coupler with a coupling strip lines along the narrow edges of the strips. As is known, the range of properties of these couplers are characterized by a ratio of not more than 1.5, and implement trendelburg communication lines is very difficult because it is technologically difficult-to-implement (and sometimes even impossible) gap between the edges of the strips. As a result, and this frequency summation device has insufficient for modern communication systems and telecommunications broadband summable spectral bands.

The prototype of the present invention is a dual frequency power adder described in the above-mentioned speaker of the USSR №578666, N 03 N 7/46, 1977, As already mentioned, the spectral bandwidth around the carrier frequency f is I the presence of a ballast load to dissipate reflected in the result of mismatches of the waves.

The task of the invention is to provide high-frequency power adder, having coefficients of overlapping spectral bands of approximately 2.0.

The solution of this problem is provided by the fact that in the known two-frequency power adder, containing two sections of coaxial lines, the first and second inputs, useful and ballast loading, segments of the coaxial lines are parallel to each other and have the same length, while in the centre of the braid sections of coaxial line is made annular gap width equal to the outer radius of the braid, the distance between the cores of segments of coaxial lines is two, the outer diameters of the braids, the adjacent inner ends of the braid both sections of coaxial lines in the field gaps and the ends of the wires of the strands are connected directly, the outer ends of the braid of one of the sections of the coaxial lines form a first entrance and a shoulder connecting the payload, the outer ends of the braid of the second segment form a second input and a shoulder connecting the ballast load, and the inputs are located on opposite sides of a power adder, and the distance between the braids of the segments of the coaxial lines and the Corinthians who were equal to the wave impedance of the segment of coaxial lines.

In Fig.1 shows the proposed dual-frequency power adder of Fig.2 is a cross-section plane perpendicular to the axes of both sections of coaxial lines in Fig.3 - frequency characteristics of the input and the summed signal.

The proposed dual-frequency power adder (Fig.1) contains two sections 1 and 2 of the coaxial lines of the same length, located above the housing 3 (the upper cover in Fig.1 conventionally not shown). Depending on the design requirements of sections 1 and 2 are supported on the housing 3 or a solid sheet of dielectric thickness H, or a thin dielectric pillars with a height H (Fig.2). In the center of the braid sections 1 and 2 of the coaxial line is made annular gap 4 width equal to the outer radius D/2 of the braid. The distance between the conductors 5 segments 1 and 2 coaxial lines is two, the outer diameter D of the braid (Fig.2). Thus interconnecting the inner ends 6, 7 of the braid both sections 1, 2 coaxial lines in the area of the gap 4, and the ends of the lived 5 segments 1, 2 are connected to each other directly. The outer ends 8 and 9 of the braid segment 1 coaxial lines form the first input 10 and a shoulder connecting the payload 11. The outer ends 12, 13 of the braid segment 2 to form a second input 14 and p is therefore useful 11 and ballast 15 loads are also located on opposite sides of the adder. If we denote as_{in}the characteristic impedance of the line segments 1 and 2 coaxial lines, the default value is 50 or 75 Ohms, the distance H between the braids of segments 1, 2 coaxial lines and the housing 3 of the adder is calculated so that the characteristic impedance_{x}cylindrical conductors braid relative to the housing 3 would be equal to the wave resistance of the line segments 1, 2 coax lines:_{in}=_{H.}This assumes that the conditional is not shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2 top cover removed from segments 1 and 2 coaxial lines at a distance (4...6)H, when its influence on the characteristic impedance_{x}cylindrical conductors braid can be neglected. Connecting the signal sources to the first 10 and second 14 inputs, as well as joining the outer ends 9 and 12 braids segments respectively useful 11 and ballast 15 loads using standard sealed coaxial inputs type 16 AWG-50-751 PV installed outside the housing 3 perpendicular to its plane (Fig.2) so that the Central pin in the snasti consists in the following.

Let the first 10 and second 14 to the inputs of the adder is connected to the source of microwave signal with EMF E and internal resistance R, and to the ends 9 and 12 bands of segments 1 and 2 coax lines, respectively useful 11 and ballast 15 loads a value of R_{n}and R_{b}. Let us assume that the magnitude of the EMF E of the sources remains unchanged in a wide frequency band f_{H1}...f_{B1}and f_{H2}...f_{B2}accordingly, carrier frequency f_{1}and f_{2}defined as: f_{1}=(f_{B1}+f_{H1})/2; f_{2}=(f_{B2}+f_{H2})/2. Then at the appropriate calculation (see below both signals are summed in the payload 11 and practically never selected the ballast load 15. The voltage U_{15}signal “leaking” in ballast load 15 from sources determined by the size and character changes along segments 1 and 2 as their impedances_{in}and the characteristic impedance_{x}cylindrical conductors of their braids relative to the housing 3. Typically, the magnitude of the wave resistance_{in}segments of coaxial lines is very stable, and practice acteristically resistance_{x}cylindrical conductors of the braid relative to the housing 3 of the adder is ensured by proper calculation of the distance H between the braids of the segments and the body of the adder. Therefore, the value of_{x}in the process of production and operation is a less stable. As a result, the level U_{15}signal “leaking” in ballast load 15 directly from the inputs 10 and 14, is the estimated value of the order of 20 dB101g|E/U_{15}|^{2}^{}20 (dB)in the frequency bands as the first (f_{H1}...f_{B1}), and^{}the second (f_{H2}...f_{B2}sources, and its amount in comparison with EMF E can be neglected. If the value of R_{H}payload 11 will change in the frequency bands f_{H1}...f_{B1}f_{H2}...f_{B2}taking not only real but also complex values (for example, when the payload is the antenna by changing the frequency range of complex impedance), then the corresponding part of the signal sources, reflected from an inconsistent payload 11, has the possibility of p is standing n between the braids of segments 1, 2 coaxial lines and the housing 3 of the adder is numerical electrodynamic methods developed by the applicant of the software package design dual power adders. At the core of the algorithms is the representation of the braid sections 1 and 2 coaxial lines in the form of a solid cylindrical conductor. This view is justified by the fact that the degree of shielding braids made by weaving thin silver-plated wires is very high, as evidenced by the materials: Efimov, I. E., Stankovic, A. RF transmission lines. Radio-frequency cables. - M.: Communication, 1977. - 408 S. If the design of the adder is to use coaxial cables of the type RK-50-2-25-And continuous shielding shell - copper tube, the use of the above approach is indisputable.

