The method of electro-pneumatic control steering actuator is controlled projectile and device for its implementation

 

The invention relates to defense systems, managed shells. Object of the invention is the reduction of the oscillation amplitude of the control electro-pneumatic steering controlled shell under the action of alternating hinge loads on the control surfaces, reducing the drag of the projectile without increasing the weight and size of the propulsion system, improving the accuracy of signal processing control and accuracy hold the zero position of the rudders in the absence of control signals without increasing the weight and size of the control equipment. The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of controlling electro-pneumatic steering actuator is controlled projectile, based on the measurement of the angle of rotation of the ruddersthe comparison of measured values with preset and the formation of the control signal applied to the actuator, by passing the error signal controls the angle of rotation of the ruddersthrough the amplifier and the first relay element, for generating a control signal to drive the error signal to control the output of the amplifier is passed through serially connected amplifier-limiter and block ejecta is cash triangular fixed frequency from the output of the signal generator, the output signal of the second relay element serves on the generator input periodic signal triangular managed frequency, the frequency of the signal which change in accordance with a first mathematical relationship. The output signal generator controlled frequency serves to the second input of the first relay element. The initial frequency of the signal generator controlled frequency set of conditions ensuring valid given amplitude of oscillation of the steering wheel under the action of alternating hinge load on the actuator, and the amplitude of the signal from the second mathematical relationship. The frequency of the signal generator of fixed frequency set significantly above the starting frequency of the oscillator signal controlled frequency from a minimum amplitude of the ripple signal generator controlled frequency and amplitude of the signal is equal to the one selected from the first mathematical relationship. Level limit amplifier-limiter choose from coverage ratio, defined by a third mathematical relationship. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to power control systems for years baranich guided missiles.

Known control method and device for its implementation (analog) electropneumatically steering gear and autopilot aircraft [1] . Steering electro-pneumatic actuator [1] is a closed-loop automated system that measures the angle of rotation of the rudder using the feedback sensor, compare the measured value with the specified form and the control signal to the actuator in accordance with the error management (error). A device that provides amplification of the error signal, e is (semi -) amplifier.

Known relay automatic control system [2]. Relay control system includes a summing device, the relay element and the control object (the linear part), covered by negative feedback. A disadvantage of the known relay automatic control system is the low accuracy of the testing control signal.

Known self-oscillating steering actuator is controlled projectile 9M117 [3] . It contains connected in series summing device, correcting filter, a nonlinear element made in the form of a trigger device, a power amplifier, steering the car with upravlayemaya entrance drive.

A disadvantage of the known self-oscillating steering is not sufficiently high accuracy at high amplitudes of flutter.

In known self-oscillating autopilot managed projectile [4], containing the power source and connected in series subtraction unit, a nonlinear element, amplifier, steering the car with the steering magnet, sensor feedback, described and implemented a way to control the error of the error, as in the steering actuator [1]. In it to improve the accuracy of the nonlinear element is designed as series-connected summing element, linear amplifier-limiter and differentiating element connected output to the second input of summing element, and the input of the summing element is connected to the output of the subtraction unit, and the output of the linear amplifier-limiter is connected to the input of the amplifier.

A disadvantage of the known technical solutions [4], which is the closest analogue (prototype) of the present invention is the low accuracy of the testing control signals to the autopilot-controlled missiles, low precision hold the zero position of the rudder autopilot in the absence of the bathing steering [1, page 146, 154], which is almost widely takes place [1, pages 24-25]. This is because if the axis of rotation of the steering wheel in the middle of the range of possible displacements of the center of pressure partial overcompensation steering really beneficial for a guided projectile, as it can significantly reduce the load torque on the steering actuator, and consequently, to reduce the drive power and thereby reduce its weight and dimensions.

The low accuracy of the testing control signals, low static accuracy hold the zero position of the rudders self-oscillating steering [3] and autopilot [4] in the absence of control signals are explained by the presence of relatively large amplitude of self-oscillations (7-15o) due to the low frequency of self-oscillations (40-70 Hz).

Large amplitude of self-oscillations of the surface leads to a significant increase in the drag of the projectile and reduce its flying speed, which is also a significant lack of self-oscillating control surface actuators and autopilot-controlled missiles. To eliminate this disadvantage it is necessary to increase the power of the propulsion system, which increases the weight and size of the projectile.

