The device and method of providing service with a guaranteed frame rate in the switch is operating in asynchronous transfer mode (arp-switch)

 

The invention relates to a device and method for providing service with a guaranteed frame rate (GSPC) ARP-switch. The technical result - improving the efficiency of service provision with GSPC in ARP-switch. This is achieved by the fact that the node checks the conformity of the data elements apply to each data item in the input frame test generalized algorithm speed transmission of data elements (OASPA), bit priority loss of data element (PPAD) and by the maximum frame size (MRK), sets the bits of conformity (BS) of each data element in the frame is equal to the value of compliance, if all the data elements in the frame are tested, and sets BS each data element in the frame is equal to the value of the discrepancy, if at least one data element of the frame does not pass the test. Site data buffering allocates the data elements with BS set equal to the value of conformity to the queue with the highest priority, allocates the data elements with BS set equal to the value of inconsistencies in the queue with the lowest priority, and transmits the data items to be distributed to the queue with the highest priority, with a guaranteed minimum speed is TH IS INVENTION the Present invention relates primarily to a device and method for providing service with a guaranteed frame rate (GSPC) switch, operating in asynchronous transfer mode (ARP-switch).

The state of the art Service with guaranteed frame rate is intended to support applications that are not implemented in real time on the network, working in ARP (ARP networks). This service is intended for applications in which it may be necessary to guarantee a minimum transfer speed, and you can benefit from a dynamic access additional bandwidth available in the network. In contrast to the service with the available baud (DSPD) GSPC does not require binding to the control Protocol data stream. Service guarantee is given on the basis of Protocol data units of the 5th level of adaptation of the BDA (PBB, WA-5) (see "Protocol data unit 5-level adaptation ARP: frames). Here, the term "frame" refers to the unit that associates the multiple data elements for transmission over the communication line. Although the structure of frames changes depending on what specific sublevel of UAA use a specific frame, the frame typically contains a PBB header, payload PBB and finisher (trailer) PBB. However, such a frame cannot be processed at the level of the BDA. Therefore, the frame ID manually the data member of the BDA.

Overload the network excludes items of data at the level of frames, rather than item-level data. Therefore, the service with guaranteed frame rate (GSPC) requires that the elements of user data organized in frames, which can be identified at the level of the BDA. After a connection is established with GSPC end system specifies the maximum transmission speed of data elements (PSPAD) and the minimum transmission speed of data elements (SPAD), which is determined together with the maximum frame size (MRK), i.e. the maximum number of data items in the frame. The user can always send the data elements with a certain transmission speed up to the maximum transmission speed of data elements (PSPAD), but the network can transfer data items only full frames with a minimum transmission speed of data elements (MSPED). Traffic can be served with excess SPED only within available resources.

The foregoing warranty service provides that if a user sends frames at a rate that does not exceed MSPED, it should be expected that the user will see the frames delivered with minimal losses. Service with SHGs who will only be delivered within existing resources. Further, this service provides that excess traffic from each user must have access to a share of available resources.

The user can send frames either marked or unmarked. Unmarked frame is a frame in which all data elements have priority loss of data element (PAD) equal to 0, and the marked frame is a frame in which all data elements have PPID=1. Sending the frame marked, the user specifies the network, such that the frame is less important than the unmarked frame. Guarantee a minimum transfer speed of data elements (MSPED) are applicable only to untagged frames. The network can only be tagged data items in unmarked frames, if the user has requested the option of tagging, and does so either by signaling (in the case of switched virtual channels, CVR) or by description (in the case of permanent virtual channels, STC). Data element called tagged, if the network sets its bit PAD equal to 1. Otherwise tagging using a network not applicable. Currently, the maintenance category with GSPC applicable only to the connection of virtual channels, as the size of the frame, generally speaking, does not differ in GSPC. 1 and hspc.2. They differ in relation to the processing bit priority loss of data element (PAD) on the basis of the test frame generalized algorithm speed transmission of data elements (P-OASPA). In version GSPC.1 network provides transparent transfer of bits PAD, and tagging is not allowed. In version GSPC. 2 tagging is allowed, and each data element corresponds to a P-GASPED.

Details of service with GSPC can be found on the website "Forum ARP" (ATM Forum) on the Internet. See, for example, "Draft specification traffic management. Version 4.1" ("Traffic Management Specification Draft Version 4.1").

