The method of seedbed preparation (variants) and a device for its implementation (options)

 

The invention relates to agricultural machinery and can be used for the surface treatment of the soil before sowing the period of cultivation of agricultural crops. The method includes loosening, mixing and separation of the soil to remove weeds from the soil. The method is carried out by a unit containing at least one cultivating a working body, made in the form of a horizontal low-speed cutters. Directly after the passage of the horizontal low-speed cutters in a single pass unit soil treated with one or more additional horizontal low-speed cutter to a depth equal to or less than the depth of the horizontal low-speed cutter. According to the second variant of the method and device instead of the additional cutters soil treated with at least one ribbed drum to a depth equal to or less than the depth of the cutter. According to a variant of the method it is performed by the device, in which the soil after it is processed horizontal low-speed cutter handle one or more additional horizontal low-speed cutter and at least one additional ribbed the cutter. The distance from the end of the cutter to the next mill or drum perform not more than 1 M. In embodiments, the device also reveals the connection between the frame of the cutter and an auxiliary frame, which is equipped or more, or ribbed drum. Such technology and design help to improve the quality of loosening of the soil during seed bed preparation, to improve the separation and removal of weeds from the soil. 6 C. and 3 h.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to the agricultural industry, in particular to tillage devices serving for the surface treatment of the soil in the seedbed period of growing crops.

There is a method of growing potatoes and device for its implementation [1], for which the upper layer of soil is affected by the device for separation of the soil. It is a ribbed drum located on the horizontal axis, dened on the edges of the drum separating elements in the form of teeth. The disadvantage of this method and device is insufficient grinding lumps of soil (crushing lumps) in the feedback on the top layer of soil (one of Primakov from the soil, because the weeds remaining in the composition of lumps remain in the soil and then beetroot. The disadvantage of this device is the lack of quality grinding lumps of topsoil due to the fact that the working surface of the fins is made flat. An additional disadvantage of this device is the high complexity of the replacement of the separating elements in resultate of wear or breakage. The above-described method and apparatus are most similar (prototypes) of the claimed method and apparatus. The known method and device for processing soil using a rotary soil tilling implements according to [2], which includes a horizontal drum, made from discs, which are connected by rods from loosening teeth, with the teeth of the previous rod in relation to the subsequent teeth are staggered. In addition, each of the terminals installed additional teeth, each of which is located between the two main with an angular offset relative to them.

The disadvantage of this device is the design complexity and the impossibility of replacing the loosening elements after they wear or breakage.

It is also known tillage gun Sagrada of which features an extra work item. Thus the cutting edge of each knife has an arched shape, and each work item has a surface shape formed by the cross-section surface of the rotation portion of the segment of a circle about a vertical axis passing through the cutting edge of the blade, the plane of the knife and her normal vertical plane passing through the axis of rotation of the segment, the arcuate portion of which is at the cutting edge of the knife.

The disadvantage of this device is its low maintainability because of the impossibility of quick replacement loosening elements, as well as a high degree of destruction of the soil structure as a result of application of the active drive (tractor PTO) of the milling drum.

The aim of the invention is to improve the quality of loosening of the soil during seed bed preparation, improving the quality of separation of the soil and removing weeds from the soil.

This objective is achieved in that in the first embodiment of the method of seedbed preparation, including the loosening and separation of the soil with weed removal unit for treatment of the soil with at least one cultivating tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed cutters, immediately after por the additional horizontal low-speed cutter to the depth equal to or less than the depth of the horizontal low-speed cutter.

This objective is achieved in that in the second variant of the method of seedbed preparation, including the loosening and separation of the soil with weed removal unit for treatment of the soil with at least one cultivating tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed cutters, directly after the passage of the horizontal low-speed cutters in a single pass unit soil treated with one or more additional ribbed drum to a depth equal to or less than the depth of the horizontal low-speed cutter.

This objective is achieved in that in the third embodiment, method of seedbed preparation, including the loosening and separation of the soil with weed removal unit for treatment of the soil with at least one cultivating tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed cutters, single pass unit, immediately after the passage of the horizontal low-speed cutters soil treated with one or more additional horizontal low-speed cutter and at least one additional restoy cutter.

The goal in the first embodiment of the device for seedbed preparation containing unit for treatment of the soil with at least one cultivating tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed cutters, including mounted on the frame ribbed drum with a horizontal axis of rotation and fixed or done on his ribs separating elements in the form of the teeth is achieved by the fact that directly after the horizontal low-speed mill equipped with one or more additional horizontal low-speed cutter, connected by means of hinges and bottom rigid rod with the frame horizontal low-speed cutters, moreover, the frame horizontal low-speed cutters can be connected to at least one of the upper thrust made with adjustable length.

