Washing or cleaning agent, the composition or processed source products for their production in the form of decorated particles and method of production thereof

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method for rapidly dissolving compacted decorated particles of detergents or cleaning agents, or compositions, or processed source products for their production, and thus obtained detergent or cleaning agents, which show a much higher quality. This method includes preparing a preliminary mixture containing separate source products and/or compositions that are at room temperature and normal pressure (1 bar) in solid form and having a melting point not below 45oWith; at least one anionic surfactant and at least one water-soluble binder, which is chosen from the group comprising modified branched and linear polyethylene glycols, 1,2-polypropylenglycol, a low-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone, oxyalkylene fatty alcohols and otsopirtti, ethoxylated methyl esters of fatty acids, branched and linear, ethoxylated fatty acids, compounds containing a hydroxyl group and a functional group of ester, on the lot, and mixtures thereof, in the amount of 2 to 15 wt.% (counting on the pre-mixture), and a binder at temperatures below 45oC and a pressure of 1 bar is in solid form, and the processing conditions in the form of a melt and the total water content in the pre-mixture does not exceed 15 wt.%, moreover, this water is not in free liquid form and then the pre-mixture is transferred to the decorated particles with a bulk weight of more than 600 g/l by the application of pressure at a temperature below 45oS. 2 S. and 18 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab.

The invention relates to a method for rapidly dissolving compacted decorated particles of detergents or cleaning agents, or compositions, or processed source products for their production, and thus obtained detergent or cleaning agents, or compositions, or processed to source products for their production, which show a much higher quality.

Detergents and cleaners, in the form of decorated particles with a bulk weight of more than 600 g/l has long been known from the prior art. In recent years, the increase in bulk density was accompanied by an increase in the concentration of detergents and actively participating in the process of cleaning com is e the mass of his number one process of washing or cleaning. The increase in bulk density of the means used and, above all, the associated increase in the concentration of detergents in them and actively participating in the process of cleaning substances has led to the fact that from a subjective point of view of the consumer such means worse dissolve, because the rate of disintegration have been downgraded. The basis for such undesirable deceleration of dissolution is the tendency of a number used in practice anionic and nonionic surfactants, and particularly the relevant mixtures of surface-active substances to the formation when dissolved in water gel phase. Such gels can appear when the content of surface-active substances, equal to 10 wt.% based on all of the tool, i.e. at concentrations that are quite common detergents. Experience shows that the tendency to form gels increases as the seal structure of the grains in the particles.

In the European patent application In-0486592 describes granulated or extruded detergents or cleaning products with bulk weights of more than 600 g/l, consisting of anionic and/or nonionic surfactants in quantities of not less than asuu plasticizing and/or facilitate the slip additive preferably this paste surfactants and/or aqueous solutions of polymers at high pressures ranging from 25 to 200 bar pressed into sticks, which after exiting the forming of the hole cut by using a cutting device for pellets of the desired size and round their edges. The initial mixture at least partially consists of a solid component, which optionally mixed with the liquid components, for example at room temperature in liquid nonionic surfactant. As mentioned above, as plasticizers and/or facilitate the sliding means in the preferred embodiments of the invention use water structures. However, it is also possible the use of organic liquids with a relatively high boiling point, including in the form of their mixtures with water. However, the patent does not see the conditions of implementation of the method that should be followed in the case of extrusion anhydrous materials. Obtained after the extrusion, the pellets can be used as detergents or cleaning agents, or they can come for additional reprocessing with other granules or powder and a relatively high content of surface-active substances, and consumer-requested form them into balls or pearls lead to a significant reduction of the surface in comparison with the conventional granules and in this regard, depending on the selected combinations of surface-active substances can occur as described above complications.

From an application for international patent And 93/15180 follows that the rate of dissolution of such extruded funds may be improved by use of a solid initial mixture of short-chain alkyl sulphates, especially alkyl sulphates with the number of carbon atoms from eight up to sixteen, which, in a certain way, entering into the composition of the original mixture. However, this measure is not always sufficient to increase the dissolution rate of all funds as required.

In the Federal Republic of Germany patent 19519139.0 to resolve the conflict between the high degree of compaction of the individual grains, mainly extrudate, on the one hand and the requirements of the dissolution rate, in accordance with which, when dissolved in aqueous media ready detergents should not form gels, on the other offered to get granular detergents or cleaning products with a bulk weight of more than 600 g/obrazom, so we used at least two different granular components, of which at least one was obtained by means of extrusion, and no less than one another not by extrusion, and the content of surfactants, including the Soaps, obtained through extrusion component should not exceed 15 wt.% based on the corresponding extrudable component. Other surface-active components of the finished detergent or cleaning agent is introduced into the composition with one or more components, upon receipt of which the extrusion is not used. This method, of course, solve the problem of the formation of gels in detergents or cleaners with a high degree of compaction and with a high content of surface-active substances by dissolving them in water, but its implementation is associated with a number of new problems. For example, a possible violation of the homogeneity of the mixture and the associated fluctuations in the reproducibility of the expected results of washing and cleaning. In addition, extrudable component tools is not only a high density, but at the same time it has a relatively high hardness after drying. In these conditions during transportation, when XP is to textbooks, which lead to its partial grinding and associated abrasion dust and smaller particles.

In conventional methods in a wide volumes used in the General case, both solid and liquid at room temperature components of detergents or cleaning agents; it is also possible to use aqueous solutions and/or dispersions as an auxiliary means for granulating or, in accordance with the application for a European patent In-0486592, as the plasticizing means and/or means to facilitate sliding. Such methods of obtaining associated with the risk of gel-like structures already in the process of production of detergents or cleaning agents, which leads to slower dissolution in making them in the aquatic environment. In addition, such methods, the implementation of which as an auxiliary means for granulating is water, aqueous solutions or aqueous dispersions, marked another drawback. It lies in the fact that this operation should be followed by unfavorable energy-drying, and otherwise it is impossible to get loose and relatively stable during the storage of the final product, and, in addition, often receive relatively GRU). Another disadvantage of such methods to obtain is that when in contact with water, solid and water-soluble components, especially when arising in the process of extrusion pressure increases the particle size and crystallization of the components of that again this has a negative impact on the performance of the solubility of ready funds. One way to obtain heavy pellets with the use of water auxiliary means for granulating presents two-stage granulation, in which the first stage in a conventional mixer-granulator receive retaining plasticity of primary agglomerates, then flows for additional processing liquid binder means and/or powders in apparatus for the formation of these particles round shape, for rotary coating and other operations with subsequent drying. Granulation with simultaneous rounding of edges can be performed, for example, in fluidized bed granulators with built-in rotating disc. When the solid raw materials are first transferred in suspension in a fluidized bed and having their aglomerados with liquid binders which podur.450-451). In principle, this method can be used for non-aqueous methods of agglomeration (the process of coating the melt), but then not use the advantage of this instrument, as the possibility of combining agglomeration with drying.

In the literature ("Size Enlargement by Agglomeration", W. Pietsch, John Wiley & Sons, 1990, pp. 440-441) are only two ways of granulation at elevated pressure, at which absolutely no water is used. When it comes to pelletizing presses for tabletting and to obtain a compact formations in the form of flakes by passing through rollers. Then the flakes are crushed and receive granular products with particles of irregular shape. In this regard, some systems use plants for primary crushing, designed to give the original product more homogeneous form before entering the stage pelletizing or grinding. At the final stage of undesirable fine and/or coarse constituent particles contained in the thus obtained the granules, separated by screening and, if necessary, return to the process.

International patent application is messenia solid and liquid source products for detergents or cleaning agents with simultaneous or subsequent formation of these particles, moreover, as the solid components are used, for example, anionic surfactants or structure-forming substances, as well as liquid components take nonionic surfactants. When this liquid components is prepared as a homogeneous mixture with the same component for the destruction of the structure (cage) as a polyethylene glycol, or polypropyleneglycol, or ethoxylated fatty alcohols with a number of carbon atoms from eight to eighteen and the number ethylenoxide fragments from twenty to forty-five. As liquid nonionic surfactants are preferred ethoxylated alcohols linear structure or alcohols with branching at the second carbon atom in the form of a metal of the group with the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon fragment of alcohol from eight to twenty, and containing on average from one to fifteen moles of ethylene oxide to one mol of the alcohol. It is known that along with the above components for fracture patterns in this role, in principle, can be used and water, but it is not so preferable because when the storage means is a depletion of water due to drying of the internal zones and then the desired e who is or appears incomplete. As described in the international patent application data is a mixture of nonionic surfactants and means for fracture patterns that take in the form of a solution or dispersion, can be used in all known processes of granulation, in which processed separately prepared composition and/or source products. Possible or even preferable and processing in extrusion process in accordance with the application for international patent And 91/02047 or with the application for a European patent In-0486592. It is recommended the use of aqueous solutions, pastes or aqueous dispersions, and water, as mentioned above, is not used in the role of the cage and at the final stage, after the extrusion, it is removed by drying. In the application materials are no indications of special holding extrusion without additives, water, and in the description of examples of additional and separate receipt mixtures of nonionic surfactants and means for breaking the patterns carried out by adding aqueous solutions, but the main thing is that the application materials are not the conditions under which they can be held is placed loose weight dried in the spray dryer detergent by granulation in the mixer with the addition of nonionic compounds. These include ethoxylated and/or oxypropylene nonionic surfactants, for example, derived from primary or secondary alcohols with carbon atoms from eight to twenty-attach from two to twenty moles of accelerated on one mol of alcohol, in a mixer, add the predominantly non-ionic surfactants with the number ethylenoxide fragments from two to six and with the index of the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance value of 11 or less. As nonionic surfactants can be used also etilenglikoli and propylene glycols.

