The piezoelectric actuator

 

The piezoelectric actuator is designed to control the control valves or valve injectors of internal combustion engines of vehicles. The piezoelectric actuator has Executive piezo. The latter is surrounded by a wall with formation of an intermediate space. The latter is divided into upper and lower cavity movable in the axial direction of the transverse partition. Upper and/or lower cavity flow for the passage of cooling air flow (LI, Lo). The cooled air is used for cooling the Executive of the piezoelectric element. Surrounding the piezo wall has on the plot of the lower cavity inlet for air and an outlet for air. Exhaust air hole is located on the opposite side from the inlet for air and shifted in the axial direction relative to the latter. Executive piezo and its power supply circuit is protected from moisture in the zone of flow for the air of the lower cavity of the elastomeric sheath. Provides cooling of the piezoelectric element during operation of the piezoelectric actuator without the use of coolant. 16 C.p. water intended primarily for control of distribution valves or valve injectors of internal combustion engines of vehicles and with Executive piezoelectric element, which is designed, in particular, in a multilayer package comprising spaced one above the other layers of piezoelectric material and located between the metal, respectively, the conductive layers serving as electrodes, while the Executive piezoelectric element is surrounded by a wall with formation of an intermediate space, divided into upper and lower cavity movable in the axial direction of the transverse wall, which is located in the area of the drive head.

The piezoelectric actuator of this type is known, for example, from the application DE 19650900 A1, filed in the name of Robert Bosch GmbH.

It is well known that piezoelectric actuators can be used, for example, for valve injectors engine vehicles, as well as in brake systems with abs device and traction control systems.

Such is equipped with piezoelectric actuators valve nozzles have a spray bottle, which controls performed according to the type of the pusher locking ale the fuel spray, this effort generated by the fuel pressure, tend to displace the plunger in the direction of opening of the shut-off element. The pusher their performed according to the type of plunger end, the cross section of which is larger than the area specified work surface is in the distribution chamber. The force created by prevailing in this chamber pressure tends to move the plunger in the direction of closure of the shut-off element. Distributing chamber is communicated through the inlet of the reactor with a high pressure inlet fuel line, and through usually sitosterolemia, respectively combined with the output of the exhaust throttle valve is communicated with only low pressure piping drain fuel. When closed, the exhaust valve in the distribution chamber dominated by high pressure, under which the plunger is moved against the force acting on it located on the side of the sprayer working surface pressure in the closing direction of the locking element, respectively, is held in the closed position. When opening the outlet valve of the pressure distribution in the chamber drops, the degree of pressure on the government combined with the output choke him. As a result, the pressure distribution in the chamber at the open exhaust valve is reduced so that the plunger under the action of pressure applied to the working surface of the spray nozzle is moved in the opening direction of the locking element, respectively, is held in the open position.

Piezoelectric actuators have a higher performance in comparison with the electromagnetic drive valve injectors. However, in the design of such piezoelectric actuator is necessary to take into account the fact that due to internal losses in the piezoelectric element of the actuator occurs the heat that must be removed to prevent overheating of the piezoelectric actuator. Since the ceramic material of the piezoelectric ceramics have low thermal conductivity, the heat inside is made mainly of a ceramic material of the Executive piezoelectric ineffective.

Cooling the piezoelectric actuator cooling fluid, such as fuel, water, engine oil, etc. also undesirable, first, because of the danger of a short circuit due to the presence in the fuel and engine oil of a certain percentage of water, and, secondly, because udoku used coolant primarily by heating the piezoelectric actuator.

Objectives and advantages of the invention

Based on the foregoing, the present invention was based on the task to improve the piezoelectric actuator specified in the beginning of the description type in such a way as to provide cooling during operation without the use of fluids such as engine oil, water or fuel, and also to allow easy Assembly without the need for special seals, such as used in liquid cooling.

This task is solved according to the invention due to the fact that in the proposed piezoelectric actuator top and/or bottom of the cavity flow for flow of cooling air used for cooling the Executive of the piezoelectric element.