In the calculation process involved explicit and implicit difference schemes, which are based on grid models, when the cross-section of segments 1 and 2 coaxial lines above the body 3 (Fig.2) covered by a grid with square cells of variable size depending on the degree of curvature of the lines of force of the electric field. The procedure of forming Eleni (about 2 to 3%) is well known in the literature, for example: Fusco Century microwave circuit. Analysis and computer-aided design. Translation from English. - M.: Radio and communication, 1990. - 327 C. as a result, the distance H between the braids of segments 1, 2 coaxial lines and the housing 3 of the adder can be designed to provide any value characteristic impedance_{x}cylindrical conductors of the braid relative to the housing 3. The structure of the inventive dual power adder, the distinguishing feature of which is the identity and the parallel segments 1 and 2 coaxial lines, as well as the presence in the center of the braid ring gap 4 width equal to the outer radius of the conduit, such that the condition of equality of the wave resistance_{in}segments and characteristic impedance_{x}cylindrical conductors braid (_{in}=_{x}it is possible to provide at the same prototype longitudinal dimension L (Fig.1) in half to two times greater broadband spectral bands, reaching values of the overlap factor_{with}=f_{B1}/ f_{nosty, made in the form of a differential transformer, which significantly increases the reliability and maintainability of the adder and allows you to qualify the claimed design as very compact.}

For experimental studies was manufactured sample of the inventive dual power adder for adding the signals of two carrier frequencies f_{1}=0.35 GHz f_{2}=1.05 GHz with spectral bands f_{N1...}/f_{B1}=0.2...at 0.57 GHz f_{H2}...f_{B2}=0.6...1.5 GHz, with coefficients overlap_{with}=f_{B1}/f_{H1}=f_{B2}/f_{H2}=2,5. For the implementation used segments of coaxial cable RK-50-2-25-And in a continuous tubular copper sheath with an outer diameter D=3 mm, the Longitudinal dimension L of the segments 1 and 2 is determined by the half wavelength of the carrier frequency f_{2}high frequency channel and is calculated by the formula:

where C=310^{8}m/s is the speed of light,_{r}= 2,25 - relative permittivity of the insulation material of the coaxial cable.

The width of the annular gap 4 in the center of the braid sections 1 and 2 amounted to D/2=1.5 mm, and the distance between the cores of podderjivayutsa above the body 3 by a solid dielectric sheet with the same relative dielectric constant, as the insulating material of the coaxial cable - PTFE-4”. In the result of calculations involving developed by the applicant of the software package design found size N is: N=D/1,243=2,4 mm, the value of the_{x}equal_{in}50 Ohms as a standard value of impedance of the coaxial cable RK-50-2-25-And 50 Ohms. This value must be equal to the resistance of the signal sources, as well as useful and ballast 15 load: R=R_{n}=R_{b}=50 Ohms. To ensure negligible impact top, conventionally not shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2, the cap on the value of the characteristic impedance_{x}the distance between this cover up any part of signalosome (ungrounded) parts of the adder should be not less than 5N=12 mm the Rationale for this can serve as recommendations: edited by A. L. of Feldstein. The reference elements of the strip technique. - M.: Communication, 1979. - 336 S. p. 55-60.

The experimental results of frequency characteristics of the voltage U_{11}the total signal in the payload 11 (Fig.3, POS. 17 - theory (solid lines), POS. 18 - the experiment (circles, shetiyah spectral bands designed adder about 2.0 and about his prospects for practical use in broadband communication systems, telecommunications and radar systems.

Claims

Dual power adder, containing two sections of coaxial lines, the first and second inputs, useful and ballast loading, characterized in that the segments of the coaxial lines are parallel to each other and have the same length, while in the centre of the braid sections of coaxial line is made annular gap width equal to the outer radius of the braid, the distance between the cores of segments of coaxial lines is two, the outer diameters of the braids, the adjacent inner ends of the braid both sections of coaxial lines in the field gaps and the ends of the wires of the strands are connected directly, the outer ends of the braid of one of the sections of the coaxial lines form a first entrance and a shoulder connecting the payload, the outer ends of the braid of the second segment form a second input and a shoulder connecting the ballast load, and the inputs are located on opposite sides of a power adder, and the distance between the braids of the segments of the coaxial lines and the body of the adder is designed so that the characteristic impedance of a cylindrical conductor braid was equal to the wave resistance is

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