In the application for a European patent A-0711828 describes a method for tablets, according to which conduct compressing the product in the form of particles coated. The material for the coating is a water-soluble binder or dezintegriruetsja tool with melting temperatures in the range from 35 to 90oC. as an important distinguishing characteristic indicates that the compacting or tableting should be carried out at temperatures not lower than the 28oBut in any case below the melting temperature binders.

According to m the content of surfactants is at least 40 wt.%, moreover, the granulation method is implemented in a single operation in the mixer at high speed activator at temperatures from room temperature up to 60oC. as a solid starting substances are used particle size of from 0.1 to 500 μm, and at least 15 wt. % of particles have a size greater than 50 microns, but at the same time, there are enough small particles of fine grinding to the total solid starting material had a more developed surface. As binders are mixtures of surfactants from anionic and nonionic surface-active substances with a mass ratio ranging from 2: 8 to 8: 2, which may contain up to 20 wt.% water. Nonionic surfactants represented ethoxylated primary alcohols with a number of carbon atoms in the alcohol fragment from twelve to fifteen and the number ethylenoxide fragments from three to seven. Under this method is particularly preferred mixtures of surface-active substances, containing up to 20 wt.% water, because this increases the viscosity of the mixture and easier to control during the process. The mixture of surfactants may optionally contain and polietilenglikoli aluminosilicates or crystalline layered silicate in an amount of from 50 to 75 parts by mass of the binder agent in an amount of from 20 to 35 parts by mass. Suitable binders are presented primarily very viscous pastes anionic surfactants, which may contain from 0 to 90 wt.% water. But it can be used and such polymers as polyethylene glycols with molecular weights from 1000 to 20000, and also mixtures of these substances with such conventional nonionic surface-active substances, such as alcohols with carbon atoms from nine to sixteen, carrying from four to eight ethylenoxide fragments, if the interval of their melting temperature is in the range below 35oWith or below 45oC. the sintering Process is carried out in the so-called intensive mixer with a definite relatively high contribution of energy. If the applied energy exceeds the specified values, it is paragonarla, leading to the formation of a pasty mass, the application of less energy leads to the fact that work just fine powders or very light agglomerates with unwanted wide range of particle sizes.

The closest analogue is a method for washing or cleaning agents, compositions, or processed source products for their production in the form of oposici and/or source ingredients for their production by giving them the appropriate form in the merge process or in a subsequent operation, in this first preparing a preliminary mixture containing separate source products and/or compositions, at least one anionic surfactant and water-soluble binder, which upon receiving means serves both as to facilitate the sliding means, and adhesive means for solid compositions or original products, detergents or cleaning agents, and when transferring funds into an aqueous solution of a binder acts as a disintegrator, and the preliminary mixture is transferred to the decorated particles by the application of pressure at a temperature below 45o(See U.S. patent 5334324, publ. 02.08.1994, CL 11 D 1/831).

The objective of the invention is the expansion of the range of bulk, quickly dissolving detergents or cleaning agents, compositions and processed primary products for their production.

The problem is solved in a method of producing detergents or cleaning agents, compositions, or processed source products for their production in the form of decorated particles with a bulk weight of more than 600 g/l by combining the components of detergents or cleaning agents, compositions and/or source products for their proizvela preparing a preliminary mixture, containing some of the initial products and/or compositions, at least one anionic surfactant and water-soluble binder, which upon receiving means serves both as to facilitate the sliding means, and adhesive means for solid compositions or original products, detergents or cleaning agents, and when transferring funds into an aqueous solution of a binder acts as a disintegrator, and the preliminary mixture is transferred to the decorated particles by the application of pressure at a temperature below 45oSince, due to the fact that

a) use original products and/or compositions that are at room temperature and normal pressure (1 bar) in solid form and having a melting point not below 45oC, b) as a binder is used, at least one compound from the group comprising: the modified branched and linear polyethylene glycols, 1,2-polypropylenglycol, a low-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone, oxyalkylene fatty alcohols and otsopirtti, ethoxylated methyl esters of fatty acids, branched and linear, ethoxylated fatty acids, compounds containing hydroxyle RO(G)x, where R is a primary linear or branch in the form of a methyl group (C8-C22)-alkyl,

G means glycosidic unit with 5 or 6 carbon atoms, a denotes a number from 1 to 10, polyhydroxyalkane amides of fatty acids of the formula (I)

< / BR>
where R2WITH means (C6-C22)-acyl,

R3means hydrogen, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4-hydroxyalkyl,

[Z] denotes a linear or branched (C3-C10-polyhydroxyethyl with the number of hydroxyl groups of from three to ten, polyhydroxyalkane amides of fatty acids of the formula (II)

< / BR>
where R4means linear or branched (C7-C12)-alkyl, linear or branched (C7-C12)-alkenyl,

R5means linear or branched (C2-C8)-alkyl, cycloalkyl with the number of carbon atoms from two to eight, aryl with the number of carbon from two to eight,

R6linear or branched (C1-C8)-alkyl, (C1-C8-oxyalkyl, cycloalkyl with the number of carbon atoms of from one to eight, aryl with the number of carbon atoms of from one to eight,

[Z'] means if necessary oxyalkylene linear polyhydroxyalkanoates mixture), moreover binder at temperatures below 45oC and pressure of 1 bar is in solid form, but in terms of processing in the form of a melt, the total water content in the pre-mixture does not exceed 15 wt.%, moreover, this water is not in free form.

In the context of the present invention the concept of "the almost complete absence of water" refers to the condition in which the liquid content, i.e. not in the form of hydrates and/or related in some other way, water does not exceed 2 wt.%, preferably it is below 1 wt.%, more preferably it does not exceed 0.5 wt.%, based in each case on the weight of the pre-mixture. In accordance with this water can be introduced into the process mainly only being related chemically and/or physically, that is, as an integral part of the original products or compositions that, when used to obtain preliminary mixtures at temperatures below 45oC and at a pressure of 1 bar are solid, not liquid, solution or dispersion. Preliminary mixture contains not more than 15 wt.% water, and this water is not in free liquid form, and is related chemically and/or physically, and predpochtite isalo 10 wt. %, more preferably it should be below 7 wt.% special preference is given to mixtures with a maximum water content of from 2 to 5 wt.%.

In the framework of the present invention, the term "melting point" is also softening temperature of the mixtures and compositions and respective ranges of melting or softening.

In the framework of the present invention, the term "washing or cleaning agents in the form of decorated particles" refers preferably to such means, in which no dust components and first of all there are no particles with a size less than 200 microns. More preferred mainly such size distribution of particles, which are characterized by a content of particles with a diameter of not less than 400 μm, greater than 90 wt.%. In a particularly preferred variant of the invention obtained detergents or cleaning products, compositions or processed source products not less than 70 wt. %, even better at least 80 wt.%, and best of all 100 wt.% consist of spherical (in the form of pearls) particles with the same size distribution of particles in which at least 80 wt.% particles have a diameter of from 0.8 to 2.0 mm

The term "detergent or cleaning cloth does not need to them were added the other ingredients. In contrast, the composition consists of at least two components commonly used in detergents or cleaners; typically, the compositions are used only in a mixture with other components, preferably together with other compositions. In the framework of the present invention the term "processed the original product" refers to a relatively fine initial product, of which in accordance with the proposed invention by way of the formed particles of larger size. Strictly speaking, processed the original product in the framework of the present invention is a composition, since it is usually used for its processing tool is a component of detergents or cleaning agents.