In made according to the invention a piezoelectric actuator for cooling the Executive piezoelectric element, you can use compressed air, which in any case is used in trackless vehicles intended for the carriage of freight, passengers, and for non-transport activities. A small volume of air flow passing through the piezoelectric actuator, is already sufficient for its effective cooling the pipes for supplying and discharging the cooling air. In addition, the proposed piezoelectric actuator has a high operational reliability, because it does not use cooling fluids that could leak out.

In one of the embodiments serves to summarize the flow of cooling air in the lower chamber which is under a transverse partition within the area of the drive head. In this embodiment Executive of the sensor and its leads must be enclosed in an elastomeric membrane or heat-shrinkable sleeve that would protect him from possibly present in the cooling air flow of moisture, which could cause damage or a short circuit inside the piezoelectric actuator. It is not necessary to take special measures moisture-proof sealing the top of the cavity relative to the flow for the cooling air of the lower cavity.

In another embodiment, it is proposed to perform flow for cooling air, only the upper cavity above the drive head. In this case you must water-proof sealing to the upper chamber relative to the lower cavity. In this embodiment, heat from the engine does not reach the Executive piezoelement is relative to the walls of the drive ring. Additionally, the Executive piezoelectric element and its connecting conductors, as in the first embodiment, in which the air flow passes through the lower cavity may be enclosed in an elastomeric membrane or heat-shrinkable sleeve. In addition, over the partition may be added which serves to seal the elastomeric sealing ring, which is fixed in a predetermined position on its periphery a radial protrusions or concave annular groove made on the wall. In the inner zone of the upper seal cavity relative to the bottom of the cavity can be provided with a layer of adhesive having high thermal conductivity.

In yet another variant with a partition may be further connected to provide a high conductivity connection metal cooling plate, providing additional cooling due to its location in the upper cavity, through which the cooling air flow.

Instead of the elastic seal of elastomeric material can be used and the steel membrane, which simultaneously has a high thermal conductivity and provides additional heat dissipation from the lower cavity privmode to be tight and with providing thermal conductivity connected with the wall of the drive module with threaded ring, clamping it between itself and the inner side of the wall.

Proposed in the invention, the solution is most preferable to use in trackless vehicles intended for the carriage of freight, passengers, and for non-transport works with systems injection diesel with high-pressure accumulator and a General distribution of the high pressure fuel line. As mentioned above, in these vehicles, used compressed air, a small amount of which can be used for cooling the piezoelectric actuator.

Other advantages and features offered in the invention of the piezoelectric actuator described in more detail below on the example of some variants of its implementation with reference to the accompanying drawings on which is shown:

in Fig.1 is a schematic representation in longitudinal section proposed in the invention of the piezoelectric actuator made according to the first variant,

in Fig.2 is a schematic representation in longitudinal section proposed in the invention of the piezoelectric actuator made according to the second option, and

in Fig.3A, 3B, 3C and 3D is the preferred item is in accordance with Fig.2.

Embodiments of the invention

In Fig.1 in longitudinal section shows a portion of the proposed invention is a piezoelectric actuator that is executed in the first embodiment. This piezoelectric actuator has Executive piezoelectric element 1, which may be in the form of a multilayer stack consisting of located one above the other layers of piezoelectric material and located between the metal, respectively, the conductive layers serving as electrodes, and which is elastically clamped with its two face sides passing left and right pre-stretched flat springs 12 between detail not shown the lower stationary base and movable in the axial direction of the upper plate, which is located in the area of the drive head 3 and is made in the form of a partition 8. The entire drive module is limited by the metal wall 2.

When the application to the electrodes of the Executive piezoelectric element 1 of a pulsating electric voltage it performs a similar pulse reciprocating motion, accompanied by a change of the distance between its end sides, sandwiched between the upper movable plate and the lower base tape p is 3 needle valve (not shown). It should also be noted that the conductors to the electrodes, of which Fig.1 there is only one, go down to the detail is not shown to the terminals. In addition, movable in the axial direction of the partition 8 divides the surrounding Executive piezoelectric element 1 intermediate space on the bottom of the cavity 10, which is directly enclosed Executive piezoelectric element 1, and is located above the drive head 3 of the upper cavity 11.

