The method of heating

 

(57) Abstract:

A method for heating of residential, public and industrial premises. The objective of the invention is the improvement of the ecology of the heated space, increasing the comfort level and efficiency of heating. This task is achieved by heating using heated sills and heated vertical side jambs of the window niches, heated thresholds and heated vertical side jambs of the door niches, heated podpotolocnye panel and vertical wall panels, which are placed on the floor in the lower part of the walls. In this case, the temperature of the facial surfaces of the heaters could be chosen so that the infrared radiation generated by them, was carried out with maximum intensity in the wavelength range of 8 to 10 μm, corresponding to the area of maximum efficiency of heat exchange of the human body with the environment. In accordance with the temperature of the front surface of the sills is chosen in the range of 25 - 40oC, the temperature of the front surface of the side jambs of the window and door poor, the temperature of the front surface of the door thresholds niches, the temperature of the front surface of Podpolkovnik and Steno is on design front surface heaters stones natural or artificial stone, as well as ceramic tiles. As a result of heating of the air heated by the window sill and heated vertical side jambs of the window niches in the window recess is formed of a heat insulating screen, consisting of dry air with a high dew point and low thermal conductivity, with virtually no convective flow of appreciable intensity. Consequently eliminated the conditions for fogging and frosting of the glass bottom of the window. In addition, heat loss caused by the movement of air along the cold glass, minimized that by some estimates saves energy used for space heating, up to 20-30%. The invention can be used in the design, construction and reconstruction of heating systems of residential, public and industrial buildings. 2 C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to the heating of residential, public and industrial premises and is intended to satisfy vital human needs. It can be used for designing, construction and reconstruction of heating systems of residential, public and industrial buildings.

As is known, the main task of heating lunastone being used convection and radiation (radiation) methods of space heating. The essence of the convection heating method is that by using different heating apparatus heats the air in the form of convective flow of warm air is distributed around the room and heats the objects.

The essence of radiation (radiative) heating method is that by using sources of far-infrared radiation first of all heated objects in the room, and then the heat from the items is transferred to the air.

Comparative analysis of convective and radiation methods of space heating, fulfilled Egorov and P. Tarasov in "Infrared radiant equipment" (Handbook "Builder", ed. IA "NORMA", 2000, 4, pp. 192, 193), showed that radiation method has significant advantages over convection.

For example, when the convective heating method temperature gradient along the height of the room is 1.7 to 2.5oS/m, and the warm air naturally is at the top and cold at the bottom. Consequently, in areas with a height of 2.5 - 3.5 m, the temperature difference between the ceiling and floor can reach 6 - 7oC. in Addition, intense convective flows tagsnew mixture, that leads to negative consequences.

Radiation heating method, the temperature at the surface of a floor higher than the ceiling, and the temperature gradient along the height is approximately 0.3oS/m At a temperature at the surface of the floor 18 - 19oWith a comfortable temperature at a height of 1.5 m can be reduced to 2 to 3oWith no damage to the health of man. Due to a significant reduction in heating costs ceiling part and lower comfort temperature radiation heating method housing 20 - 25% more economical than convective. As with radiation heating method convective flow of warm air are practically absent, the amount of dust contained in the air, much less than for the convective heating method.

Typical infrared heaters, which is practically implemented radiation infrared space heating are electric ceiling infrared heaters "Ecoline" ceiling and gas infrared heaters "Biker". The use of gas as an energy source reduces operating costs for heating, however, there are problems associated with the tap of products of combustion, the change of the natural humidity and burning the same time for heating of residential and office space with a ceiling height of up to 3.5 m using ceiling infrared heaters with temperature of the radiating surface from 100 to 200oC. For heating rooms with a ceiling height of more than 3.5 m using ceiling infrared heaters with temperature of the radiating surface from 300 to 750oC.

A significant drawback of infrared heaters with temperature of the radiating surface from 100 to 200oWith is the fact that the maximum intensity of infrared radiation lying in the wavelength range from 6 μm to 7.7 μm is within a wavelength range from 5.2 to 7.7 μm μm, in which the infrared radiation in the spectrum of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface, is completely absent, as the infrared radiation in this wavelength range is not passed the earth's atmosphere as a result of selective absorption by water vapour, CO2, ozone and other impurities (Physical encyclopedia, Moscow, 1998, volume 2, page 183). Consequently, in the genetic memory of man there is no experience with IR-radiation in the wavelength range from 5.2 to 7.7 μm μm. Therefore, human exposure to IR-radiation in this wavelength range cannot be considered environmentally friendly and comfortable. This conclusion is also valid for the infrared radiation generated by the infrared heaters with temperature of the radiating surface 300-750oWith at wavelengths shorter of 5.2 μm.

To slowage metabolism of the human body with the environment at different physical effects.

Man is a powerful source of infrared radiation and absorbs it (the phenomenon of radiation exchange). The maximum intensity in the continuous spectrum of radiation and absorption of the human body has a wavelength in the range of 9.3 to 9.5 μm. At this wavelength has the largest penetration depth of the IR radiation in the human body (Bogolyubov C. M., Ponomarenko, N. General physiotherapy, Moscow, "Medicine", 1999, pp. 148-151).

As is known, thermal radiation of absolutely black body is at a wavelength of, strictly corresponding to the temperature of its surface. Thermal radiation of a real body is usually in a range of wavelengths with a maximum intensity at the wavelength corresponding to the wavelength of thermal radiation of absolutely black body with the same surface temperature. For example, a solid body with a surface temperature of 40oWith has the IR-radiation with maximum intensity in the wavelength range from 8 μm to 10 μm.