Excluding liquid at temperatures below 45oC and at a pressure of 1 bar nonionic surfactants that may also be part of the funds used in accordance with the invention method, the original products can be cooked on a separate manufacturing operations, composition, and source products in the form of powders or particles (fine-grained and more grubisa particles with a feature structure can be used, for example, obtained in a spray dryer or in the apparatus with fluidized bed granules and other compositions has no independent significance for the invention, except for the water content. As mentioned above, pre-prepared mixture should preferably be anhydrous, and preferably, it contains not more than 10 wt.% water in the form of hydrates and/or water bound in any other way. In the preferred embodiment of the invention in a pre-prepared mixture is injected composition in dried form. Such compositions can be obtained, for example, in spray drying, the temperature adjustment which must be carried out so that at the exit of the tower was maintained temperature of more than 100oWith, for example 110oWith or more. Similarly, there is the possibility to use pre-cooked mixture of solid compositions, which serve as carriers for liquids, such as liquid nonionic surfactants or silicone oils and/or waxes. These compositions may contain water in the above limits, and such compositions should remain loose, and even if the appreciation is Raina least the ability to transport. However, particularly preferably, in a pre-prepared mixture were used composition containing not more than 10 wt.% water, or better yet not more than 7 wt.% water based on a previously prepared mixture. Free water, i.e. water which is not connected in any way with the solid substance and therefore is in liquid form, in the preferred embodiment, should not be contained in a pre-prepared mixture, because even very small amounts of it, for example, about 0.2 or 0.5 wt.% based on this mixture, sufficient to translate into a solution of water-soluble binders. The result is the decrease of the melting temperature or the softening temperature, and then the final product loses its flowability, and its bulk density is reduced.

It was unexpectedly found that an important role in linking water is owned and solid source products or solid compositions. So, for example, less dangerous when the water is associated with such a structure-forming substances, such as zeolites or silicates (for a description of these substances below), especially with regard to the binding of water by zeolite a, zeolite P or MAP and/or zeolite X. In the same BP is preobrazovatelei, water was contained in a previously prepared mixture in amounts of not more than 3 wt.%. Therefore, in accordance with one variant of the invention it is preferable that the content of bound water in a pre-prepared mixture did not exceed 10 wt.% and/or that the content is not associated with zeolites and/or silicates of water was less than 7 wt.%, particularly preferably, the maximum water content was less than 2-5 wt.%. It is particularly preferably a pre-prepared mixture did not contain water, which is not associated with structure-forming substances. However, this requirement is difficult in technical terms, as usually with the original products and compositions of a metal at least traces of water.

The content used in solid compositions are non-aqueous liquids that have this consistency at temperatures below 45oWith, can also be achieved preferably 10 wt.%, more preferably it does not exceed 6 wt.% based on a previously prepared mixture. For the preparation of the preliminary mixture is used mainly solid compositions which contain conventional liquid at temperatures below 45oC and a pressure of the AMI, for example, in spray drying, granulation or coating of the powdered composition of the granules. This method can be obtained pre-mixture in which the permissible content of, for example, up to 10 wt.%, preferably even less, preferably up to 8 wt.%, for example, from 1 to 5 wt.% nonionic surfactants based on the finished tool.

Compositions which contain water in the above form and/or act as carriers for liquids, mainly for liquid at room temperature nonionic surface-active substances, i.e. they contain these liquid at room temperature components, in any case should not be characterized by a softening temperature below 45oC. Preferably the melting temperature used for the preparation of the preliminary mixture separate source products and compositions lies above 45oAnd preferably that it was not below the 50oC.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention at least 80 wt. %, more preferably at least 85 wt.% and, particularly preferably, not less than 90 wt.% used to obtain preliminary smne or respectively the melting temperature, than the temperature achieved in the implementation process. In practice only for economic reasons, the process temperature does not exceed 150oWith, preferably it does not exceed 120oC. In accordance with at least 80 wt. % used tracks and original products have a melting point of more than 150oC. typically, the melting temperature is much above this value. Even in those cases, when using decomposing thermal effects components, such peroxy bleaches, as perborate or percarbonate, the decomposition temperature of these components at a pressure of 1 bar and especially at higher pressures, which arise in the preferred extrusion process in accordance with the invention, is still considerably higher than 45oC.

Preliminary mixture in addition to solid components may contain up to 10 wt. % liquid at temperatures below 45oC and at a pressure of 1 bar nonionic surface-active substances, most of which are commonly used in detergents or cleaners alkoxysilane alcohols, for example fatty alcohols or ketaspire with the number of carbon atoms in the chain in which perta (a more detailed description of these substances is given below). These liquid nonionic surfactant may be added in quantities that allow you to maintain the flowability of pre-prepared mixture. When such a liquid nonionic surfactant introduced into the previously prepared mixture should be the preferred method, in accordance with which the nonionic surfactants and binders with dezintegriraat effect introduced separately from one another. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the liquid nonionic surfactant in the continuous scheme of the organization of the process are applied through nozzles on the transported powder and impregnate it.

In the pre-mixture also includes at least one of the original product and at least one composition, role binders, which at room temperature is a solid, but when the seal is in terms of implementation of the method melts and becomes liquid. The binder may be applied on the pre-mixture in molten form through nozzles, or it can be added to it in the drip-liquid form, but acecourse. The melting temperature at a pressure of 1 bar should not be below 45oWith and (primarily for economic reasons) it should not exceed 200oWith, preferably not more than 150oC. If the junction is served in the pre-mixture in the form of a melt, the temperature in the melting vessel should be between 45oWith up to a maximum of 200oBut the temperature in the melting vessel can significantly exceed the melting temperature of the binder means or a mixture of binders.

The temperature at the technological stage of compaction depends on the properties of used binders. It turned out that the technological stage seal is preferable to distribute the binder in the sealing material, when it is more homogenized. In connection with this technological stage seal must be maintained the temperature at which the binder is at least softened, but more preferably, when it is fully and not partially melted. From this it follows that the choice of binders with a high melting point, on the technological stage of compaction temperature should be maintained, which is that depending on the desired composition of the final product in the processing are included and are sensitive to the heat source products. In this case, the upper temperature limit is set by the temperature of decomposition of thermolabile of the original product and preferably all the same to operate at a much lower temperature than the decomposition temperature of this original product. Has a definite value and a lower limit for the melting temperature, because the values of melting temperature below 45oTo get the final product, which is prone to caking already at room or slightly elevated to approximately 30oWith the temperature, that is, when the usual summer thermal conditions during storage and respectively during transportation. It was found that especially good results are achieved in cases where work is carried out at a temperature a few degrees, for example, 2-20oC, above the melting temperature.

Not wanting to be limited by theory, the applicant believes that due to the homogeneous distribution of the binders in the preliminary mixture in terms of the technological stage of compaction of the solid composition and may comprise a means for a single parent substance'm entwined connecting means and then glued to each other so that the prepared end pre held together by connecting means, performing the role of a thin dividing wall between the individual particles. In the idealized representation can then proceed from the cellular structure, the cells of which are filled with solids (compositions or individual source substances). Upon contact with water, including cold water, for example, at the initial stage machine washable, these thin dividing walls dissolve or disintegrate almost instantly. It was unexpectedly found that this happens even in the case when the binder is not easily dissolve in water at room temperature, for example, due to its crystalline structure. However, preference should be given to the use of such binders, which in terms of the following experience is almost completely dissolved within 90 seconds at a concentration of 8 g of binder to 1 liter of water.

In accordance with this, the connecting means or connecting means must be such that their adhesive capacity was maintained even at temperatures which exceed the melting temperature. On the other hand, when selecting the type and quantity of one or more binders should Abramava, thus kept together, the components of the composition, but that the finished product under normal storage and transportation agglutination.

In the subsequent description of the present invention for the sake of simplicity, I will be talking about only one connecting means, but it is necessary to imagine clearly that in all cases there is the possibility of using several different binders and mixtures of different binders.

In a preferred implementation of the present invention use of the binder, which is completely melted at a temperature of max 130oC, preferably at a temperature of not more than 100oAnd especially preferably, if it is fully melted at a temperature up to 90oC. In accordance with this binder is selected depending on the chosen method or conditions of implementation of the method or, if you selected a specific binder, the conditions of implementation of the method, the first process temperature must be consistent with its properties.

Binding means, which can be used as a single component with such properties, the nye glycols and polypropylenglycol. Modified polyalkylene glycols are primarily sulfates and/or disulfate of glycols or polypropyleneglycol with a relative molecular weight of from 600 to 12,000, mostly from 1000 to 4000. Another group consists of mono - and/or disuccinate polyalkyleneglycol, relative molecular mass which is in the range from 600 to 6000, preferably 1000 to 4000. A more accurate description of a simple modified esters polyalkyleneglycol type shown in the application for international patent And 93/02176. In the framework of the present invention to polyethylene glycols are polymers, upon receipt of which is as a source of compounds, along with the glycol used and glycols with number of carbon atoms from three to five, and glycerol and mixtures of these substances. This includes such products oksietilirovannye as the ethoxylated trimethylolpropane with the number ethylenoxide fragments from five to thirty.

Used glycols can be linear or branched, with special preference is given to polyethylene glycols linear structure.