If the network can be tagged frames, which may not pass the test on P-GASPED as in version GSPC.2, the network may identify frames that are sent with a guarantee on their bits GSPC in accordance with state personnel and network. If the detection frame is feasible, from the standpoint of ease of implementation and the technical characteristics of the possible choices for the implementation of the system. However, if the network is not able to implement tagging as version GSPC.1, the network should be based on bits GSPC marked by the user, to identify a guaranteed frame. The data item is appropriate if this element deutschwwwsm, if he does not comply with this contract for traffic. Then if tagging in the network is not allowed, non-compliant data elements cannot be identified, and this complicates the processing of non-compliant data elements.

The INVENTION is Therefore the task of the present invention is to develop a device and method for efficient delivery service with GSPC the ADF in accordance with the characteristic of the network by establishing the differences between the respective element data and inadequate data item, and storing them in different buffered queues output.

Another objective of the present invention is to develop a device and method for long term protection of unlabeled data elements from the user through control bits PAD non-compliant data elements.

The above-mentioned problems can be solved with the help of the device to provide the service with a guaranteed frame rate (GSPC) ARP-switch. Verification of conformity of data elements apply to each data item of the input frame test generalized algorithm speed transmission of data elements (OASPA), one bit of pitogo data element in the frame is equal to the value of conformity, if all data elements in the frame are tested, and sets BS each data element in the frame is equal to the value of the discrepancy, if at least one data element of the frame does not pass the test. Site data buffering allocates the data elements with BS set equal to the value of conformity to the queue with the highest priority, allocates the data elements with BS set equal to the value of inconsistencies in the queue with the lowest priority, and transmits the data items to be distributed to the queue with the highest priority, with a guaranteed minimum transmission rate of the data elements (SPED), and transmits the data elements distributed in a queue with a low priority, with the transmission rate of the data elements, which allows the bandwidth available in the network.

Also, a method for providing service GSPC in ARP-switch, namely, that (a) the node checks the conformity of the data elements apply to each data item of the input frame test generalized algorithm of processing of transmission data items (OASPA) bit priority loss of data element (PPAD) and by the maximum frame size (MRK), (b) set bits of conformity (BS) of each data element in the frame is ut BS each data element in the frame is equal to the value of the discrepancy, if at least one data element of the frame does not pass the test used in step (a), (g) in the host organization buffering data distribute data elements with BS set equal to the value of conformity to the queue with the highest priority, (d) in the host organization buffering data distribute data elements with BS set equal to the value of inconsistencies in the queue with low priority, (e) transmit data elements that are distributed to the queue with the highest priority, with a guaranteed minimum transmission rate of the data elements (MSPED) and
(g) transmit data elements that are distributed to the queue with the lowest priority, with the transmission rate of the data elements, which allows the bandwidth available in the network.

In the first aspect of the present invention when testing each element of the data referred to in step (a), the node checks the conformity of the data elements
(1) using unit testing for compliance with data elements apply to each data item in the input frame test match GASPED, bat PAD and RTOS, and then transmit the data elements on different channels in accordance with the test results, with
(i) transmit the data items that pass s data they do not pass the test for compliance with the data element in the channel for non-compliant data elements, and
when referred to in step (b) the job
(i) using block job BS, set one bit in a field of protection of header error (SSO) in the header of each data item received from the channel for the corresponding data equal to the match value, and
(ii) using the job BS, set one bit in a field of protection of header error (SSO) in the header of each data item received from the channel for non-compliant data equal to a value mismatch.

Another aspect of the present invention is that when the distribution of the data elements referred to in step (g), the host organization buffering
(1) using a block distribution of data elements distribute the data elements with the value of conformity to the queue with high priority and allocate data items with a value of inconsistencies in the queue with a low priority
(2) organize all distributed data elements for a given control by creating a buffered queue having a queue with high priority and low priority, and
(3) manage the queue with visa, distributed to the queue with the highest priority, with guaranteed SPED, and transmission of data elements distributed in a queue with a low priority, with the transmission rate of the data elements, which allows the bandwidth available in the network.

In another aspect of the method of providing service with GSPC corresponding to the present invention, when controlling queues with high priority and low priority via the controller referred to in step (g) (3)
(i) define the predetermined length of the congested queue for the queue with low priority and
(ii) exclude items of data in units of frames, when the queue length data elements distributed in a queue with a low priority greater than the length of the congested queue or equal to this length.

