Device for igniting combustible mixtures
The invention relates to spark arresters, in particular to a device for ignition of combustible mixtures in internal combustion engines. The technical result consists in the possibility of creating a device for ignition of combustible mixtures, which could be controlled using a common controller for dvuhosnovnyj ignition coils would give bit pulse with a leading edge in units of nanoseconds, with a duration of tens of nanoseconds and flat top, was reliable, durable, simple in construction and cheap in mass production. According to the invention the device for ignition of combustible mixtures represents a source of high voltage discharge pulses containing the drive discharged directly through the spark gaps of two spark plugs. As a source of high voltage discharge pulses applied resonant pulse transformer to inductively related circuits (transformer Tesla), and as the drive - coaxial cumulative line, the center conductor of which is divided by a gap in the middle. In the gap enabled the ends of the high voltage coil of the secondary circuit of the transformer Tesla. To the carcass of the resonant transformer inductively associated circuits used as contactless connector to connect the cumulative line to the source of pulse discharge voltage. When the coil of the secondary circuit is made in the form of a plug and is mounted completely with cumulative line at the point of discontinuity of the Central conductor and the coil primary circuit is designed in the form of a slot on the switch. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.
The invention relates to spark arresters, and in particular relates to devices for igniting combustible mixtures in internal combustion engines.
Widely known device for ignition of combustible mixtures, consisting of spark plugs connected to the source of the high-voltage pulse voltage generated by using the inductive storage, combined with a high-voltage transformer (ignition coil), or a capacitive storage device in the form of a capacitor discharge through the primary winding of high voltage transformer (often the same ignition coil).
In these devices, the problem arises effective transfer of fuel energy spark discharge. It tried to solve by increasing the energy of the spark discharge, extending the existence of the discharge in the usual candle until 30PBA, or by creating a special plasma igniters (so-called plasma ignition). But the problem with what I elongated spark discharge is spent mainly at increasing erosion of the electrodes and heating products of combustion. In addition, the increase in energy of the spark discharge requires an increase podvedennyh resistors (or distributed resistance of high-voltage wires) that absorbs the increase of energy.
Also known device for ignition of combustible mixtures, where at constant energy to increase the power of the spark discharge by reducing its duration up to the nanosecond range. This is accomplished by connecting capacitance in parallel to the spark gap. The efficiency of such systems is caused by the fact that the heat from the spark proportional to the square of the current and linearly proportional to time and resistance. Since increasing the DC resistance of the spark decreases nonlinearly, by reducing the duration of the discharge pulse to the nanosecond range, i.e., hundreds of times, the heat dissipation can be increased ten times or more at a constant energy discharge.
Suggested many variants of such devices, and structures of high-voltage capacitors for them. For example, in the invention according to German patent No. 3544869, IPC H 01 T 13/44, publ. 26.03.1987, high-voltage transformer and a capacitor are mounted completely with spark ignition and patented ignition (see patent USSR No. 1836763, IPC H 01 T 13/04 was investigated, publ. 23.08.1993), and capacitors, which is part of the design of the candles (see German patent No. 2810159, IPC H 01 T 15/02, publ. 13.09.1979, and the United Kingdom patent No. 2007760, IPC H 01 T 13/40, publ. 23.05.1979). Also known device with a high voltage transformer, the windings of which are distributed capacity (see RF patent № 2157036, IPC H 01 T 13/44, publ. 27.09.2000). In devices of this type inductance discharge circuit must be kept to a minimum, therefore, the use of high-voltage wires and distributor negates all their advantages, so all these devices are either mounted on the spark plug, or combined with it constructively, and require a special, complex controllers to control the sparks in multi-cylinder engines, which limits their practical application. In addition, when the discharge of the capacitor through a spark gap and minimized inductance discharge circuit produces a pulse with a sharp peak duration of several nanoseconds. In this case, the amplitude of the current is limited by non-linear resistance of the spark gap and the effective value of current does not exceed 50-60% of the maximum possible. Ohm, flat top and duration of several tens of nanoseconds.
The application and calculation of cumulative lines in combination with spark gaps are well known and described in the book, a Month, A. S. Nasibov, centuries Kremnev “Formation of nanosecond high-voltage pulses”, Moscow, Energia, 1970, the Difference with the inventive device is that used unbalanced line with the grounded screen that was connected to the spark gaps in series with the load and serve or for switching, or as obotrites the leading edge of the pulse, the line could be charged to the maximum voltage provided by the scheme. If enable parallel lines and spark gaps, as well as the capacitor cannot be charged to a voltage above the breakdown, and it is in the ignition systems of internal combustion engine is set approximately half the maximum provided by the scheme with the aim of obtaining high reliability of ignition.