To ensure the accuracy of the tee, hold the zero position of the rudder autopilot in the absence of control signals, to reduce drag of the projectile must have a minimum amplitude of self-oscillations of the steering wheel, not exceeding values specified technical requirements on the projectile and the autopilot (for example, not more than 3oat frequencies not lower than 60 Hz). It with one hand. On the other hand to provide linearization of the friction and backlash in the mechanical system of the piston steering the car - wheels, the piston - sensor output feedback and improve accuracy must be sufficient to linearize these nonlinearities minimum amplitude at the output of the steering and autopilot.

Since the linear part of the self-oscillating steering [3] and autopilot [4] is a filter of low frequency, small amplitude of self-oscillations can be achieved by increasing the frequency of self-oscillations, of course, in the absence of these frequencies, resonance phenomena, which cannot be said in respect to power pneumatic electro-pneumatic steering, in the denominator of a transfer function which has a vibrational level [1, page 127, 1st paragraph above] with a small damping ratioPP1. In the source of information [1]s characteristics of the electro-pneumatic steering [1, p. 138-151] as for the absence and the presence of alternating hinge loads. Built logarithmic amplitude-frequency characteristics (LAH) drive [1, page 139, 3rd paragraph from the bottom, Fig. 3.16] are characteristic of the electro-pneumatic actuator type: large pronounced resonant burst at a frequency ofwhere TPP- the time constant of the oscillating link transfer function of the actuator.

It should be noted that the maximum rise of the amplitude characteristic at a frequency ofPPdue to the damping factorPPisIt follows that for small values of the damping coefficientPP1 (for example, equal to 0,05-0,10) this rise is significant.

The value ofPPhas a strong influence friction, which is always present in any gas drive as compressed air or any other gas, in contrast to liquids, do not have lubricating properties [1, page 141, 3rd paragraph from bottom, page 127-128, pp. 144-145).

Actually in the oscillatory steering actuator [3] and autopilot [4] upyPP, i.e., the area of the lifting of the amplitude characteristic vibrational level of the drive. Therefore, the amplitude of self-oscillations in this area is strongly influenced by the damping factorPPactuator, i.e., the friction in the drive.

Finding the frequency of self-oscillations near resonance peak is determined by the following physical considerations. In the source of information [5], the self-oscillating relay control system for objects with varying parameters. For structural diagram of a self-oscillating system [5, Fig. 5.5] with the characteristic of the relay [5, Fig. 5.6 (a)] the condition for determining the frequency of self-oscillations [5, page 235, 1st paragraph above] isl(a) = -180wherel- phase characteristic of the linear part of the system.

To the same structural scheme [5, Fig.5] and the scheme is self-oscillating steering [3] autopilot [4] managed projectile, the linear part which describes the transfer function of the actuator, described in detail in the source of information [1], and the transfer function of the relay) = e-pwherethe time lag.

The value offor actuators [3, 4] is of the order of several milliseconds (=1.5 to 2.5 msec).

If you take for example the case of the unloaded actuator, the transfer function will be then

where(p) and(p) respectively, the angle of rotation of the rudders and the regulatory body of the electromagnet that controls the gas flow, in operator form;
To - transfer ratio drive;
the time lag of the electromagnet;
TPPandPPaccordingly the time constant of the oscillating element and the damping of the drive.

After the balance sheet analysis phase to determine the frequency of self-oscillations [l(a) = -180] shows that without considering the link delay, the total phase shift of -180owill be exactly at the resonant frequencyPPdefined time constant TPPdrive, i.e.

awill be equal to the frequencyPPthat is , you will be on the resonance frequency.

Taking into account link in the lag with a time constant ofthe phase shift is equal to
=,
where= 2f is the circular frequency.

Given the small value ofthe phase shift at frequencies close to the frequencyPPwill be a small value compared with the phase shift of -180o, i.e., the real frequency of self-oscillations will be somewhat lower frequencyPPbut in the area of lift amplitude characteristics with all the ensuing negative consequences for the amplitude of self-oscillations in parts of its increase.

In the presence of alternating hinge load discourse will be close to considered, as in this case, the denominator of the transfer function will be the link (TP+1) in the case of a spring load or link (Tr-1) in the case 2D/img_data/61/610020.gif">will be much more frequencyPPwhen selecting the maximum developed torque of the actuator, the field frequencyPPthe phase shift of these links to be close to -90o, i.e., the conclusions in terms of frequency of self-oscillations will be close to that discussed above for the case of the absence of an articulated load.