The goal in the second variant of the device for seedbed preparation containing unit for treatment of the soil with at least one cultivating tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed cutters, including mounted on the frame ribbed drum with a horizontal axis of rotation and attached or executed on his rebristoi cutter has one or more additional ribbed drum, connected by means of hinges and bottom rigid rod with the frame horizontal low-speed cutters, and frame horizontal low-speed cutters and additional finned drum can be connected to at least one of the upper thrust made with adjustable length.

The goal in the third embodiment of the device for seedbed preparation containing unit for treatment of the soil with at least one cultivating tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed cutters, including mounted on the frame ribbed drum with a horizontal axis of rotation and fixed or done on his ribs separating elements in the form of the teeth is achieved by the fact that directly after the horizontal low-speed mill equipped with one or more additional horizontal low-speed cutter and at least one additional ribbed drum, moreover, the frame cutters and additional finned drum are interconnected by means of hinges and bottom rigid rod and at least one upper thrust made with adjustable length.

In Fig.1 shows a device for implementing the first is but a device for implementing the third variant of the method.

The first variant of the method of seedbed preparation involves loosening, mixing and separation of the soil from the disposal (“comb”) weeds and is a unit with at least one cultivating tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed cutters. Directly after the passage of the horizontal low-speed cutters in a single pass unit soil treated with one or more additional horizontal low-speed cutter. Moreover, the depth of tillage additional horizontal low-speed cutter is chosen equal or lesser depth of processing horizontal low-speed cutter. For example, during processing of soil for sowing of potato depth low-speed milling soil and seedbed preparation is 8-12 see

The second variant of the method of seedbed preparation involves loosening, mixing and separation of the soil from the disposal (“comb”) weeds and is a unit with at least one cultivating tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed cutters. Directly after the passage of the horizontal low-speed cutters in a single pass unit soil amrabat restim drum is chosen equal or lesser depth of processing horizontal low-speed cutter. For example, during processing of soil for sowing of grain crops (rye, barley, wheat) depth low-speed milling of soil is 8-10 cm, and the depth of tillage additional ribbed roller is 3-4 cm

The third variant of the method of seedbed preparation involves loosening, mixing and separation of the soil from the disposal (“comb”) weeds and is a unit with at least one cultivating tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed cutters. For single pass unit, immediately after the passage of the horizontal low-speed cutters soil treated with one or more additional horizontal low-speed cutter and at least one additional ribbed drum. Moreover, the depth of tillage additional horizontal low-speed cutter and extra ribbed drum is chosen equal or lesser depth of processing horizontal low-speed cutter.

Device for seedbed preparation is a unit for treatment of the soil with at least one block of low-speed milling, consisting of a horizontal low-speed cutters 1, including useraudit elements 5 in the form of teeth. Directly behind the horizontal low-speed cutter 1 set additional horizontal low-speed cutter 6, the construction of which is similar in design to the horizontal low-speed cutter 1. Depending on the type of crops geometrical parameters of the elements of the horizontal low-speed cutters 1 and additional horizontal low-speed cutters 6 (one or more) may be the same or differ.

Additional horizontal low-speed cutter 6 by hinges 7 (for example, in the form of a cylindrical axis and sleeve) is connected with the lower rigid rod 8 to the frame 2 horizontal low-speed cutter 1. Top link 9 (one or more) connecting the frame 2 horizontal low-speed cutter 1 with a frame 10 additional horizontal low-speed cutters 6, made with adjustable length, for example, using the lanyard 11, having right and left threads, a flexible rod (not shown), etc.

Due to the fact that the frame 10 additional horizontal low-speed cutters 6 are connected by means of hinges 7 and the upper thrust 9 frame 2 horizontal low-speed cutters 1, additional horizontal nescesary cutters 1.

The unit can be one or more devices for seedbed preparation.

In the device for the implementation of the second variant of the method instead of the additional horizontal low-speed cutter 6 is used at least one additional ribbed drum 12 (Fig.3). While the hinges 7, rod 8 and 9 can be performed by analogy with the structural elements for the implementation of the first variant of the method.

For the implementation of the third variant of the method uses a combination of horizontal low-speed cutters 1, at least one additional horizontal low-speed cutters 6 and one or more additional finned drum 12.

The device operates as follows. Unit horizontal low speed cutter 1 (one or more) given the speed of translational motion. For example, with the help of mobile power. When the teeth 5 and the ribs 4 in contact with the soil, crush the lumps of soil, crushing them. Simultaneously with rotating teeth 5, the soil is separated and in the process of separation from her separated weeds. In the process of separation of fine soil particles pass through the teeth 5 of the horizontal low-cutter designs from rotating grip with the ground and moving through the soil more horizontal low-speed cutters 6 or more finned drum 12. Due to the fact that the teeth and other elements additional horizontal low-speed cutters 6 or ribs, etc. additional finned drum 12 rotate toward the clumps of soil thrown up by the teeth 5 of the rotating horizontal low-speed cutter 1, the result of a collision of a flying lumps of soil and rotating them towards more horizontal low-speed cutters 6 or more finned drum 12, the lumps are crushed. Rolling additional horizontal low-speed cutter 6 on the ground last advanced razravnivaetsya ribs and teeth from rotating clutch with soil cutter 6, the soil is additionally separated, and separated from her weeds, which due to inertial forces are released at the soil surface and within a few hours killed, deprived of their habitat.