It was also suggested to use conventional, unbalanced coaxial line, the outer conductor of which had a gap in the middle, he had inserted a ring of dielectric material (see German patent No. 3840315, IPC F 02 P 15/00, publ. 08.03.1990). It was supposed evanescent microwave oscillations, which should excite high-frequency discharge.
As the closest analogue of the invention selected by the United Kingdom patent No. 695495, publ. 12.08.1953, according to which the spark ignition system for an internal combustion engine is a bit high-voltage pulses that are resonant pulse transformer is inductively related circuits (transformer Tesla) and containing the drive discharged directly through a spark gap.
The purpose of this invention was to create such a device for ignition of combustible mixtures, which, having all the advantages of the device with a capacitor, connected in parallel to the spark gap, could be managed using a common controller for dvuhosnovnyj ignition coils would give bit pulse with a leading edge in units of nanoseconds, with a duration of tens of nanoseconds and flat top, was no less reliable and durable than currently produced, had only known, proven elements and was simple in design and cheap in mass production.
The problem is solved in that the device for ignition burn the output transformer is inductively related circuits (transformer Tesla) and containing the drive, discharged directly through the spark gap. Thus according to the invention as a drive applied in a cumulative line, such as coaxial. Its center conductor separated by a gap in the middle, and in the gap enabled the ends of the high voltage coil of the secondary circuit of the transformer Tesla. The ends of the Central conductor of cumulative lines are connected to the spark gaps of two spark plugs. The resonant coil of a transformer inductively associated circuits used as contactless connector to connect the cumulative line to the source of pulse discharge voltage. When the coil of the secondary circuit is made in the form of a plug and is mounted completely with cumulative line at the point of discontinuity of the Central conductor and the coil primary circuit is designed in the form of a slot on the switch.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, which depict:
Fig.1 is a schematic diagram of a device for ignition of combustible mixtures;
Fig.2 - diagram of the ignition system four-cylinder engine made according to the claimed invention; and
Fig.3 - structural design of the coils of the transformer;
Fig.4 - cut plug visokovoljtnih digits.
According to the invention the device (Fig.1) is a resonant pulse transformer to inductively related circuits (transformer Tesla) consisting of C1, L1, L2 and symmetric cumulative line L1, divided by the average gap of the Central conductor into two symmetrical shoulder, connected by gap to the high-voltage coil of the secondary circuit, and the all - spark gaps 2-xthe spark plugs. This gives you the opportunity to get a bit pulse is short (a few nanoseconds) leading edge, as at the discharge of the capacitor, and in the same place, choosing the linear capacitance and inductance of the line, you can get the pulse duration up to tens and hundreds of nanoseconds flat-top, i.e. most of the time the discharge current in the channel remains unchanged, while the effective value of current can reach 100 or more amps. However, over the period of time of several tens of nanoseconds arc formed no time and erosion of the electrodes does not occur. Because coaxial cumulative line symmetric, despite such a large current, interference is practically absent, and podebiteley resistors are unnecessary, which contributes to more complete COI is their tens of nanoseconds and is the main advantage of the proposed device. Discharge occurs with a characteristic cotton, indicating a significant local increase in pressure and explosive nature of the process. Manufactured in industries currently ignition system with dvuhosnovnyj coils can easily be adapted to work with the proposed device.
The use of a resonant transformer with inductive related circuits (Tesla transformer) provides an opportunity not only to increase reliability, simplify and reduce the cost of construction, but most importantly to reduce the charging time of the cumulative line as the coil of the Tesla transformer have much lower inductance compared with conventional windings of pulse transformers with magnetic cores. Reducing charge time from a few microseconds to a fraction of a microsecond allows you to get the overvoltage at the electrodes of a spark gap of 10-30% and thus increase the energy stored in the tank, 20-70%. In addition, the line, unload during several tens of nanoseconds when DC gets the opportunity to “recharge” in the process of discharge from the high voltage coil, extending flat top of the pulse of 10-20 nanoseconds and increasing the heat of the spark discharge by another 20-30%. In Fig.2 pre is ensator C1 which serves as the primary reservoir for two transformers Tesla. Thus, the controller must manage two thyristors, similar to the operation of two conventional dvuhosnovnyj the ignition coils.