In the form shown in Fig.1 embodiment, the lower wall section 2 to the drive module has an inlet opening 16 for the air through which flows cooling air LIand outlet 17 for air, through which extends the cooling air flow Lo. As shown in the drawing, the inlet 16 and outlet 17 holes for cooling air are located on opposite sides of the wall 2 to the drive module offset in the axial direction relative to each other. Owing to such arrangement of these holes provides the most efficient airflow Executive of the piezoelectric element 1. Himself Executive piezoelectric element 1, including the leads to the electrodes, protected elastomeric sheath or termosolar cover 5, 15 cannot be reliably protected from moisture by the Executive of the piezo actuator, when it starts more intensive condensation of water.

Since there are no special measures for sealing the upper cavity 11 relative to the lower cavity 10, the cooling air can in small quantities to penetrate into the upper cavity 11.

In Fig.2 shows the proposed invention is a piezoelectric actuator made according to the second variant. This piezoelectric actuator, which in Fig.2 also shows in longitudinal section, of the lower cavity 10 waterproof sealed relative to the upper cavity 11 and therefore, the cooling air flow passes only through the upper cavity 11. With this purpose in the wall 2 to the drive module is provided by the inlet opening 16 for cooling air and in front of him - outlet 17 for cooling air, through which the cooling air is respectively supplied to the inside of the drive module in the form of a cooling air flow LIand then after cooling the respective elements comes in the form of a cooling air flow Lo. The air flow also protects the Executive piezoelectric element 1 from the receipt of his exhaust from on the water head 3 is sealed with a ring 6 of circular cross section, adjacent to the inner side wall 2. This seal is in the form of a ring 6 of circular cross section allows the axial displacement of the partitions 8 and prevents the accumulation of moisture in the immediate area of location of the Executive body, i.e. in the area of Executive piezoelectric element 1.

The gaps 4 in those places where the clamping spring 12 through the movable partition 8, sealed with glue.

In this case, as in the embodiment of Fig.1, and the Executive piezoelectric element 1, and the terminals of the electrodes are preferably enclosed in an elastomeric sheath 5, 15, respectively. However, instead of such elastomeric membrane for sealing and insulation, you can also use elastic lacquer or heat-shrinkable sleeve.

In Fig.3A in an enlarged scale is shown located around the drive head 3 phase with improved compared with the variant according to Fig.2 design. To improve sealing efficiency of the transverse partition 8 is provided with a ring 6 of circular cross section, according to the variant according to Fig.3A-3B is provided by an elastomeric sealing ring 18, the position of which in the axial direction is fixed radial projections 19 in the wall of the drive module. According Fig.th located radially inside of the metal ring 18a, located radially outside of the metal ring 18b and concluded between the elastomeric ring 18C. Within the area of the drive head sealing is provided by a layer 20 of adhesive having high thermal conductivity.

For more efficient heat dissipation from the inner metal ring 18a is additionally connected providing a high conductivity connection metal cooling plate 21. This cooling plate 21 is in the upper cavity 11 through which passes a flow of cooling air.

In Fig.3B illustrates the case in which the cooling plate 21 made in one piece from an elastomeric sealing ring 18, which consists of three elements 18a, 18b, 18C.

In Fig.3B shows another variant in which the seal is provided by the elastomeric ring 18, which is performed according to Fig.3A, there are no hard inner ring as the seal. The function of the inner ring 18a is doing the guiding cylinder 3.

And, finally, shown in Fig.3G version for sealing the bottom of the cavity 10 relative to the upper cavity 11 instead of elastomeric o-rings used steel membrane 22. Such metallic membrane 22 has a eliminate is to be fastened to the wall 2 to the drive module screw ring 23, but provides nevertheless the axial mobility of the drive head. In this membrane are welded on the inside to drive the cylinder 3.