To the preferred polyethylene glycols are compounds of this class with a relative is ringlike with relative molecular masses below 3500 and above 5000 can be used in combination with polyethylene glycols with a relative molecular weight of about 4000 and well, to the content of polyethylene glycols with a relative molecular weight of from 3500 to 5000 in combinations of more than 50 wt.% based on the entire weight of the glycols. As binders can be used as the polyethylene glycols, which are at room temperature and at a pressure of 1 bar are in the liquid state; primarily that the polyethylene glycol with a relative molecular weight of 200, 400 and 600. However, then these liquid polyethylene glycols can be used only in a mixture with at least one other binding agent, and this mixture should again meet the relevant requirements of invention requirements, i.e. its melting point or softening temperature should be at least above 45oC.

Modified polyethylene glycols are also functionalityand one or both terminal groups of the glycols, and terminal groups then become alkyl chain with a number of carbon atoms ranging from one to twelve, which can be both linear and branched. Especially shown in end groups of the alkyl chain with the number of carbon atoms of from one to six, mostly from ODN-butilkoi group.

Derivatives of glycols with functionalization on one of the end groups may also correspond to the formulax(EO)y(PO)zwherexmeans alkyl chain with a number of carbon atoms from one to twenty, can have a value from 50 to 500 (SW means ethylenoxide fragments) and z can have a value from 0 to 20 (RO means propylenoxide fragments). At z=discuss About formula can be the same compounds from the previous paragraph.

As binders can serve and ethylene oxide-propylenoxide (x=0) polymers.

As binders can also be used a low-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone and their derivatives with a relative molecular mass not exceeding 30000. While the preferred relative molecular weight ranging from 3000 to 30,000, for example about 10,000. Preferably, polyvinylpyrrolidone was used in combination with other compounds, mainly with glycols, and was not used as sole binders.

Other suitable binding means are original products, which themselves show properties funds from the scrubbing or cleaning cloth the Oia is not below 45oWith or mixture of nonionic surfactants with other binding means. To the preferred nonionic surface-active substances are oxyalkylene fatty alcohols and otsopirtti, mainly alcohols with carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen. In addition, it was found that particularly good characteristics indicate connections with the degree of oxyalkylene, primarily oksietilirovannye corresponding to the average number alkalinising (especially ethylenoxide) fragments from 18 to 100 per mol of alcohol, and mixtures thereof. Good binding means for use within the present invention are fatty alcohols with an average degree of oksietilirovannye from 18 to 35, especially bearing in an average of 20 to 25 ethylenoxide fragments. Optionally, mixtures of binders may be ethoxylated alcohols with a lower average degree of oksietilirovannye, it may be, for example, derived from animal fats fatty alcohols bearing 14 ethylenoxide fragments. However, it is preferable to use these ethoxylated alcohols with relatively low degree of oksietilirovannye only in mixtures with quiet compounds with a relatively low degree of oksietilirovannye in the connecting means does not exceed 50% better if they are less than 40% based on the whole amount of used binders. Commonly used in detergents or cleaners nonionic surfactants, for example alcohols with carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, carrying on average from three to seven ethylenoxide fragments, which at room temperature are in the form of liquids must be contained in the binder mixtures of funds only in such quantities that they were less than 10 wt.%, better less than 8 wt.% and better still less than 2 wt.% based in each case on the end product of technological operations. Of course, as noted above, it is undesirable that in mixtures of binders attended liquid at room temperature nonionic surfactant. In a particularly preferred variant of the method such nonionic surfactants should not be included in the mixture of binders, because they not only reduce the softening temperature of the mixture, but also can increase the stickiness of the final product. In addition, because of the tendency of these substances to the formation of gel-like structures in contact with water often their presence leads to the fact that Tr is is fully. Similarly, it is undesirable presence typically used in detergents or cleaners anionic surface-active substances or their precursors - related acid - in mixtures of binders. Especially good properties demonstrate binders constituting fatty alcohols with carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, from sixteen to eighteen or pure fatty alcohol with eighteen carbon atoms, if they are more than fifty ethylenoxide fragments and even better if ethylenoxide fragments of about eighty. Then, the connecting means may consist only of these substances or their combinations with other binding means.

Other nonionic surfactants that can be used as binders, are not prone to the formation of gels products oksietilirovannye methyl esters of fatty acids, especially those of them, the degree of oksietilirovannye which on average has a value of from 10 to 25 (a more detailed description of this group of substances below). Particularly preferred representatives of this group of substances are mainly methyl esters based on th ether on the basis of the cured beef fat with an average of ethylenoxide 12 or fragments with an average of ethylenoxide fragments 20.

Another class of substances which are suitable for use as binders in the framework of the present invention presents ethoxylated fatty acids with the number ethylenoxide fragments from two to one hundred and balances fatty acids," they can be both linear and branched. While the preferred first of all, these products oksietilirovannye that have a narrow area distribution of homologs and/or characterized by a melting temperature above the 50oC. Such ethoxylated fatty acids can be used as sole binders or in combination with other binding means, while not containing ethyleneoxide group of sodium and potassium Soaps are less preferred and can be used only in combination with other binding means.

And so can be used as binders compounds containing a hydroxyl group and a functional group of ester obtained according to a European patent application A-0754667 (firm BASF) as a result of disclosure cycle epoxides based on unsaturated fatty acids. They are used mainly in combination with polyethylene is nymi fatty acids.

It was unexpectedly found that excellent characteristics are also swollen anhydrous polymers, especially diphosphate starch glycerol, polyvinylpyrrolidone glycerol and modified cellulose glycerol, for example hydroxypropylcellulose in glycerine. They are the "solutions" polymers in glycerol concentration from 5 to 20 wt.%, particularly preferred "solutions" with a concentration of about 10 wt.%.

In a preferred implementation of the present invention as binders use a mixture containing ethoxylated fatty alcohol based on coconut oil or animal fat with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, with an average of 20 ethylenoxide fragments, and polyethylene glycol with a relative molecular mass of from 400 to 4000.

In accordance with another preferred implementation of the invention, the binder is a mixture consisting primarily of products oksietilirovannye methyl esters of fatty acids with the number of carbon atoms from sixteen to eighteen, and with a degree of oksietilirovannye from ten to twenty-five, primarily methyl esters on the days the degree of oksietilirovannye, equal to twenty, and containing the second component ethoxylated fatty alcohol based on coconut oil or animal fat with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, and with the average degree of oksietilirovannye equal to twenty, and/or containing polyethylene glycol with a relative molecular mass of from 400 to 4000.

Particularly preferred within the present invention were binders based on glycols with a relative molecular mass of about 4000 or a mixture of ethoxylated fatty alcohol based on coconut oil or animal fat with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, with an average of 20 ethylenoxide fragments, with one of the above products oksietilirovannye methyl esters of fatty acids, or a mixture of ethoxylated fatty alcohol based on coconut oil or animal fat with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, with an average of 20 ethylenoxide fragments, with one of the above products oksietilirovannye methyl esters of fatty acids and polyethylene glycol, relative molecular mass which preferably lies about 4000 for the aforementioned products oksietilirovannye methyl esters of fatty acids or ethoxylated fatty alcohol with the number of carbon atoms from sixteen to eighteen, and with a degree of oksietilirovannye, equal to 20, in the ratio of 1:1 or higher.

Other original products, such as trimethylolpropane and other marketed products company BASF, Germany), may contain mixtures of binders, especially in mixtures with polyethylene glycols, but they can be used as sole binders, because they function as adhesives and binders, but do not have dezintegriruetsja steps.

In addition, as the only binders or in combination with other binding means can also be Alkylglucoside General formula RO(G)x, where R is a primary linear or branch in the form of a methyl group, especially if it is in the 2-position an aliphatic residue with the number of carbon atoms from eight to twenty-two, preferably the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, and G means glycosidic unit with five or six carbon atoms, preferably glucoside unit. The degree of oligomerization x, which represents a measure of the distribution between monoglycoside and oligoglycosides represented by any number from 1 to 10, preferably x is in the range from 1.2 to 1.4. Especially good is Roy's melting point above 140oC. Suitable also highly concentrated compositions containing not less than 70 wt.% Alkylglucoside, preferably at least 80 wt.% Alkylglucoside. When using mechanical devices with intensive mixing of the sintering process are melting and, particularly, the extrusion melting involving such highly concentrated compositions can be carried out at temperatures above the softening point but below the melting temperature. Although Alkylglucoside can be used as sole binders, it is preferable to use a mixture of Alkylglucoside with other binding means. Especially preferred here are mixtures of glycols and Alkylglucoside, preferably the mass ratio of 25:1 to 1:5, preferably from 10:1 to 2:1.

Binding means, especially in combination with glycols and/or Alkylglucoside can also be polyhydroxyalkane amides of fatty acids of the formula (I)

< / BR>
where R2WITH means aliphatic acyl residue with the number of carbon atoms from six to twenty-two, R3means a hydrogen atom, an alkyl or hydroxyalkyl residue with the number of carbon atoms one to four and [ATI and with the number of hydroxyl groups of from three to ten.