High-voltage coil of the Tesla transformer is typically from several tens to several hundreds of turns wound in a single layer. This winding reliable multilayer, because it eliminates the internal circuit associated with the inter-layer insulation breakdown. In addition, this coil is conveniently placed coaxially within the coil primary circuit that provides a good inductive connection between them. The amount of such coils 30-40 mm in length and 15-20 mm in diameter that allow freely put them inside the switch. If in the case of a stationary installation for the coil primary circuit (Fig.3), designed as a socket 1, a high-voltage coil of the secondary circuit, made in the form of the connector 2 can be easily inserted and removed and thus use it for contactless connection and disconnection of the cumulative lines. Cumulative line in the form 2-xsegments of the coaxial cable 3, smooth out from one end of 20-30 mm from the outer sheath, is inserted into the prepared hole inside the coil along its axis, connect the Central launched the config material in the form of a plug (Fig.4). Braid 4 cables 3 are connected. Thus, the high-voltage coil, combined with the cumulative line becomes a single high-voltage ignition apparatus, which has a contact connection only in the place of connection to the spark plugs. This design of the high-voltage ignition system makes it not only very reliable because of the tightness and lack of numerous contact connections, but easily replaceable. While the primary circuit is securely placed in the body of the switch and also well protected.
The proposed device increases the heat generated by the spark discharge by increasing the efficiency of the spark with units to several tens of percent. Direct connection of the cumulative line to the spark plugs and as a result, no high-voltage wires and distributor, reduces interference and allows you to refuse the application podvedennyh resistors.
Was built and tested a simplified version of the device, to verify operability. General view of the device shown in the photograph (Fig.5); it consists of an ignition module with a Tesla transformer, cumulative symmetrical lines and two gaps, which podnik had an adjustable range from 0 to 6 mm
The device generates sparks bright blue-white glow, accompanied by a characteristic popping and the smell of ozone. In the photograph (Fig.6) are the single spark discharge energy discharge 60 MJ at tenfold increase: normal spark discharge capacitor ignition system (Fig.6A) with a duration of 5-10 μs and the cumulative discharge line (Fig.6b) with a duration of 50-100 NS. The photos clearly visible difference in the volume and the brightness of the discharge. A practical test was carried out on the car UAZ-452 with a classic ignition system, the device contained a cumulative line is connected to a distributor and then the usual wires to the spark plugs, podebiteley resistors were removed. This simplification was quite acceptable, since the tests were carried out on the existing vehicle in real traffic conditions, and measured a very limited number of parameters. Any changes and alterations of the engine was carried out. Regulated only the ignition timing within octane-corrector and the depletion of the fuel mixture at idle. The results were as follows:
1. Maximum speed increased from 107 km/h) up to 118 km/h
2. Acceleration to 100 km/h Socrates the Oia ignition around the limit of regulation no visible change in speed and acceleration characteristics of the vehicle was not observed, only at the maximum advance was a small detonation; lean idle stable operation of the engine is continued until the limit regulation. This indicates the absence of ignition delay and instantaneous production volume of fire burning. Thus, solved the main technical contradiction of ignition of flammable mixtures in Otto engines, namely the contradiction between the volumetric nature of the burning, and scatter the nature of the ignition.
Used items, such as high-voltage coaxial cables and transformers Tesla has long been well known, has accumulated a great experience in the design, manufacture and operation. This allows you to rely on creating reliable, durable and cheap ignition systems of internal combustion engine and the rapid introduction into circulation.
1. A device for ignition of combustible mixtures, which represents a source of high voltage discharge pulses that are resonant pulse transformer is inductively related circuits (transformer Tesla) and containing the drive discharged directly through a spark gap, wherein VC is divided by a gap in the middle, in the gap enabled the ends of the high voltage coil of the secondary circuit of the transformer Tesla, and the ends of the Central conductor of cumulative lines are connected to the spark gaps of two spark plugs.
2. The device according to p. 1, wherein the resonant coil of a transformer inductively associated circuits used as contactless connector to connect the cumulative line to the source of pulse discharge voltage, and the coil of the secondary circuit is made in the form of a plug and is mounted completely with cumulative line at the point of discontinuity of the Central conductor and the coil primary circuit is designed in the form of a slot on the switch.