Thanks to the use proposed in the invention the cooling medium, i.e., passing through the lower cavity 10 and/or the upper cavity 11 of the cooling air flow, optionally in combination with additional measures, such as the presence of the cooling metal plate and providing a high conductivity connection this cooling metal plate with a partition 8 in the zone of the drive head 3, respectively, the presence of sealed steel membrane 22 in Fig.3G, proposed in the invention, the piezoelectric actuator can be effectively applied to control valve nozzles that are used for injection of diesel fuel systems fuel injection with high-pressure accumulator and a General distribution of the high pressure fuel line. So, in particular, trackless vehicles intended for the carriage of freight, passengers, and for non-transport work can be used for cooling the piezoelectric actuator a small portion used in any case of compressed air. At the same time, NEA and Assembly are relatively small despite the presence of the connecting pipes for supplying and discharging the cooling air. In addition, the proposed piezoelectric actuator has a high operational reliability, because it does not use cooling fluid, such as fuel, engine oil or water. In the second embodiment, in which the flow of cooling air is provided only in the upper cavity to the drive module, the drive is protected from airborne moisture and heat from the engine is not reached during operation of the piezoelectric actuator.

Claims

1. A piezoelectric actuator that is designed primarily for control of distribution valves or valve injectors of internal combustion engines of vehicles and with Executive piezoelectric element (1), which is designed, in particular, in a multilayer package comprising spaced one above the other layers of piezoelectric material and located between the metal, respectively, the conductive layers serving as electrodes, while the Executive piezoelectric element (1) is surrounded by a wall (2) with formation of an intermediate space (10, 11), divided into the upper (11) and lower (10) cavity movable in the axial direction of the cross Perigord the flow for the passage of cooling air flow (LI, Lo) used for cooling the Executive of the piezoelectric element (1).

2. The piezoelectric actuator under item 1, characterized in that the wall (2) is to plot the bottom of the cavity (10) inlet (16) for air and the outlet opening (17) for air.

3. The piezoelectric actuator under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the outlet opening (17) for air is located on the opposite side from the inlet (16) for air and shifted in the axial direction relative to the last.

4. The piezoelectric actuator according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the Executive piezoelectric element (1) including current leads, protected from moisture in the zone of flow for the air of the lower cavity (10) of elastomeric membrane (5, 15) respectively heat-shrinkable sleeve or layer of varnish.

5. The piezoelectric actuator under item 1, characterized in that the flow for the cooling air is made only to the upper chamber (11) on the drive head (3).

6. The piezoelectric actuator under item 5, characterized in that the wall (2) has on the portion of the upper cavity (11) of the inlet (16) for air and the outlet opening (17) for air.

7. The piezoelectric actuator under item 5 or 6, characterized temi actuator according to any one of paragraphs.5-7, characterized in that the transverse wall (8) is sealed at its periphery relative to the wall (2) ring (6) of circular cross section.

9. The piezoelectric actuator according to any one of paragraphs.5-8, characterized in that the Executive piezoelectric element (1) including current leads, to protect from moisture signed at the bottom of the cavity (10) in the elastomeric shell (5, 15) respectively heat-shrinkable sleeve or covered with a layer of varnish.

10. The piezoelectric actuator according to any one of paragraphs.5-9, characterized in that for sealing the upper cavity (11) relative to the bottom of the cavity (10) on transverse bulkhead (8) additionally provided with an elastomeric sealing ring (18).

11. The piezoelectric actuator under item 10, characterized in that the elastomeric sealing ring (18) is fixed in the axial direction is made in the wall of the radial protrusions (19) or concave annular groove.

12. The piezoelectric actuator under item 10 or 11, characterized in that inside the upper cavity (11) is sealed with respect to the lower cavity layer (20) adhesive with high thermal conductivity.

13. The piezoelectric actuator according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the transverse wall (8) is made of metal and connected to provide the plate (21).

14. The piezoelectric actuator according to p. 13, characterized in that the cooling metal plate and an elastomeric sealing ring form a solid node.

15. The piezoelectric actuator according to any one of paragraphs.5-9, characterized in that it further above the transverse wall (8) is provided by a steel membrane (22), which elastically seals the upper chamber (11) relative to the bottom of the cavity (10).

16. The piezoelectric actuator according to p. 15, characterized in that the steel membrane (22) with geometric and force closure and providing a high thermal conductivity is rigidly fixed to the screw ring (23) on the inner side wall (2).

17. The piezoelectric actuator according to p. 15, characterized in that the steel membrane (22) is welded to the inside of the drive head (3).

 

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