Preferably polyhydroxyalkane amides of fatty acids are derived from reducing sugars with five or six carbon atoms, mainly derivatives of glucose.

Group polyhydroxylated fatty acid amides also includes compounds of the formula (II)

< / BR>
where R4means a linear or branched alkyl or alkanniny balance with the number of carbon atoms from seven to twelve, R5means linear, branched or cyclic alkyl residue or aryl residue with the number of carbon atoms from two to eight, and R6means linear, branched or cyclic alkyl residue, aryl residue or oxyalkylene balance with the number of carbon atoms of from one to eight, with alkyl residues with the number of carbon atoms one to four or phenyl residues preferably, a [Z'] means polyhydroxyalkane residue, a linear alkyl chain of which is substituted with at least two hydroxyl groups, or [Z'] means oxyalkylene, preferably ethoxylated or oxypropylene, derivatives this balance. Preferably the introduction of [Z'] and in this case carry out vosstanovite this N-alkoxy-substituted or N-arylacetamide compounds can be obtained, for example, presented in the application for international patent And 95/07331 way in the transformation of the methyl esters of fatty acids in the target polyhydroxyalkane amides of fatty acids in the presence of an alcoholate as a catalyst. Particularly preferably, glucamine had a melting point in the range from 95 to 105oC. However, in this case, similarly as with Alkylglucoside, when implementing the invention method enough to work at temperatures that exceed the softening temperature, but lie below the melting temperature.

The content of binders or binders in the preliminary mixture is preferably at least 2 wt.%, but does not exceed 15 wt.%, more preferably, if it is less than 10 wt.%, especially preferably, if it is in the range from 3 to 6 wt.%, in each case based on the entire weight of the pre-mixture. Swollen in anhydrous environments polymers most commonly used in quantities of less than 10 wt.%, preferably in quantities of from 4 to 8 wt.%, more preferably in quantities of from 5 to 6 wt.%.

In a preferred embodiment for implementing the invention method for POLYCHROM from room temperature to slightly elevated, but not exceeding the melting point or softening binders, preferably at temperatures of up to 35oSince, in a conventional mixer and/or in the granulator. These solids are also the products according to European patent application In-0486592 can serve as plasticizers and/or facilitate the sliding means. These include in the first such anionic surfactants as alkylbenzenesulfonate and/or higher alkyl sulphates, but they include such polymers as polycarboxylate. A more detailed description of anionic surfactants and polymers that can be used here, will be shown in the listing below of possible components. In addition in the role of facilitating the sliding means may be of the binder, as well as binders or mixtures of binders.

Binders are preferably added as the last component. Earlier it was mentioned that they can be added in solid form, that is, when the treatment temperature not exceeding their melting point or the softening temperature and are uniform, homogeneous distribution of binders in mixtures of solids. With a very fine binding means that the operation can be performed at temperatures below 40oWith, for example, at a temperature of binders from 15 to 30oC. However, it is desirable that the binder was heated to a temperature at which it is already in the form of a melt, i.e. above the softening temperature or better yet in a completely molten form. The preferred melt temperature range from 60 to 150oWith the especially preferred temperature range from 80 to 120oC. During mixing, which is characterized by a temperature of from room temperature to slightly elevated, but not exceeding the softening temperature or melting binders melt almost instantly hardens and in accordance with the invention, a pre-prepared mixture is in solid granular form. In any case, the process of mixing is preferably continued until until the melt hardens and pre-cooked the mixture becomes solid and granular.

The preparation of the compositions of detergents or cleaning agents of the compositions and/or original products the application of loads to seal for example, granulation, compaction, such as compaction by rollers, or extruding, and pelletizing, if necessary with the addition of conventional dezintegriruetsja funds, or clumping. At the same time as original compositions for pre-prepared mixtures can serve dried in a spray drying the granules, but no restrictions on them, the present invention does not impose. Moreover, corresponding to the invention is not dried in the spray drying of the granules, because even a very small initial products with palaeobasin components without complications processed in accordance with the present invention and they do not require preliminary integration of the particles, for example, in spray dryers.

In accordance with the present invention the process of making the appropriate formula, as granulation, compaction, tableting, clumping or extruding flow at operating temperatures, which, at least at the stage of the seal corresponds to the melting point of the binder means. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the temperature is about is in the form of a melt. However, particularly preferably, the operating temperature under seal was not more than 20oC above the melting temperature of the binder means. Technically, of course, it is possible to install and even higher temperatures, but it turned out that in the General case, the difference between the operating temperature from the melting temperature binders on 20oWith sufficient and higher temperatures do not give any additional benefit. In this regard, mainly for reasons of energy saving is particularly preferable to carry out this operation at a temperature above the melting point of the binder means, but the excess should be minimal. This temperature provides an additional advantage in that thermally labile source materials, such peroxy bleaches, as perborate and/or percarbonate, but also enzymes that are processed without unwanted loss of the active substance. The accurate regulation of the temperature regime for binders, especially in decisive operations to seal, that is, between operations on mixing/homogenization pre-mixture and to give hours mild conditions, ensuring the conservation of thermolabile components, as the preliminary mixture is subjected to elevated temperatures for a short time. Preferably the time of thermal exposure is in the range from ten seconds to five minutes, most often it does not exceed three minutes.

The implementation of the method in practically anhydrous conditions makes possible the processing involving peroxide bleaching products without losing their activity, thus it is also possible joint processing of peroxide bleaching products and bleaching activators (a more detailed description below) and also there is no fear of losing their activity.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention corresponding to the invention the method is carried out using an extrusion process, as described, for example, in the application for the European patent In-0486592 or in applications for international patents And is 93/02176 and 94/09111. When this solid original mixture is pressed under pressure in the form of rods and these rods after their exit from forming their holes are cut using a cutting device to pieces, corresponding to the size of the granules. Solid and homogeneous van on that the initial mixture under pressure or, respectively, in the attached specific work plastic softens and gains the ability to extrusion. Preferred plasticizers and/or tools to facilitate sliding presents surfactants and/or polymers, which in the framework of the present invention except the above-mentioned nonionic surface-active substances, introduced into the pre-mixture in the form of liquids, and particularly in aqueous systems, and in solid form.

A detailed description of the extrusion process are presented in the above patents and patent applications. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, a preliminary mixture, preferably by continuous scheme served in the extruder with the planetary rollers, dvuhventsovye extruders or in twin-screw extruders with parallel or opposite to the direction of feed screws, and the housing of the extruder and granulating head can be heated to the specified temperature extrusion. During transit, pre-cooked mixture screws of the extruder it is under pressure, STI is used the apparatus it may be less. The mixture is compacted, plastification and extruded from a nozzle of the perforated plate in the head of the extruder in the form of thin rods. The operation is completed by cutting the extrudate rotating knives on the particles of the granulate, preferably having close to a round or cylindrical shape. The diameter of the nozzles in the perforated plate and the length of the cut segments sticks extrudate is regulated depending on the size of the granules. In this implementation of the invention could obtain granules with a set of almost uniform size distribution of particles, and in each case the absolute sizes of the particles can be agreed with the proposed scope of practical application. In General, the preferred particle diameter of not more than 0.8 cm, Important in practical terms, provide for the issue of uniform in composition of the granulates in the millimeter region, for example in the range from 0.5 to 5 mm and preferably in the range from 0.8 to 3 mm, the Ratio of length to diameter cut in the primary granules in one of the most important variants of the invention ranges from about 1:1 to about 3:1. Preferably also, to ahtola form, in the course of which there is a rounding available in raw extrudate faces in order to obtain particles of the extrudate almost round or close to round shape. If desired, at this stage, running can be done by adding small amounts of dry powder, for example, such a zeolite powder, as the powder Na-A zeolite. Such an operation for forming can be conducted in appropriate settings for rounding. This should draw attention to the fact that at this stage were formed only minimal quantities of fine-grained material. Drying, which in the above documents, reflecting the prior art, relates to a preferred element of the technological process, in this case, it becomes unnecessary under the present invention, because the invention the method is implemented largely without the participation of water, i.e. without the addition of free unbound water.

Alternatively can be used in extrusion and extrusion in the extrusion of low pressure, belt presses or extruder.

In a particularly preferred variant of the invention provides that the temperature regime in Berehove the limit is reached the melting temperature of the binder means or, respectively, the upper limit of the temperature of its softening, but it is better when this limit is exceeded. While it is preferable that the duration of thermal treatment in the field of extrusion compression does not exceed two minutes, and particularly preferably, she was lying in the range from thirty seconds to one minute.

A short time in combination with the process without the participation of water make possible the extrusion of peroxide bleach, if necessary, even with bleach activators, even at higher temperatures without significant loss of potency.

In a particularly preferred variant of the invention used the binder has a melting point of up to 75oWith, then the most favorable is the temperature of the process, which is up to 10oWith, or better yet not more than 5oWith exceeds the melting temperature binders.