Finally, in yet another aspect of the present invention a method of providing service with GSPC provides the stage at which the controller queues immediately excludes items of data bits PAD installed in a queue with a low priority when the network is congested.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS
The above and other objectives, features and advantages of the invention will become more apparent after studying Nigella is to provide service with GSPC in the ARP in accordance with a specific embodiment of the present invention,
Fig. 2 is a block diagram of the sequence of actions that illustrates a test procedure for compliance with the data elements in the device for providing a service with GSPC in the ARP in accordance with a specific embodiment of the present invention,
Fig. 3 depicts the corresponding data item and nonconforming item data in accordance with the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION of PREFERRED SPECIFIC VARIANT IMPLEMENTATION
Below is a description of preferred specific variant of implementation of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings. For the purpose of clarity omitted a detailed description of well-known functions or constructions, because the coercion optional details could impede the understanding of the invention.

Fig. 1 is a block diagram of a device and method for providing service with a guaranteed frame rate (GSPC) in the ARP in accordance with a specific embodiment of the present invention.

Referring to Fig. 1, note that the device and method of providing service with GSPC in the BDA include node 100 checks the conformity of the data elements is to 101 compliance test data elements and unit 102 jobs bits of conformity (BS), coupled with block 101 compliance test data items. Node 110 organization buffering data includes unit 111 distribution of data elements, coupled with block 102 jobs bits match, the buffered queue 113 connected to the block 111 distribution of data elements, and the controller 112 queues to manage the buffered queue 113.

The node 100 checks the conformity of the data elements applies the test for compliance with data items, each data item of the input frame connection GSPC and sets bit PAD for this data item.

Block 101 compliance test data items testing each element of the data input frame connection GSPC parameters for a given traffic. For example, the generalized algorithm speed transmission of data elements (OASPA), bit priority loss of data element (PPAD) and by the maximum frame size (MRK), which will be described below. The essence of the idea of the test for compliance with data elements disclosed in the above document "Draft specification of workload management. Version 4.1".

For a clear understanding of the object of the present invention will be described in detail test for compliance is avidinii test for compliance with data elements.

The traffic parameter describes the essential characteristics of the traffic source. This parameter can be quantitative or qualitative. Typical traffic parameters include the maximum transmission speed of data elements (PSPAD), the steady-state transmission rate of the data elements (ESPAD), the minimum transmission speed of data elements (SPAD) and the maximum frame size (RTOS). Definition PSPAD is that the ego is the inverse of the minimum time between the proceeds of the data elements within the frame.

Level functions ARP (for example, multiplexing of data elements) can modify the characteristics of traffic connections by introducing a delay variation of data elements. When the multiplexing of data elements from two or more connections, the data elements specified connection can stay simultaneously with the insertion of data elements other connection to the output signal of the multiplexer. Similarly, some data elements may be running simultaneously with the insertion of additional data elements of the physical layer or the data elements of the management and organization of work (RBM). Therefore, with respect to the peak interval T distribution (i.e., the magnitude, opposite the two consecutive data elements of the connection, tracked interface user - network" (IPS). The top border measures "accumulation" is the tolerance of delay variation data item (DISAD).

To determine compliance with the contract on the traffic used GASPED. Upon receipt of each data item GASPED determines whether the data element contract on the connection traffic. OASPA is an algorithm virtual planning or algorithm "Leaky Bucket", is well known in the art. GASPED used to determine the ratio between USPED and admission package (DP). OASPA is characterized by two parameters: the increment (Nature) and limit (Pre). The designation "GASPED (P, Pre)" means the generalized algorithm speed transmission of data elements with the value of the increment, which is set to the Nature and value of the limit, which is set to Before.

Determination of compliance with the transmission mode with GSPC based on compliance with each element of the data frame the following conditions. The frame is appropriate if all data elements within the frame are relevant, but is inadequate if one or more of its data members are inappropriate.

Element of the conditions:
1. Data element corresponds GASPED (1/PSPAD, DISED).

2. Bit PAD in the data element has the same value as bit PAD in the first data item of the frame.

3. Either the data element is the last element of the data frame, or the number of data items in the frame including the data item is less than the RTOS.