These considerations are confirmed by the analysis of the logarithmic frequency characteristics of the steering actuator at different joint loads [1, Fig. 3.23, page 146-147]:
zero ToW=0
spring ToW>0
overcompensation ToW<0.

From the analysis of the phase frequency characteristics [1, Fig. 3.23] shows that the point of intersection of the phase characteristic line -180owhen the spring load (KW>0) is slightly to the right of the intersection point of the phase characteristic line -180oat zero load (KW=0), and when the load of overcompensation (KW<0) - a few left. Respectively, and ub>=0) and slightly lower in the second case.

The presence in the drive scheme [3] the correction filter integrodifferential type with transfer function

where T1, T2- time constants of the filter, and to improve the quality factor of the actuator time constant T2select longer time constant T1(2-3 times) so that the frequency of self-oscillations to provide a means of reducing the amplitude of self-oscillations at the input of the relay element in 2-3 times and thereby improve the quality and accuracy of the drive. Almost under these conditions the phase shift of the filter at the frequency of self-oscillations will be small amount (a few degrees) and will not affect the conclusions in terms of frequency of self-oscillations of loaded and non-loaded drive.

An increase in the frequency of self-oscillations in order to reduce the amplitude of self-oscillations can be achieved through the following activities:
(a) the use of corrective devices;
b) suppression of low-frequency self-oscillations of the external high-frequency oscillation;
b) coverage of the relay element is negative feedback through aperiodic link;
g) build a two - or three-circuit waveguide is the self-oscillations, the disadvantage of the second event is the necessity of using additional generator linearizers hesitation.

A disadvantage of the known self-oscillating relay automatic control system with negative feedback around the relay element [2, page 26, Fig. XIII.9] is the delay of a self-oscillating circuit (relay amplifier with feedback) as measured by zone of ambiguity relay amplifier, and the inevitable relay in the amplifier temporary delay [2, page 48, 3rd paragraph from the bottom].

A disadvantage of the known relay system with dual-frequency self-oscillating regime [5, page 240, Fig. 5.8, page 239] is the complexity of the implementation of the scheme for the implementation of the dual-frequency self-oscillating mode [5, page 243 2nd paragraph from the bottom].

The task of the invention is to reduce the amplitude of the control electro-pneumatic steering controlled shell under the action of alternating hinge loads on the control surfaces, reducing the drag of the projectile without increasing the weight and size of the propulsion system, improving the accuracy of the testing control signals and accuracy hold the zero position of the rudders when use of the disadvantages of the known method and device control error mismatch electro-pneumatic steering actuator is controlled projectile [1-5].

This is achieved through the application of the proposed control method, the essence of which consists in the following. Output relay elements form a control signal, which error signal of the control amplifier output is passed through serially connected amplifier-limiter and the unit selection module and served on the first input of the second relay element, to the second input of which serves a periodic triangular signal of a fixed frequency from the output of the signal generator, the output signal of the second relay element serves on the generator input periodic signal triangular managed frequency, the frequency of the signal which change in accordance with addiction

where f is the signal frequency;
f0- the initial signal frequency;
A is the signal amplitude;
|U| module error signal control.

The output signal generator controlled frequency serves to the second input of the first relay element.

The initial frequency of the signal generator controlled frequency set of conditions ensuring valid given amplitude of oscillation of the steering wheel under the action of alternating articulated drive loads,br /> where a is the amplitude of the periodic signal of a triangular form;
ToDOS- the ratio of the angle sensor steering wheel steering;
m- the maximum angle of rotation of the rudders on the fence.

The frequency of the signal generator of fixed frequency set significantly above the starting frequency of the oscillator signal controlled frequency from a minimum amplitude of the ripple signal generator controlled frequency and amplitude of the signal is equal to the one selected condition (1), level limit amplifier-limiter choose from ensuring correlation
UOgre=(0,8-0,85)UmDOS,
where UOgrethe voltage limiting amplifier-limiter;
UmDOS= KDOSm- maximum voltage at the output of the sensor feedback.