In these conditions the process of the binder in addition to the already mentioned effects, it also performs functions to facilitate the sliding means and prevents or at least reduces the adhesion to the walls of the apparatus and sealing devices. This applies not Colunga steps or in the mill.

Preferably, the compacted material immediately after exit from the apparatus for receiving it had a temperature of not higher than 80oC, and a particularly preferred temperature in the range from 35 to 75oC. it Turned out that a particularly preferred outlet temperature, especially during extrusion processing, ranging from 40 to 70oWith, for example up to 60oC.

As with extrusion processing for other ways of getting also preferably formed primary granules or compacted particles were directed to the next stage of processing for rounding to ensure that in the end it was possible to obtain particles of a circular shape (in the form of pearls).

The main essence of the preferred embodiments of the invention lies in the fact that the distribution of particle size in the pre-mix has a much wider margin than that obtained in the corresponding invention method corresponding to the invention the final product. While in the pre-mix may contain significantly higher proportions of fine, even powdered, components, and if necessary, more coarse, but preferably, Chrono high content of fine particles, was translated into a final product with a relatively narrow size distribution of particles and with a relatively low content of fine particles.

Due to the fact that corresponding to the invention the method is implemented largely without the use of water, except present in the used solid source products water (in the form of "pollution"), is minimized or even eliminated not only the danger of formation of gels of surface-active starting materials, but in addition to this method is valuable in ecological terms, as due to the refusal of subsequent operations on the drying saves energy and makes it possible to exclude emissions that often accompany conventional drying methods.

It turned out that unlike obtained by ordinary means, when dissolved in water obtained in accordance with the invention, the detergents or cleaning agents their properties now determined only by the solubility of the individual components; the more they contain components with a comparatively higher rate of dissolution, the sooner dissolved and ready money. Unwanted symptoms during rebreanu way even when receiving detergents or cleaning agents with a very high density, for example above 750 and 800 g/l Obtained in this way means that the composition of the original and processed products show this increased rate of dissolution as compared with the same means, the compositions of the original and processed products, which, although they have the same final composition, but received a manner different from that corresponding to the invention, i.e. not as a result of melting in anhydrous conditions.

Accordingly another object of the invention is a detergent or cleaning agent in the form of decorated particles obtained by the relevant invention method, the solubility of which depends on the solubility of the used individual source products and compositions. Not wanting to limit themselves only to this theory, the applicant believes that these features in the behavior when dissolved based on the cell structure of the particles, and these cell filled with solid matter.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention receive cleanser, available in granular or extruded form and consisting of not less than 80 wt.% from the obtained in accordance with the invention, compositions and/or processed products source. VA is in accordance with the invention, the base granules or base extrudate. Other components can be obtained by any known method and added to the mixture. However, preferably, these other components, which can be a composition and/or processed source materials were obtained corresponding to the invention method. It is important that you receive the possibility of obtaining basic granules and additional components with approximately the same flowability, with the same bulk weight, particle size and distribution of particles by size.

Another object of the invention are obtained in accordance with the invention compositions and processed source materials, such as granular (extruded) builders, granular (extruded) bleach activators or pellets (extruded) enzymes. Unexpectedly high solubility in water show is primarily treated source materials, especially in cases where the original substance is used in finely dispersed form, it can be a grind.

Particularly preferably receive the base granules, the composition and processed the original substance having a circular shape or the products have a very high bulk density. Preferably their bulk density is higher than 700 g/l, mostly from 750 to 1000 g/l, Even in cases when the extrudates are obtained from the use of other components, which show lower values of bulk scales, bulk density of the final product is not reduced in the least, as could be expected under normal conditions. It can be assumed that close to the balls funds and especially the extrudates, which receive the respective invention method, correspond more closely to the ideal shape of a ball with a smooth "greased" surface than the means and the extrudates obtained in the usual ways, especially ways to use water. This allows for better use of space, which leads to higher bulk weight, even if the mixture contains components that have no such high bulk density or spherical structure.

Received the products in the form of decorated particles can be directly used as detergents or cleaning agents or they may be previously subjected to additional processing and/or directed at the preparatory operation in the usual ways. To normal spitama funds as a result of which bulk density usually increases still further. But the preferred way additional processing is presented in patent applications to Germany And 19524287 and 19547457. When this dust-like or at least fine components (so-called thin components) are bonded to the obtained in the form of decorated particles in accordance with the proposed invention by way of products, which become the nuclei, and the result is products containing these so-called thin components in the form of the outer shell. Preferably this operation is carried out with the help of a Metropolitan area with melt, when you are using the same binders, and in accordance with the invention method. For thin components relevant to the invention the base granules or received in accordance with the proposed invention by way of basic pellets using fusion should be guided described in patent applications to Germany And 19524287 and 19547457 ways.

Preparatory operations are in General processes, which are obtained in accordance with the proposed invention by way of substance or with other compositions. This operation is presented in the description of the cited patent applications and patents, mainly in the application for the European patent In-0486592 and patent applications to Germany And 19519139 And 19524287 and 19547457. Along with enzymes, bleach activators and inhibitors pricing preparatory operations to the mixture was added primarily salt such as silicates (crystalline or amorphous), including metasilicate, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, bisulfate, citrate or other polycarboxylate, as well as organic acids such as citric acid (for more details of this will be presented below). It is particularly preferable to "blend components were in granular form and to the size distribution of particles was consistent with the size distribution of particles obtained in accordance with the invention, means or arrangements.

The following is a more detailed description of possible starting compounds to obtain the corresponding invention means and used in accordance with the invention method components.

An important starting materials for the production corresponding to the invention of tools that can be used in accordance with the invention is of which the relevant invention means or obtained in accordance with the invention, means must be below 0.5. %. These include mainly the sulfonates and sulfates, but also soap.

As the surfactants of sulfate type are used preferably alkylbenzenesulfonate with the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of from nine to thirteen, reincorporate representing mixtures alkanesulfonyl, hydroxyethanesulfonic and disulfonato formed, for example, from monoolefins with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen with a double bond at the end or inside the chain when the sulfonation of their gaseous sulfur trioxide and subsequent hydrolysis products sulfating in an alkaline or acidic medium.

Can find application and alkanesulfonyl obtained, for example, alkanes with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen result sulfochloride or sulfolane with subsequent hydrolysis or, respectively, followed by neutralization.

Suitable for use and esters-from sulphonated fatty acids (ferosulfate), for example-from sulphonated methyl esters of fatty acids based on hydrogenated coconut, palm kernel oil or fat, resulting from sulfonatophenyl fatty acids from eight to twenty, followed by neutralization in their water-soluble monocole. Here's preferred-from sulphonated esters of acids on the basis of hydrogenated coconut, palm, palm kernel oil or fat, and they may contain small amounts, preferably not more than 2-3 wt.%, products sulfating unsaturated fatty acids, for example oleic acid. Especially preferred alkalemia ethers-from sulphonated fatty acids whose alkyl chain of the ester fragment includes not more than four carbon atoms, such as methyl esters, ethyl esters, propyl esters and butyl esters. Especially good results are achieved when using the methyl ester from sulphonated fatty acids, and medium salts of dibasic acids produced by their saponification.

Other suitable anionic surfactants are the products of sulfonation glycerol esters of fatty acids, which are mono-, di - and treatery or mixtures thereof, obtained by the esterification of monoglyceride fatty acid in the amount of from one to three moles of or resulting from the transesterification of triglycerides with glycerol in an amount of from 0.3 to 2 moles.

As alkyl sulphates or sootvetstvenno.lechenie to eighteen, for example, with alcohols based on coconut oil and animal fats, with lauralover, militiajim, etilovym or stearic alcohol or exasperate with the number of carbon atoms from ten to twenty, and similar monetary secondary alcohols with the same chain length in the form of their salts with alkali metals, especially in the form of their sodium salts. Preferable alkyl - or alkanesulfonyl with the above chain length containing synthetic alkyl residue, a linear structure obtained by petrochemical, if their similar biodegradation biodegradation adequate connections on the basis of the raw material oil and fat industry. Production of detergents advantageous alkyl sulphates with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to sixteen, twelve to fifteen, and from fourteen to fifteen. As anionic surfactants can be used and 2,3-alkyl sulphates derived, for example, in accordance with U.S. patent 3234258 or 5075041, and manufactured by shell oil company under the trademark DAN.

Suitable also monetary sulfuric acid based products oksietilirovannye linear or branched alcohols with colodetti to eleven, bearing in average 3.5 ethylenoxide fragment, or based on fatty alcohols with carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, bearing from one to four ethylenoxide fragments. The detergents used in relatively small quantities, for example in quantities of from 1 to 5 wt.%, because they have a high foaming ability.