With the aim of improving the crushing of large lumps discharged horizontal low-speed cutter 1, the distance from the ends of the latter up to an additional horizontal low-speed cutters 6 or more finned drum 12 is selected depending on the diameter of the blades 1, 6 and drum 12, in the range of 0.0001-1.0 m

Preparation of the seed bed in one of the passages 1 and at least one additional horizontal low-speed cutters 6 or more finned drum 12 or the combination of the cutters 1, 6 and not less than one drum 12, can dramatically improve the quality of the soil tilling, provides a high degree of fragmentation of soil lumps, which allows to prepare the seed bed with a crumbly structure, to ensure uniformity of the field before sowing of crops, and this, in turn, provides a sharp decrease (2 or more times) the cost of herbicides, allows you to better prepare the soil before planting, which increases crop yields and reduces the cost of production of one ton of agricultural products.

The use of additional horizontal low-speed cutters 6 or more finned drum 12 as an additional burden for the horizontal low-speed cutters 1 allows you to loosen and mix the soil to a greater depth. The execution of one or more of the top link 9 (connecting frame horizontal low-speed cutters 1 and 6 or cutters 1 and additional finned drum 12) with adjustable length allows you to create a seedbed. Paladino in a single pass unit, which ensures better soil preparation before sowing.

Use block nizkovo and “comb” the weeds from the soil.

Sources of information

1. Patent RU №2125783, IPC And 01 In 79/02, publ. 10.02.99, bull. No. 4.

2. USSR author's certificate No. 1042629, IPC And 01 In 21/02, And 01 In 35/28, publ. 23.09.83,

3. USSR author's certificate No. 1102500, IPC And 01 In 33/02, publ. 15.07.84,

Claims

1. The method of seedbed preparation, including the loosening and separation of the soil to remove weeds tillage tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed milling cutter, characterized in that immediately after the passage of the horizontal low-speed cutters in a single pass unit soil further treated by one or more horizontal low-speed cutter to a depth equal to or less than the depth of the horizontal low-speed cutter, and the distance from the end of the previous cutters to follow no more than 1 m

2. The method of seedbed preparation, including the loosening and separation of the soil to remove weeds tillage tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed milling cutter, characterized in that immediately after the passage of the horizontal low-speed cutters in a single pass unit soil dopolnyau processing horizontal low-speed cutter, the distance from the end of the cutter until the drum is not more than 1 m

3. The method of seedbed preparation, including the loosening and separation of the soil to remove weeds tillage tool, can be made in the form of a horizontal low-speed milling cutter, characterized in that immediately after the passage of the horizontal low-speed cutters in a single pass unit soil further treated by one or more horizontal low-speed cutter and one or more ribbed drum to a depth equal to or less than the depth of the main horizontal low-speed cutter, and the distance from the end of the main cutter to follow the cutter is not more than 1 m

4. Device for seedbed preparation containing fixed on the frame tillage low cutter in the form of a ribbed drum with a horizontal axis of rotation and fixed or done on his ribs separating elements in the form of the teeth, characterized in that it directly for low-speed cutter installed on the additional frame, one or more additional horizontal low-speed cutter made similar main and combined horizontal low-speed cutters are interconnected by means of hinges and bottom rigid rods, the distance between the end of the previous milling and subsequent milling of not more than 1 m

5. The device according to p. 4, characterized in that the cutter frame are interconnected, at least one of the upper thrust made with adjustable length.

6. Device for seedbed preparation containing fixed on the frame tillage low cutter in the form of a ribbed drum with a horizontal axis of rotation and fixed or done on his ribs separating elements in the form of the teeth, characterized in that it directly for low-speed cutter is installed on an additional frame of the one or more ribbed drum connected by means of hinges and bottom rigid rod with a main frame, a horizontal low-speed cutters, and frame horizontal low-speed cutters and ribbed drum are interconnected by means of hinges and bottom rigid rods, the distance between the end of the previous cutter and drum no more than 1 m

7. The device according to p. 6, characterized in that the frame of the cutter and ribbed drum are interconnected, at least one of the upper thrust made with adjustable length.

8. Device for under epistula drum with a horizontal axis of rotation and fixed or done on his ribs separating elements in the form of teeth, characterized in that directly for low-speed cutter installed on additional frames, one or more additional horizontal low-speed cutter made similar core, and at least one ribbed drum and cutter frame and ribbed drum are interconnected by means of hinges and bottom rigid rods, and the distance between the end of the previous milling and subsequent milling of not more than 1 m

9. The device under item 8, characterized in that the cutter frame and drum are interconnected, at least one of the upper thrust made with the possibility of regulation of its length.

 

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