Hydraulic damper

 

The invention relates to the field of mechanical engineering. A hydraulic damper includes a working cylinder in which is located the piston rod. The piston is made of a composite in the form of two semi-cylinders, one of which is spring-loaded relative to the rod. The piston allows for their movement to regulate the flow of liquid flowing from its channels. At one end of the piston is made uneven areas with horizontal channels and ribs, placed on different semi-cylinders, with rising and falling surfaces. The technical result is an increase in the damping capacity due to the automatic regulation of the pressure generated by the working fluid when the working stroke of the damper. 4 Il.

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in the construction of various transport equipment.

Known hydraulic damper shown and described in the book of Derbaremdiker A. D. Hydraulic shock absorbers of vehicles. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1969, S. 8, Fig.4). This damper consists of a tank in which is movable in a vertical plane placed on the piston. The piston has a number of parts, including springs is a, that significantly affects their reliability and durability. At the same time, not all details of the shock involved in the dissipation of energy at its forward and reverse motion, and the complexity of its design increases the value of that in the practice of manufacturing and operation cost-effective.

Also known hydraulic damper along.with. The USSR №1084508 from 8.12.1983, Such a damper in comparison with the previous has a simpler construction and its rod absorbs some of the energy that occurs due to the angular rotation of the piston during its working stroke. A significant drawback of this damper is that extinguished only a narrow range of loads by its absolute value, which is limited to a constant fixed amount of cross-sections of the channels, and, consequently, a wide range of dynamic loads generated by the abrupt change in the moving speed of the rod when the vehicle cannot be damped.

Therefore, the aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the damping vehicles due to the possibility of the damper automatically adapt to rapidly changing dynamic loads, adjusting his power of resistance depending on the change in the ditch, one of which is fixedly mounted on the rod, and the second is installed on it is movable along its longitudinal axis and is spring-loaded with respect to it, and at least a pair of protrusions with channels having a horizontal axis of their plots relative to each other uneven with respect to the end surface of the semi-cylinders, and the adjacent pair of ribs, separately from each other are placed on a movable and a stationary semi-cylinders and their side facing the horizontal channels of the projections have a stepped rising and falling of the surface, providing equality gap in height between them and the axes of the horizontal sections of the channels mentioned protrusions.

In the drawings, Fig.1 shows a longitudinal cross section of the damper elements without mounting it on the vehicle; Fig.2 - the section along a-a of Fig.3 and 4 - part sections, performed by the piston In a-b and C-C.

Hydraulic damper consists of a tank 1 in which there are semi-cylinders 2 and 3, forming a piston. Can be 2 using pins 4 is rigidly fixed to the rod 5, and can 3 is located on the rod 5 is movable by means of a sliding pins 6. On the rod 5 made the stop 7 and between him and the semi-cylinders 2 and 3 posted by PR is ranked on 10 and 11 horizontal channels, and the ribs 12, and two ribs 12 that are installed on the contact boundary between two semi-cylinders 2 and 3 have a stepped surface 13, and the other two flat surfaces. At the same time, the horizontal channels 11 of the projections 9, which are located at the boundary of contact of the semi-cylinders 2 and 3 are shifted in the vertical plane relative to each other and have their diversity-remoted axis from end surfaces of the semi-cylinders 2 and 3, while the other two projections 9, the horizontal axis of the channels 11 are on the same line. The tank 1 is filled with the working fluid 14. Operates hydraulic damper as follows. In the case of impact loads on the wheel of the vehicle (not shown), the reservoir 1 is moved in the direction of arrow D (Fig.1) and containing a working fluid 14 flows through the arrows E in vertical channels 10, and then in horizontal channels 11. Dripping from the latter, the working fluid 14 communicates with the ribs 12, thereby creating an angular rotation together the two semi-cylinders 2 and 3 relative to the vertical axis of the stem 5, as well as the final with keys 4 and 6 are connected with the rod 5, and it is elastically twisted generated by the moment Mkr, campfire thus such a force. As soon as de position together with the semi-cylinders 2 and 3 and the working fluid 14 in the reverse course of the tank flows in the direction reverse arrows that is, If the dynamic load occurs with considerable speed and its value significantly greater than beforehand projected average value, as in the first case, the working fluid 14 flows along the arrows E, but also on the arrow G moves can be 3, which compresses the compression spring 8 and, together with himself moves from one side of the protrusion 9 in the direction of arrow G (Fig.3) relative to the ribs 12 2 and half his ribs 12 in the same direction relative to the projection 9 that is installed also on the semicylinder 2 (Fig.4). As well as the ribs 12 have a stepped surface, the gap between the projections 9 and the ribs 12 are substantially reduced, which creates resistance to the expiration of the working fluid 14 from the horizontal channels 11, and therefore, increases the torque on the rod 5, which floats on an even greater angle, dampens and such loads. After the disappearance of the load under the action of the spring 8 can 3 returns to its original position as shown in Fig.1. In the future, the process is repeated with different intensity spin rod 5 relative to its longitudinal axis. Consequently, it can be 3 performs the role of the machine, which is her stiffness of the spring 8, but as soon as the speed of the tank 1 by the arrow G will increase the stiffness of the spring 8 will not be enough, and she elastically campfires, allows you to move the half 3, and thereby changing the gap between the projections 9 and the ribs 12 located in the contact zone of the semi-cylinders 2 and 3, which enables the creation of large forces of resistance to the motion of the vessel 1 relative to the rod 5.

Claims

Hydraulic damper containing a working cylinder, in which is placed a piston rod mounted on the piston, one end of which is made of radial ribs and lugs having curved at a right angle to the axis of the piston channels, characterized in that the piston consists of two semi-cylinders, one of which is fixedly mounted on the rod, and the second is installed on it is movable along its longitudinal axis and is spring-loaded with respect to it, and at least a pair of protrusions with channels having a horizontal axis of their plots relative to each other uneven with respect to the end surface of the semi-cylinders, and the adjacent pair of ribs separated from each other are placed on a movable and a stationary semi-cylinders and their side facing the horizontal channels vystupov them and the axes of the horizontal sections of the channels mentioned protrusions.

 

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