An electron gun for a microwave instrument on-type

 

The invention relates to the vacuum microwave devices, in particular, traveling wave tubes Of the type or klystrons with low-voltage modulation of the electron flow (EP), using guns with nets. The technical result - the increase tokophobia by reducing disturbance EP grid structure. The gun includes a cathode, a focusing electrode located near the cathode grid structure, the anodes. The cross-section of the ridges, at least one of the grids has the shape of an isosceles triangle, with its apex facing the anode. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il.

The invention relates to the vacuum microwave devices, in particular electronic guns in traveling wave tubes Of the type or klystrons, which use low-voltage e-beam using grid structures located near the cathode electron gun, by submitting to these patterns corresponding potentials (see Grigoriev, Y. A., B. Pravdin S., Shesterkin Century. And. Electron-optical systems with grid control: Reviews on electronics. Ser.1, electronics microwave. - M.: Central research Institute of electronics, 1987. - Vol.7 (1264). - 71 S.).

The main disadvantage inherent in the e-guns with the učka. Violation of this restriction leads to the loss of the grid control thermoemissive or melting of the elements of the grid structure due to thermal overload (see Pallakoff O. E. To grid or not to grid? / Microwave J. - 1974. - Vol.13, 5. - R. 52-56).

The use of grid structures containing in addition to the control beam current shadow mesh, helps to protect the control grid from unwanted tocopyright, so electron gun with such structures is widespread. However, their use in TWT or klystrons short-wave part of the centimeter or millimeter wave hits the technological difficulties in the accurate manufacture and precise alignment between a miniature grid structures.

The described drawbacks of known construction of the electron gun with a single grid with a potential lower than the "natural" or equal to the cathode potential (see Saloom J. A., Lee R. A. Monterey revisited. / Microwave J. - 1978. - Vol.21, 7. - R. 14).

Closest to the claimed solution, which implements the electronic gun with a single, not intercepting beam current grid operating at negative potentials, is the design of the electron gun described in U.S. patent 3160782, CL MKI H 01 J 3/15 20 is Elektronnyi flow is a grid with square cells and the ridges of rectangular cross-section, to which is supplied a constant negative offset, such that the potential of the grid never exceeds the capacity of the cathode, even when subjected to a positive voltage pulse to turn on the electron beam.

The disadvantage of this design is a strong perturbation of the electrons near the grid structure and, as a consequence, the violation of laminarinase beam. Violation of laminarinase is connected with the difference of the angle at which zero equipotential suited to each partial beam in a single grid cell, the optimal equal to the angle of the Pier 67o30' (see Alyamovskii I. C. Electron beams and electron guns. M: Owls. Radio, 1966, 456 C.). Therefore, the use of rectangular or square in cross section jumper grid always leads to a significant perturbation of the electron flow, deterioration of tokophobia in the device and the complexity of the design of the device while increasing the focusing magnetic field to improve tokophobia or improving heat removal from the slow-wave system of the device.

The task to be solved by the invention, is to increase tokophobia in the device by reducing the perturbation of the electron flow near the grid structure electrode, one or more anodes and grid structures, located between the cathode and the anode, the cross section of the ridges, at least one of the grids has the shape of an isosceles triangle, with its apex facing the anode. In addition, the angleat the apex of the triangle of the cross section of the bridge, at least not less than the value 2arctg(/2h), where- the width of the lintel, a h - the thickness of the grid structure. The shape of the grid cells formed by jumpers may be different and meet different types of grids, known as radial, ring or grid cell. In fact, the profile of jumpers grid specifies the desired surface geometry of the near-cathode electrode microbuses, the cathodes of which are located in front of each cell of the grid structure. Due to the small magnitude of the longitudinal component of the velocity of the electron beam on the area of the cathode - grid changing the cross-sectional profile of the jumpers last, despite their relatively small thickness has a significant effect on the amount of variation of the transverse velocity of the electrons after the grid. Due to the decrease of the perturbation of the beam it filled the discussion in devices with an electron gun of the claimed design improves.

The manufacture of the grid structure can be carried out by standard methods (for example, using a laser process unit on the basis of laser LTI-136, see C. D. Zhuravlev, S. P. M., C. I. Rogovin, T. N. Sokolov, Y. Yudin. Prospects of application of low-voltage grid control electron beam in PCI SHF Of type continuous action. / Actual problems of electronic instrument APAP-98. / Materials of international scientific-technical conference, Saratov, 1998, T. 1, S. 165-171).

Analysis of the structures of analogues and the prototype of the proposed device shows that the signs associated with the specification of the profile jumper nets, and a positive effect, resulting in the formation of electron beams in guns with low-voltage control, is unknown.

In Fig.1 illustrates schematically an electron gun with a grid structure of the claimed design. An electron gun includes a cathode 1, a focusing electrode 2 located near the cathode 1 of the grid structure 3, jumpers which is made in the form of triangular elements, the anodes 4. The sides of the jumper 5 is chosen equal, and the edge that they formed facing the anode.

In Fig.2 schematically depicts an enlarged piperacetazine triangle lets you simply and without changing the width of thejumper grid to realize the conditions under which the perturbation of the electrons near the grid structure is reduced.

In Fig. 3-5 presents embodiments of the claimed design that incorporates different types of grid structures.

In Fig.6 shows the calculation results of average transverse velocity 6 and the standard deviation from the average transverse velocity (dispersion) 7 beam after passing through the beam grid structure in an electron gun of the claimed design shown in Fig.1, with the following parameters: beam current I=0,3 And accelerating potential U=10000 B, the diameter of the cathode 4.5 mm, the thickness of the jumper wire structure h=0.15 mm, width jumpers= 0.3 mm, the distance between the cathode and grid structure s=0,1 mm

The results of similar calculations for the electron gun with a rectangular jumper wire patterns with the same structural dimensions shown in Fig.7.

In Fig.8 presents the results of focus of the electron beam 8 generated electron gun of the claimed design, tokophobia 9 along the length of the span of the channel 10 in the magnetic field of 11 for LBWO average power short-wave part of the microwave range is a period of L=10 mm, the diameter of the passage channel of 2.0 mm

In Fig. 9 presents similar results focusing of the electron beam formed by an electron gun with a rectangular lintels grid structure.

Comparative analysis of the calculations in Fig.6 and 7 shows that the perturbation of electrons in the electron gun of the proposed design significantly less. Changing rectangular-section rings on a triangular grid shape (given all other sizes) decreases the magnitude of the positive preferential radial velocity curves 6) 3 times, and the maximum amount of the variance (curves 7) 5 times. As follows from the analysis to focus the beam, shown in Fig.8 and 9, the ripple and filling the beam transit channel for electron beam generated by an electronic gun of the claimed design, less and tokophobia better.

No tocopyright grid and increase tokophobia compared to prototype and create a similar ability to use electronic guns with grids described in the profile of devices operating in a continuous mode. The use of grid structures in such devices can lower blocking voltages, at Mei for devices Of type has the following advantages: reduces the perturbation of the electron beam near the grid patterns by choice triangular in cross section jumper grid; improve tokophobia a floating-channel devices Of the type; reduction of governors beam current stresses in devices operating in continuous mode.

Claims

1. An electron gun for microwave devices Of the type comprising a cathode, a focusing electrode, one or more anode and grid structures, located between the cathode and the anode, characterized in that the cross-section of jumpers at least one of the grids has the shape of an isosceles triangle, with its apex facing the anode.

2. An electron gun under item 1, characterized in that the angle at the vertex of the triangle is at least not less than the value 2arctg(/2h), where- the width of the bridge, and h is the thickness of the grid structure.

 

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