The method is implemented by a device, comprising serially connected unit assignments, the subtraction unit, the first input of which is the reference input of the drive amplifier, relay element, the amplifier and steering the machine, the output of which is the output of the actuator and is connected via da is and triangular managed frequency, the generator of periodic triangular signal of fixed frequency and connected in series amplifier-limiter, the unit selection module and the second relay element, the generator output periodic signal triangular managed frequency is connected to the second input of the first relay element, and the input to the output of the second relay element, the generator output periodic signal of a triangular shape fixed frequency connected to the second input of the second relay element, the input of the amplifier-limiter connected to the output of the amplifier, and the periodic signal generator triangular managed frequency is made in the form of a series of the first operational amplifier, the inverting input of which is connected to a common bus, and exit through the first large-scale resistor to the not inverting input of the second operational amplifier, the output of which is connected to the first output of the integrating capacitor, the second terminal of which is connected to the inverting input and the first output of the second large-scale resistor, the second terminal of which is connected to reinvestiruet input of the first operational amplifier, the output of which is connected in series through the third mastela, the key is made on field-effect transistor, the drain of which is the input of the key, the source output and the gate control input is connected through a large resistor to the output of the second relay element.

Diagram of the device that implements the proposed control method shown in Fig.1 and 2. The schema contains a block of task 1, the subtraction unit 2, the amplifier 3, the first relay element 4, the amplifier 5, the steering machine 3 comprising a control electromagnet 7, the actuator 8 and the angle sensor of the steering wheel 9, the amplifier-limiter 10, the unit selection module 11, the second relay element 12, the generator 13 of the periodic triangular signal controlled low frequency oscillator 14 of the periodic signal of a triangular shape high fixed frequency. In the circuit of Fig.1 denote: Uythe control signal, UOS- feedback- the angle of rotation of the rudders.

The device operates as follows.

In the absence of the control signal at the output of the actuator sets the oscillation frequency of which is equal to the specified start frequency generator 13 of the periodic signal of a triangular shape, and the amplitude of the oscillations is determined by the parameters of the linear part n the resonance peak of the oscillating link steering engine 6 in the decay amplitude characteristics with the aim of obtaining the desired reduced the amplitude of the rudders when the alternating hinge load. For example, for one of the actuators when the frequency of the resonance peak (PP= 2fPP) equal to 110 Hz when KW= 0,140 Hz when KW>0, 100 Hz when KW<0, the oscillator frequency is chosen equal to in the range of 150-200 Hz, namely 200 Hz.

The upper value of this frequency generator is physically limited by two factors: the limited performance (response time) of the control electromagnet 7 steering machine 6 on the one hand and the need to ensure actuator output minimum amplitude rudders, for example 1-3osufficient to linearize the friction and backlash of the mechanical system, the rod of the actuator 8 of the steering engine 6 - handlebars, the stem of the actuator 8 to the sensor output of the rotation angle of the steering wheel 9 of the steering engine. The signal of the prescribed frequency of the oscillator 13 must be addressed with the Manager of the electromagnet 7 with emphasis on emphasis, without limitation, with some margin for testing the signal at its input the minimum allowable amplitude of the ripple signal generator 13 of the periodic triangular signal amplitude And the frequency of the generator 14 of the periodic triangular signal amplitude And establish a much higher order, and more than the initial frequency of the oscillator 13, for example, 100 kHz, for this drive.

The amplitude And periodic triangular signal at the outputs of the generators 13 and 14 choose equal to from the condition
A = KDOSm,
where KDOS- the ratio of the angle sensor steering wheel steering;
m- the maximum angle of rotation of the rudders on the fence.

Output relay element 12 will be a square wave of 50% duty cycle frequency generator 14, which will control the operation of the electronic key generator 13.

Output relay element 4 there is a square wave of 50% duty cycle of frequency generator 13 (200 Hz for the selected drive). Anchor the control of the electromagnet 7, the piston actuating the air motor 8 and the associated control surfaces vary with this frequency of 200 Hz around a zero mean value. Given that the linear portion of the actuator is a filter to a low frequency at the output of the drive signal oscillations of this frequency has a shape close to a sine wave, the amplitude of about 1-3odepending on the hinge load (lower value of the amplitude for spring, Bo is the linearization of the friction and backlash of the mechanical system, the rod of the actuator - handlebars, stem - sensor output of the rotation angle of the steering wheel and provides minimum drag managed projectile in flight. For comparison to the selected drive before the introduction of the proposed technical solution, the amplitude of self-oscillations was 5ofor the case of KW>0 and 15ofor KW<0 (linear zone on the deviation angle of the ruddersm=25), i.e., the difference is significant in terms of reducing the amplitude of the control using the proposed technical solutions.