Fig. 2 is a block diagram of the sequence of actions that illustrates the test for compliance with the data elements transferred from GSPC, for each data item of the input frame is held in the block 101 compliance test data elements depicted in Fig.1.

Referring to Fig.2, note that after receiving the data item at step 210 unit 101 compliance test items test data this data element on GASPED with parameters 1/PSPAD, DIZED indicating the increment value and the limit value, respectively. Here DISAD defined for the stream of data elements PED=0+1 (i.e., the stream of data elements PED= 0 or 1). The parameter 1/PSPAD indicates the expected time of arrival of the next data item and is updated with each incoming data item of the frame. DISAD defines upper and lower limits of the error for 1/PSPAD. If each data item is If at step 220 defined, what the data element is the first element of the data frame, the block 101 compliance test items data registers bit PAD the first item of data in the internal register on the stage 221. If at step 220 it is determined that the data item is not the first element of the frame, then at step 222 the block 101 compliance test data elements determines whether the bit PAD this data item is the same value as bit PAD first data item registered in the internal register. If they are equal, the bit PAD data item is relevant, and if they are different, then the data item is non-compliant.

If at step 222 it is determined that the bit PAD data item is relevant, then at step 230 the block 101 compliance test data element identifies whether this data element is the last data element in the frame. If the data item is not the last element of the data frame, then at step 231 unit 101 compliance test data elements determines less whether the number of received data elements than the ITCS. After receiving the data item is determined, the less is the number of data elements allocated to this moment than RTOS, and Entov data more than RTOS, the data element does not correspond to the test with this RTOS. If the data element is the last element of the data frame, then this data element is also consistent with ITCS.

When a data item satisfies the above conditions, then at step 240 conclude that this data element is relevant. If at least one of those conditions is not satisfied on the stages 210, 222 and 231, at step 241 this element is characterized as non-compliant.

Test GASPED apply to each data item. Therefore, even in the case when you receive item data than the threshold, the length of the congested queue, this data element is protected, as well as other elements of the data frame when the data item satisfies the above conditions.

Returning to Fig.1, note that if each element of data of the input frame passes the test for compliance with data elements on the said algorithm and said traffic parameters, this data item is served in the block 102 jobs bits match on channel 103 for the respective data elements. If the frame has at least one data element which has not passed the test for compliance with data elements, the elements on the data.

Block 102 jobs bits match sets the most significant bit (SA) fields protected header error (SSO) in the header of each data element in the frame received on channel 103 for the respective data elements equal to zero (BS= 0), i.e., as a signal of low level. Data element with BS=0 is the corresponding data element. Block 102 job of bits matching sets SB field SSO in the header of each data element in the frame received on channel 104 for non-compliant data elements is equal to (BS=1), i.e. as a signal of high level. Data element with BS=1 is inconsistent with the data item. Because the test for compliance with the data elements associated with the traffic parameters GASPED, bit PAD and RTOS, is applied to each data element in the frame, their BS have the same value within one frame.

Fig.3 depicts the corresponding data item and nonconforming item data in the device for providing a service with GSPC in accordance with a specific embodiment of the present invention. SB field SSO in the header of the data item is a BS. If the data item has BS=0, then the corresponding element. If the data item has BS= 1, that is s with his BS, set equal to zero or one, the node 110 organization data buffering.

Block 111 distribution of elements in the node data 110 organization data buffering allocates the data elements with BS=0 in queue 114 high priority, and the data elements with BS=1 - queue 115 low priority respectively. Because the data elements in the same frame have the same value of BS, these elements are distributed in blocks of frames in the queue 114 and 115 with high and low priority.

The controller 112 queues transmits the data elements that are entered into the queue 114 high priority, providing warranty service SPAD. The controller 112 queues specifies the length of the congested queue in which the network becomes congested. Except for the case when the queue length data elements distributed in the queue 115 low priority that is greater than the length of the congested queue, the controller 112 queues provides for data items access to share the available bandwidth in the network together with other categories of service in the ADF, such as service DSPD. In addition, the controller 112 of the queue passes the data elements that are distributed in the queue 115 low priority, with a transmission speed of data elements, sootvetstvuu low priority, greater than the length of the congested queue, then all data items can be transmitted at a transmission rate of data elements, which allows the bandwidth available in the network. Therefore, the controller 112 queues excludes items of data at the level of frames, thereby managing work (transfer speed) of the network. Excluded data element in personnel, although not simultaneous exclusion of all data elements in one frame, and the selective exclusion of data elements in the frame in accordance with bits PAD. With the overload of traffic in the network controller 112 queues first excludes data elements PPID=1, then for as long as possible protects the unlabeled data elements (PAD=0).