Preferred anionic surfactants are also the salts alkylsulfonates acids, also known as sulfosuccinates or esters sulfonterol acid, and monetary and/or diesters sulfonterol acid with alcohols, preferably fatty alcohols, particularly preferably ethoxylated fatty alcohols. Preferred sulfosuccinates contain residues of fatty alcohols with carbon atoms from eight to eighteen, or a mixture thereof. Particularly preferred sulfosuccinates contain the residue of a fatty alcohol, which is represented by the product of oksietilirovannye fatty alcohol and which itself is a nonionic surface-active agent (description of such substances below). Here also the preferred sulfosuccinates, residues of fatty alcohols which the user alkyl - or alkenylamine acids or their salts with the preferred number of carbon atoms in the alkyl or respectively in alkenylphenol chain from eight to eighteen.

As other anionic surfactants can be derived fatty acids involving amino acids, for example N-methyltaurine (Taurids) and/or N-methylglycine (sarcosine). Especially preferred in this sarcosine or respectively sarcosinate, and of these, more preferred sarcosinate on the basis of higher fatty acids, which may have one or more double bonds, for example, it may be reincarnational.

Another group of anionic surfactants are Soaps, preferably in quantities of 0.2 to 5 wt.%. The most preferred soap based on saturated fatty acids, for example salts of lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, gidrirovannoe rocket and beganovi acid, and primarily a mixture of salts of fatty acids of natural origin, for example from coconut, palm-kernel oil or animal fat. Together with these Soaps or their substitutes can be used and well-known salt alchemistry acids.

Anionic surfactants (Soaps) can be in the form of their sodium, potassium or ammonium is N. Preferred anionic surfactants are in the form of their sodium or potassium salts, preferred their sodium salts.

Anionic surfactants are used in the respective invention means or, respectively, processing corresponding to the invention method in quantities of preferably from 1 to 30 wt.%, particularly preferably from 5 to 25 wt.%.

Along with anionic surfactants, and cationic, zwitter-ionic and amphoteric surfactants, preferred are primarily nonionic surfactants.

As the nonionic surfactants used are preferably oxyalkylene, mainly ethoxylated, particularly preferably primary alcohols, preferably the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of from eight to eighteen and medium oksietilirovannye from 1 to 12 moles of ethylene oxide to one mol of the alcohol, and these alcohols alkyl residue may be linear or preferably 2 methylsiloxanes, respectively linear and methylsiloxane fragments can presuda. And still more preferred ethoxylated alcohols with linear remnants from alcohols of natural origin with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, for example, from alcohols based on coconut, palm oil-based fats of animal origin, on the basis of olejowego alcohol, and with the number ethylenoxide fragments from two to eight per one mol of the alcohol. To the preferred ethoxylated alcohols include, for example, alcohols with carbon atoms from twelve to fourteen, bearing three or four ethylenoxide fragment, alcohols with carbon atoms from nine to eleven seven ethylenoxide fragments, alcohols with carbon atoms from thirteen to fifteen with three, five, seven or eight ethylenoxide fragments, alcohols with carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, with three, five or seven ethylenoxide fragments and mixtures of these compounds, for example mixtures of alcohols with carbon atoms from twelve to fourteen, bearing three ethylenoxide fragment, and alcohols with carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, bearing seven ethylenoxide fragments. Given the degree of oksietilirovannye prégny integer or a fractional number. Preferred products oksietilirovannye alcohols have a narrow range of composition homologues. In addition to these nonionic surface-active substances can, as already mentioned above, to use fatty alcohols, carrying more than twelve ethylenoxide fragments. Examples are alcohols based on fatty acids (including animal), carrying fourteen, sixteen, twenty, twenty five, thirty or forty ethylenoxide fragments.

To nonionic surface-active substances are also already described above Alkylglucoside General formula RO(G)xand polyhydroxy absorbed amides of fatty acids of formulas (I) and (II).

Another class of preferably used nonionic surfactants that can be used as the sole nonionic surfactant or in combination with other nonionic surfactants, mainly in a mixture of ethoxylated fatty alcohols and/or Alkylglucoside presented oxyalkylene, preferably ethoxylated or ethoxylated and oxypropylene alkylamino esters is go up to four, this applies especially methyl esters of fatty acids, as described, for example, in the patent application of Japan 58/217598, or preferably to those that are described in the application for international patent And 90/13533 method. As nonionic surfactants are preferred, the methyl esters of fatty acids with the number of carbon atoms in the acid fragment from twelve to eighteen, carrying on average from three to fifteen ethylenoxide fragments, particularly preferably with an average degree of oksietilirovannye from five to twelve, while as described above binders are preferred above all methyl esters of higher fatty acids with a higher degree of oksietilirovannye. The most interesting methyl esters of fatty acids with the number of carbon atoms in the acid fragment from twelve to eighteen, carrying from ten to twelve ethylenoxide fragments that can be used as surface-active substances, as well as binders.

Can find application and nonionic surfactants of the type aminoxide, for example N-oxide N,N-dimethyl-N-alkylamine with alkyl fragment-based acids kokosovosti. The application can also be found alkanolamide fatty acids. The amount of these nonionic surfactants is preferably not greater than the content of the ethoxylated fatty alcohols, particularly preferably it is less than half the share of ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

Surfactants can be represented by the so-called genialnymi surfactants. In General, these surfactants understand such compounds, the molecule of which contains two hydrophilic and two hydrophobic groups. These groups are usually separated from each structural element or so-called "spaceram". This structural element is usually represented hydrocarbon chain, which should be long enough to ensure that the hydrophilic groups have been removed from each other by a sufficient distance that they are able to provide independent from each other the effect. Such surfactants in General are distinguished by the unusually low value of the critical concentration of micelle formation and the ability to greatly reduce the surface tension of water. However, in exceptional cases, the concept of seminarscustom.

In accordance with the patent application Germany And 4321022 suitable genialny surfactants represented, for example, sulfated mixed ethers with hydroxyl groups or in accordance with the patent application Germany And 19503061 this bisulfate and bilaterality dimeric alcohols and trisulfate and tricerasoft trimeric alcohols. Dimeric and trimeric mixed ethers with functionalized end groups in accordance with the patent application Germany And 19513391 especially differ in their bi - and multi-functionality. So, for example, called surfactants with functionalized end groups have good wetting properties and therefore form a little foam that serves as the basis for special use in the operations of machine washing and cleaning.

Can find application and genialny polyhydroxyalkane amides of fatty acids or polupolirovannye amides of fatty acids, described in the international patent applications, And-95/19953 And 95/19954 and 95/19955.

Addition of surfactants to the major initial products to obtain the detergents or cleaning agents are primarily inorganic and Queen, containing bound water, is preferably a zeolite a and/or P. as zeolite P is used, for example, zeolite MAR(trade mark firm Crosfield). But application and zeolite X and mixtures of A, X and/or P. Zeolite can be used, if it is a dried in the spray dryer powder, but usable and not past the dehydration of the zeolite, in the form of retained moisture after operations for receiving a stable suspension. In the case where the zeolite is used in the form of suspensions, which may contain small additions, for example, from 1 to 3 wt. % based on the zeolite, nonionic surfactants as stabilizers, which represents an ethoxylated fatty alcohols with a number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, and the number ethylenoxide fragments from two to five, fatty alcohols, with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to fourteen carriers from four to five ethylenoxide fragments, or ethoxylated isotridecanol. The average particle size of suitable zeolites is not greater than 10 μm (volume distribution; measurement method: counter Cultura), preferably to a content which substitutes or partial substitutes for phosphates and zeolites are crystalline layered sodium silicates of the General formula NaMSixO2x+1yH2O, and M denotes sodium or hydrogen, x is a number from 1.9 to 4 and y denotes a number from 0 to 20 and preferred values for x equal to 2, 3 or 4. Such crystalline layered silicates are described, for example, in the application for a European patent A-0164514. Preferred crystalline layered silicates of the given formula are represented by the compounds in which M stands for sodium and x assumes the values 2 or 3. Especially preferred as-and-silicates of Na2Si2ABOUT5yH2O.

To the preferred substances for use as builders are also amorphous sodium silicates with a modulus Na2O:SiO2from 1: 2 to 1:3,3, preferably from 1:2 to 1:2,8, particularly preferably from 1:2 to 1:2.6, the different low dissolution rate, and secondary washing ability. Reduced compared with conventional amorphous sodium silicates dissolution rate is achieved in various ways, for example, by processing their surface, obtaining compositions, compaction/compaction or overdrying. In the framework of the present invention, the term "amorphous" also includes the concept of "x-ray amorphous". This means that these silicates in eliteskin substances, and give one or more maxima of the scattered x-ray radiation with a width of several units degree angle. But very good builders can be such silicates particles which according to x-ray analysis have blurred or even sharp diffraction maxima of the signals. This should be interpreted in such a way that these products contain microcrystalline plots ranging in size from ten to several hundred nanometers, and sizes of not more than 50 nm and especially not more than 20 nm is preferable. Such silicates, called x-ray amorphous, characterized by the same low rate of dissolution compared with conventional soluble glass described in patent application Germany And 4400024. Especially preferred compacted/compacted amorphous silicates, compositions based on amorphous silicates and overdried x-ray amorphous silicates.