When applying the control signal Uyon the drive input from the output of block a task 1 error signal controlU=Uy-Uocafter amplification by the amplifier 3 will be simultaneously supplied to the input of the amplifier-limiter 10 and the input of the relay element 4. After extraction module error control block selection module 11, this signal is fed to the input of the relay element 12, the output of which is the duty cycle square wave frequency generator 14 will be different from 50% and subject to change in accordance with the error signal: proportional to the error in the linear zone amplifier-ogranichitelya, the img>UmDOS,
where UOgrethe voltage limiting amplifier-limiter;
UmDOS= KDOSm- maximum voltage at the output of the angle sensor rudders;
m- the maximum angle of rotation of the rudders,
and will be constant when the magnitude of the error is equal to or greater than the voltage limit.

The relationship between the magnitude of the error controlU=Uy-UOSmeasured in Volts, with the magnitude of the errormeasured in degrees of angle of deflection of the control is determined by the ratio
U = KDOS.
In accordance with a duty cycle square-wave signal at the output of the generator 12 will vary the frequency of the periodic signal of a triangular shape at the output of the generator 13 in accordance with the dependence of

where f is the signal frequency;
f0- the initial signal frequency;
A - signal amplitude;
|U| - module error signal control.

Obviously, when the value of asiku (2) downward from the established initial frequency f0under the linear law.

When the magnitude of the error
|U|0...(0,8-0,85)A
signal frequency is determined by the dependence (2), will be constant, equal to

Or for the selected frequency f0= 200 Hz can be considered as an example of the drive, this frequency will be equal to
f=30-40 Hz.

To illustrate the operation of the device of Fig.3-5 shows diagrams of the voltages at the output of the generator 14 (the voltage U14), a relay element 12 (the voltage U12), generator 13 (voltage U13), and relay element 4 (voltage U4), Fig. 3 - for the caseU=0, Fig.4 - for the caseUUOgre, Fig.5 - case |U|UOgre.
From the illustration you can see that the increase in error frequency of the oscillation output relay element 4 decreases, increases, respectively, the oscillation period T, is equal to the sum of the fluctuations of TAnd+TBwhere TAnd- corresponds to the enabled state of the output switch, power amplifier, TBoff.

Thus for the case when |U|U, |U|>|UOgre|, but |U|<|A| T remains constant (frequency reaches a minimum value equal toTAdecreases, and TBincreases with increasing |U|.
When |U|>A TAdisappears a TBbecomes equal to infinity (output relay 4 U4becomes constant).

It is obvious that the change of sign of the error picture is changing in the opposite direction, i.e., TAwill increase, and TBdecrease changeU.

Despite the fact that when there is an error control the oscillation frequency decreases when large errors even significantly (becomes equal to 30-40 Hz instead of f0=200 Hz), however, the amplitude of the control for the oscillation period T remains small, because the time TAenabled state of the control electromagnet 7 for the period of oscillation T is much less period So

In Fig. 6 shows a plot of the oscillation frequency f and the average value of the signal U4for the period T output relay 4 depending on the control error.

Should Ghalenoi form a relatively large amplitude, equal to the value of the linear zone on the deviation angle of the rudders A = KDOSmthat reduces the q of the actuator, and therefore, speed and accuracy, to compensate for this reduction in the amplifier 3 enter the desired gain, for example, for the drive, this factor is 2.

Fundamentally it is possible to combine the functions of the subtraction unit 2 and the amplifier 3 in one unit, which is realized, for example, on the basis of the operational amplifier, as is done on the electrical circuit diagram of the device shown in Fig.2.

In addition, if necessary, the same unit can also be implemented and corrective filter.

In the circuit of Fig.2 dotted lines with the corresponding figures schematic circuit elements shown in Fig.1. The scheme is implemented on a universal operational amplifiers type 140 BPM 6 in addition to amplifiers a, u and u. They should be implemented on a high-speed operational amplifiers of the type 544 UD 2 A. Controlled electronic key VTI - based field-effect transistor type PG.

In the unit selection module II (Fig.2) provides the following autosummarization steering actuator is controlled projectile and device for its implementation is allowed to provide the minimum acceptable amplitude of vibration of the steering wheel under the action of the alternating rudder hinge load, reducing the drag of the projectile, to improve the accuracy of operation of the actuator in the mode of the testing control signals and hold the zero position of the rudders in the absence of control signals while maintaining the high performance of the drive.