As described above, the present invention has the same effect as observed in version GSPC.2, when the network can use tagging within the system. In addition, test for compliance with data elements specified for the data item entered in the network, even in version GSPC.1, characterized in that the network is not enabled tagging, and thus, the present invention can protect the data item, which is contrary to contract on network connection, but is not marked by the user, if this element is given the validity of the contract on connection, or which violate the contract.

Although the invention is illustrated and described with references to preferred specific version of its realization, for specialists in the art it will be obvious that it is possible to make various changes in its form and content, without departing from the essence and scope of the invention defined by the attached claims.


Claims

1. Device for providing a service with guaranteed frame rate (GSPC) in the switch is operating in asynchronous transfer mode (ARP-switch) that contains the node checks the conformity of the data elements to be applied to each data element of the input frame test generalized algorithm speed transmission of data elements (OASPA), bit priority loss of data element (PPAD) and by the maximum frame size (MRK), set bits match (BS) of each data element in the frame is equal to the value of compliance, if all the data elements in the frame are tested, and job BS each data element in the frame is equal to the value of the discrepancy, if at least one data element of the frame does not pass the test, and site data buffering for distribution element Yes data from the BS, set equal to the value of inconsistencies in the queue with low priority, the transmission of data elements distributed in a queue with a high priority, with a guaranteed minimum transmission rate of the data elements (MSPED) and transmission of data elements distributed in a queue with a low priority, with the transmission rate of the data elements, which allows the bandwidth available in the network.

2. Device for providing a service with GSPC under item 1, characterized in that the verification of conformity of data elements contains a unit test for compliance with data elements to be applied to each data element of the input frame test GASPED, bat PAD and RTOS and transmission of data elements through different channels in accordance with the results of the test channel for relevant data elements, for transmitting data elements that pass the test for compliance with elements of the data channel for the non-compliant data elements intended for the transmission of data elements that do not pass the test for compliance with data elements and unit assignments BS, designed to set a single bit in a field of protection of header error (330) in the header of each element dagnogo bits in field 330 in the header of each data item, taken from the channel for non-compliant data elements equal to the value of the mismatch.

3. Device for providing a service with GSPC under item 1, characterized in that the host organization buffering data contains the distribution unit of data elements, designed to distribute data items with a value of conformity to the queue with the highest priority, and data items with a value of inconsistencies in the queue with the lowest priority block buffered queue having a queue with high priority and low priority for Queuing distributed data elements for a given control and the controller queues for Queuing high-priority queue low priority, transmission of data elements, distributed to the queue with the highest priority, with guaranteed SPED, and transmission of data elements distributed in a queue with a low priority, with the transmission rate of the data elements, which allows the bandwidth available in the network.

4. Device for providing a service with GSPC under item 2, characterized in that the host organization buffering data contains the distribution unit of data elements that are used on the data with the value of the mismatch - in the queue with the lowest priority block buffered queue having a queue with high priority and low priority for Queuing distributed data elements for a given control and the controller queues for Queuing high-priority queue low priority, transmission of data elements distributed in the queue with the highest priority, with guaranteed SPED, and transmission of data elements distributed in a queue with a low priority, with the transmission rate of the data elements, which allows the bandwidth available in the network.

5. Device for providing a service with GSPC under item 3, characterized in that the controller queues specifies a predefined length of the congested queue for the queue with low priority and excludes items of data in units of frames, if the queue length data elements distributed in a queue with a low priority greater than the length of the congested queue or equal to this length.