Known methods of heating using radiators and panels, heated steam, hot water or electricity. The closest analogue (prototype) of the invention "Method of heating is spasm (Khrenkov N. Under floor system Teplolux, "Construction", ed. IA "NORMA", 2000, 43, pages 196-198) or hot water flowing through a system of pipes laid under the floor surface (Alternative floor system heating WIRSBO. "Construction", ed. IA "NORMA", 2001, 7, page 180).

The disadvantage of this technical solution is that it generates a number of restrictions on placement in the room of furniture and household items, which are contraindicated heated from below: refrigerators, bookcases, tables, beds, sofas, carpets, etc. While there are difficulties of a psychological nature, due to the disruption of stereotype views about the appropriate placement in the room of furniture and household items. Warm floors are best combined with coverings made of marble or tile in the bathrooms and bath houses.

In addition, there is a serious problem with fogging and even icing glass bottom of the window, especially when the wide windowsill. This phenomenon is due to the fact that types of glazing beads in the space formed downward flow of air as it moves down and cooling allocates the moisture deposited on the cooler glass. In this case, as govolo heating, or electric heaters that create convection currents of warm air, counteracting downward. However, the effectiveness of such measures, the lower, wider than the window sill. If the width of the sill more than 30-35 cm, the window still "crying". In addition, radiators and electric heaters impedes sanitary cleaning of the premises.

The purpose of the invention is the creation of optimal method of heating the room, providing environmental improvement heated space, increasing the comfort level and efficiency of heating while maintaining the prevailing views about the appropriate placement in the room heating appliances, furniture and household items. This goal is achieved by the fact that for heating using heated sills and heated vertical side jambs of the window niches, heated thresholds and heated vertical side jambs of the door niches, heated podpotolocnye panel and vertical wall panels, which are placed on the floor in the lower part of the walls, and the temperature of the facial surfaces of the heaters could be chosen so that the infrared radiation generated by them, was carried out with maximum intensity in dia the ISM of man with the environment. In accordance with the temperature of the front surface of the sills choose in the temperature range from 25oWith up to 40oC, the temperature of the front surface of the side jambs of door and window niches, the temperature of the front surface of the door thresholds niches, the temperature of the front surface of Podpolkovnik and wall panels chosen in the temperature range from 25oWith up to 55oC. To increase the intensity of infrared radiation and creating the necessary design front surface heaters stones natural or artificial stone, and also ceramic tiles.

As a result of heating of the air heated by the window sill and heated vertical side jambs of the window niches in the window recess is formed of a heat insulating screen, consisting of dry air with a high dew point and low thermal conductivity, with virtually no convective flow of appreciable intensity. Consequently eliminated the conditions for fogging and frosting of the glass bottom of the window. In addition, heat loss caused by the movement of air along the cold glass, are minimized, which is beneficial to conserve energy needed for heating n the by the glass up to 20 - 30% (Century Gaidukevich. Energy-saving electrical equipment of buildings. Reference "Builder", ed. IA "NORMA", 2000, 4, page 195).

In accordance with the classification of infrared radiation is the wavelength range of 0.76 μm to 1000 μm. In this case, the nature of the impact of PA human body infrared radiation in the wavelength range from 8 to 10 microns called soft IR radiation.

The described patterns were used to select intervals of the heated temperatures of radiating surfaces to provide the most environmentally friendly and comfortable conditions of stay of people in a room with minimal energy consumption for heating

The physical phenomenon underlying the proposed method of heating described above. The essence of the invention. Therefore, the possibility of carrying out the invention means that the implementation of the heated surfaces of the sill, side jambs of the window and papadogonas panel and temperature control of the heating of these surfaces.

Currently widely used heating surfaces of different shapes by means of an electrical cable, evenly distributed under the heated surface. The electric power cabinetries temperature sensors and temperature controllers (thermostats).

It is possible to carry out heating surfaces using heated to the appropriate temperature of water flowing through pipes laid under the heated surface. The choice of method of heating surfaces is determined only technical and economic feasibility.

Facing the window sill, side jambs of the window niches and papadogonas panel natural or artificial stone, decorative ceramic tile is a well-developed technological operation.

Thus, the ability to implement the proposed method of heating does not cause doubts.

Sources of information

1. Patent of the Russian Federation, C1, 2121772 from 10.11. 1998 Cable system for space heating (options).

2. Patent of the Russian Federation, C1, 2125208 from 20.01.1999, radiant Panel heating.

3. Patent of the Russian Federation, C1, 2132610 from 10.07.1999, the heating Device of farm animals and poultry.

4. SNiP 2. 04. 05 91. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Gosstroy, 1991.

5. With "warm floors" will not freeze. "Construction", ed. IA "NORMA", 2001, 7, page 185.

6. Heating is easy. "Construction", ed. IL "NORMA", 2001, 12, pp. 244.

7. A gift to the holiday season. "Construction", ed. Eeyore CLASS="ptx2">

9. Ecoline - warmth and comfort in your home. "Warm house", ed. "Stratiform", 2001, 2, page 123.

10. Century Egorov. Stationary direct electrical heating of a country house. "Construction", ed. IA "NORMA", 2001, 22, pp. 225, 226.

1. The method of heating the premises, containing at least one aperture that hosts window niche, containing a window sill and side jambs, and at least one opening, in which is placed the door is a niche containing a door, the door and side slopes, characterized in that for heating use windowsills, and/or side slopes of the window niches and thresholds, and/or side slopes door niches that perform heated, and the temperature of the front surface of the sills is chosen in the range of 25-40oC, the temperature of the front surface of the side jambs of door and window niches and the temperature of the front surface of the door thresholds niches chosen in the range of 25-55oC.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the additional heating use wall panels that perform heated and placed on the floor in the lower part of the walls, for example under the sills, and the temperature of the front surface of the heated wall panels chosen in the range of 25-55

 

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