Thus, the proposed solution is compared with the known can significantly reduce the amplitude of the control to increase the accuracy of operation of the actuator in a wide range of alternating hinge loads almost without significantly increasing the weight and size of the control equipment in a controlled projectile, substantially reduce the drag of the projectile without increasing the weight and size of the propulsion system.

Sources of information
1. Electro-pneumatic steering linkage. In the book: B., Krymov, L. C., Rabinovich, B., Stebleton. Actuators control systems of aircraft. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1987, page 116, Fig. 3.4, page 8, 9.

2. Relay automatic control system. In the book: Theory of automatic control. Ed. Solodovnikov centuries KN. 3. theory of non-stationary, non-linear and self-tuning automatic control systems. Ch. II. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1969. page 9, Fig. X is the construction manual of SUBC 10.00.000. - M.: Military publishing house, 1987, pp. 15-19, Fig. 11.

4. Self-oscillating autopilot managed projectile. RU, patent 2092784, CL 6 F 42 15/01, G 05 B 11/16, BI 28, 10.10.97.

5. Relay self-oscillating control system for objects with varying parameters. In the book: Petrov, B. N., Rutkowski C. Y., Krutova, I. N., Countrymen C. D. Principles of construction and design of self-tuning control systems. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1972, pp. 233-243.


Claims

1. The method of electro-pneumatic control steering actuator is controlled projectile, based on the measurement of the angle of rotation of the ruddersthe comparison of measured values with preset and the formation of the control signal applied to the actuator, by passing the error signal controls the angle of rotation of the ruddersthrough the amplifier and the first relay element, characterized in that for forming the control signal to drive the error signal to control the output of the amplifier is passed through serially connected amplifier-limiter and the unit selection module and served on the first input of the second relay element, to the second input of which serves periodic signal tre is and serves on the generator input periodic signal triangular managed frequency, the frequency of the signal which change in accordance with addiction

where f is the signal frequency;
f0- the initial signal frequency;
A - signal amplitude;
|U| module error signal control,
the output signal generator controlled frequency serves to the second input of the first relay element, the initial frequency of the signal generator controlled frequency set of conditions ensuring valid given amplitude of oscillation of the steering wheel under the action of alternating hinge load on the actuator, and the amplitude of the signal from the condition
A = KDOSm, (1)
where a is the amplitude of the periodic signal of a triangular form;
ToDOS- the ratio of the angle sensor steering wheel steering;
m- the maximum angle of rotation of the rudders on the fence,
the frequency of the signal generator of fixed frequency set significantly above the starting frequency of the oscillator signal controlled frequency from a minimum amplitude of the ripple signal generator controlled frequency and amplitude of the signal is equal to wybrow = (0,8-0,85)UmDOS,
where UOgrethe voltage limiting amplifier-limiter;
UmDOS= KDOSm- maximum voltage at the output of the angle sensor of the steering wheel.

2. The control unit electro-pneumatic steering actuator is controlled projectile, comprising serially connected unit assignments, the subtraction unit, the first input of which is the reference input of the drive amplifier, relay element, the amplifier and steering the machine, the output of which is the output of the drive and connected via the angle sensor of the steering wheel to the second input of the subtraction unit, characterized in that it introduced a generator of periodic triangular signal controlled frequency generator periodic triangular signal of fixed frequency and connected in series amplifier-limiter, the unit selection module and the second relay element, the generator output periodic signal triangular managed frequency is connected to the second input of the first relay element, and the input to the output of the second relay element, the generator output periodic signal crepancies connected to the output of the amplifier, as a generator of periodic triangular signal controlled frequency is made in the form of a series of the first operational amplifier, the inverting input of which is connected to the shared bus, and the output via the first large-scale resistor to the not inverting input, and a second operational amplifier, the output of which is connected to the first output of the integrating capacitor, the second terminal of which is connected to the inverting input and the first output of the second large-scale resistor, the second terminal of which is connected to reinvestiruet input of the first operational amplifier, the output of which is connected in series through the third large-scale resistor and a controlled electronic switch connected to the inverting input of the second operational amplifier, the key is made on field-effect transistor, the drain of which is the input of the key, the source output and the gate control input is connected through a large resistor to the output of the second relay element.

 

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