6. Device for providing a service with GSPC under item 5, wherein the controller queues primarily excludes items of data bits PAD installed in a queue with a low priority when the network peregrinari, operating in asynchronous transfer mode (ARP-switch), namely that (a) the node checks the conformity of the data elements apply to each data item of the input frame test generalized algorithm speed transmission of data elements (OASPA), bit priority loss of data element (PPAD) and by the maximum frame size (MRK),(b) set bits of conformity (BS) of each data element in the frame is equal to the value of compliance, if all the data elements in the frame pass the test used in step (a), (b) set BS of each data element in the frame is equal to the value of the discrepancy, if at least one data element of the frame does not pass the test used in step (a), (g) in the host organization buffering data distribute data elements with BS set equal to the value of conformity to the queue with the highest priority, (d) in the host organization buffering data distribute data elements with BS set equal to the value of inconsistencies in the queue with low priority, (e) transmit data elements that are distributed to the queue with the highest priority, with a guaranteed minimum transmission rate of the data elements (MSPED) and (f) transmit data elements that are distributed in line with the bottom of the

8. Method of providing service with GSPC under item 7, characterized in that when testing each element of the data referred to in step (a) verification of compliance of the data items (1) through unit testing for compliance with data elements apply to each data item of the input frame, test for compliance with GASPED, bat PAD and RTOS, and then transmit the data elements on different channels in accordance with the test results and thus (i) transmit the data elements that are tested for compliance with data elements in the channel for the corresponding data,(ii) transmit the data elements that do not pass the test for compliance with the data element in the channel for non-compliant data, and when referred to in step (b) of reference (i) using block job BS set one bit in a field of protection of header error (330) in the header of each data item received from the channel for the corresponding data equal to a value matching and (ii) using the job BS set one bit in a field of protection of header error (330) in the header of each data item received from the channel for non-compliant data equal to a value mismatch.

9. Method of providing service with Spherical (1) with the use of block distribution of data elements distribute the data elements with the value of conformity to the queue with high priority and allocate data items with a value of inconsistencies in the queue with the lowest priority, (2) organize all distributed data elements for a given control, creating a buffered queue having a queue with high priority and low priority, and (3) manage the queue with the highest priority and queue with low priority by using the controller queues for transmission of data elements distributed in the queue with the highest priority, with guaranteed SPED, and transmission of data elements distributed in a queue with a low priority, with the transmission rate of the data elements, which allows the bandwidth available in the network.

10. Method of providing service with GSPC under item 8, characterized in that in the distribution of the data elements referred to in step (g), the host organization buffering (1) with the use of block distribution of data elements distribute the data elements with the value of conformity to the queue with high priority and allocate data items with a value of inconsistencies in the queue with low priority, (2) organize all distributed data elements for a given control, creating a buffered queue having a queue with high priority and low priority, and (3) manage the queue with the highest priority is data in the queue with the highest priority, with guaranteed SPED, and transmission of data elements distributed in a queue with a low priority, with the transmission rate of the data elements, which allows the bandwidth available in the network.

11. Method of providing service with GSPC under item 9, characterized in that in the management of queues with high priority and low priority via the controller referred to in step (g) (3) (i) define the predetermined length of the congested queue for the queue with low priority and (ii) exclude items of data in units of frames, when the queue length data elements distributed in a queue with a low priority greater than the length of the congested queue or equal to this length.

12. Method of providing service with GSPC on p. 11, characterized in that with the exception of using the controller queues, referred to in step (g) (3) (ii) immediately exclude data elements with bits PAD installed in a queue with a low priority when the network is congested.

 

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11 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics; computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: present invention includes an e-mail component and an identification request component. The e-mail component can receive e-mail messages and calculate associated probability that data of the e-mail message are spam. The identification request component sends an identification request to the e-mail message sender having the said probability greater than the first received value. The identification request component corrects the probability that the given e-mail message is spam at least partially based on the response to the identification request. The identification request can be an embedded code, a calculated identification request, an identification request requiring participation of a person, and/or micro-payment requirement.

EFFECT: invention provides detection of spam through identification requests.

31 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: physics; communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to exchange of messages. A system, terminal, method and carrier use a certificate of authorisation to grant a sender the authority to send a communication message to a recipient. The system for controlling reception of the message by the recipient includes a transmission terminal and reception terminal. The transmission terminal can send a communication message to the sender. The reception terminal can determine whether the communication message is cryptographically linked to the certificate of authorisation. Determination of whether a communication message is cryptographically linked to the certificate of authorisation can include determination of whether a communication message has been signed by the sender using a private encryption key.

EFFECT: receiver can quickly and easily determine whether to receive a message.

21 cl, 9 dwg

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