Needless to say that as a structure-forming compounds can be used and widely known phosphates, if their use for this purpose does not conflict with ecological aspects. Suitable primarily sodium salt such as orthophosphate 20 wt.%, in each case, based on the finished tool. In some cases it was found that especially tripolyphosphate even in small amounts, a maximum of 10 wt.% based on the finished product, in combination with other structure-forming substances lead to a synergistic effect of improving secondary detergency.

Zeolites can be replaced or partially replaced with natural and synthetic layered silicates. Such layered silicates are known, for example, from patent applications In Germany-2334899, from a European patent application A-0026529

and of patent application Germany 3526405. Their applicability is not restricted to any particular composition or structural formula, but the smectites and especially bentonites is preferred.

Suitable layered silicates that belong to the group capable of swelling in water of smectites, are, for example, montmorillonite, hectorite or saponite. In accordance with the above formulas, into the crystal lattice of layered silicates can be additionally integrated a small amount of iron. In addition, these layered silicates are ionoobmennika and therefore they may contain hydrogen ions, masego in the range from 8 to 20 wt.% and depends on the degree of swelling and the processing method. Suitable layered silicates are known, for example, from patent application U.S. 3966629, applications for European patents And 0026529 and 0028432. Preferably used layered silicates, in which the result of processing the alkali washed from calcium ions and strongly coloring iron ions.

Good structuring agents are, for example, used in the form of their sodium salts of polycarboxylic acids such as citric acid, adipic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, tartaric acid, sugar acids, aminocarbonyl acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, and their mixtures, if their use for this purpose does not conflict with ecological aspects. Preferred salts of such polycarboxylic acids as citric acid, adipic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, tartaric acid, sugar acids and mixtures thereof.

Perhaps the use of acids. Acids act not only as structure-forming substances, but also as acidifying components and then with their help establish a lower and more moderate pH value of the washing or detergent. In this regard, in the first place should be called citric acid, you enter into the composition corresponding to the invention a pre-prepared mix, and not mix in subsequent operations, it is preferable to use them in a dehydrated form.

Suitable organic builders are dextrins, for example oligomers or polymers of carbohydrates, which can be obtained from the partial hydrolysis of starches. Such hydrolysis can be carried out by conventional means, for example, when catalyzed by acid or enzymatic catalysis. Preferably they are products of hydrolysis with an average molecular weight in the range from 400 to 500,000. Preferred when this polysaccharide with a dextrose equivalent in the range from 0.5 to 40, particularly preferably from 2 to 30, and the dextrose equivalent is a common unit that characterize the regenerative activity of polysaccharide in comparison with dextrose for which the dextrose equivalent is assumed equal to 100. Suitable maltodextrins with a dextrose equivalent of from 3 to 20 and dry glucose syrups with a dextrose equivalent of from 20 to 37, and also so-called yellow dextrins and white dextrins with higher molecular weights in the range of 2,000 to 30,000. Preference should be given to dextrin, which is th products of their transformation under the action of oxidizing agents, that may be the oxidative conversion of at least one alcohol functional groups Zaharenko cycle to the functional group of carboxylic acid. Such oxidized dextrins and methods for their preparation are known, for example, applications for European patents And 0232202 And 0427349 And 0472042 and 0542496, as well as from international patent applications, And-92/18542 And 93/08251 And 94/28030 And 95/07303 And 95/12619 and 95/20608. Particularly preferred may be the oxidation product WITH6-carbon Zaharenko cycle.

Other additional builders are oxidisability and other derivatives disuccinate, preferably ethylenediaminedisuccinate. Especially preferred in this connection also glycerylmonostearate and glyceryltrinitrate described, for example, in U.S. patents 4524009, 4639325, in the application for a European patent A-0150930 and in the patent application of Japan 93/339896. In compositions containing zeolite and/or silica, they are used in quantities of from 3 to 15 wt.%.

Other suitable additional organic builders presents, for example, acetylated hydroxycarbonate acids or their salts, which in some cases can be in the form of lactones, and which contain n is p. Such additional structure formers are described, for example, in the application for international patent And 95/20029.

Suitable polymeric polycarboxylates are, for example, sodium salts of polyacrylic acid or polymethacrylic acid, for example, products with a relative molecular weight of 800 to 150,000 (based on acid). Suitable copolymer polycarboxylate are predominantly copolymers of acrylic and methacrylic acids, and copolymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid with maleic acid. Especially shined copolymers of acrylic and maleic acids, containing from 50 to 90 wt.% acrylic acid and 50 to 10 wt.% maleic acid. Their relative molecular mass, based on free acids are in General in the range from 5000 to 200,000, preferably from 10,000 to 120,000, and particularly preferably from 50,000 to 100,000.

The content of the polymer and copolymer of polycarboxylates tools lies in the normal range and is preferably from 1 to 10 wt.%.

Especially preferred are also subject to biological degradation of polymers formed from at least two different monomer units, for example, it's about what the notes and maleic acid, and also vinyl alcohol or vinyl derivatives of alcohol, or who in accordance with the patent application Germany-4221381 contain as monomers salts of acrylic acid and 2-alkyl-arylsulfonyl, and derivatives of sugars.

Other preferred copolymers are the products described in patent applications to Germany And 4303320 and 4417734, preferably containing as monomers acrolein and acrylic acid/salt of acrylic acid or acrolein and vinyl acetate.

Other suitable structural materials are oxidation products containing carboxyl groups polyglucosan and/or their water soluble salts, as described, for example, in the application for international patent And 93/08251. Obtaining them are described, for example, in the application for international patent And 93/16110. According to the materials of the application for patent in Germany And-19600018 also suitable oxidized oligosaccharides.

As another group of suitable preferred structure-forming substances should be called as polymer aminocarbonyl acid, their salts and original products to receive them. Especially preferred poliasparaginovaya acid, and their salts and their derivatives, and like substances, the stabilizing effect of whitening.

Other suitable builders are Polyacetals derived from the interaction of dialdehydes with polyhydroxyalkane carboxylic acids which contain from five to seven carbon atoms and at least three hydroxyl groups. They can be obtained, for example, as described in the application for the European patent A-0280223 way. Preferred Polyacetals are obtained from such dialdehydes as glyoxal, dialdehyde glutaric acid, terephthalic dialdehyde, and their mixtures in reactions with such polyhydroxyalkane carboxylic acids, as gluconic acid and/or glucoheptonate acid.

Additional funds may also contain components that have a positive effect on leaching from the tissues of oils and fats. Especially good this effect manifests itself in those cases when soiled cloth, which had already washed several times using the appropriate invention detergent containing such components to remove oils and fats. For the preferred components for the removal of oils and fats include, for example, such non-ionic surface-active ethers, cellulose hydroxypropionic groups from 1 to 15 wt.%, in each case, based on nonionic simple cellulose ether, here are known from the prior art based polymers of phthalic acid and/or terephthalic acid, and their derivatives primarily polymers from ethyleneterephthalate and/or polyethyleneterephtalate, as well as their anionic and/or neionogena modified derivatives. Especially preferred in this sulfonated derivatives of polymers on the basis of phthalic and terephthalic acid.

Other suitable components and equipment are of a water-soluble inorganic salts, such as bicarbonates, carbonates, amorphous silicates, as well as the aforementioned silicates with a low dissolution rate and mixtures thereof. Often use a carbonate of an alkali metal and an amorphous alkali metal silicate, preferably sodium silicate with a molar ratio of Na2O: SiO2in the range from 1:1 to 1:4,5, preferably from 1:2 to 1:3,5. While sodium carbonate is preferably contained in the media in amounts up to 20 wt. %, mainly in the range of 5 to 15 wt.%. In the General case, the silicates in the media are contained in amounts up to 10 wt.%, preferably from 2 to 8 wt.%, if they are used as structure is NT A-94/01222 should the carbonates of alkali metals may be substituted for not containing sulfur amino acids and/or their salts with the number of carbon atoms from two to eleven, substituted or unsubstituted one carboxyl group and/or amino group. In accordance with this, in the framework of the present invention may be used for partial or complete replacement of carbonates of alkali metals on glycine or respectively on glycinate.

Other components included in the detergent composition include inhibitors extensive wash (medium pollution), foam inhibitors, bleaches and bleach activators, optical brighteners, enzymes, substances for softening fabrics, dyed, flavorings, and neutral salts, such as sulfates and chlorides in the form of their sodium or potassium salts.

To reduce pH in detergents or cleaners can be used as acid salts or salts of weak bases. At the same time as acidifying component preferred bisulfate and/or bicarbonates or the above-mentioned organic polycarboxylic acids which can be used as a structure-forming substances. Particularly preferably priminellacapitale operations or in anhydrous form is introduced into the pre-prepared mix.

Among bleaching products, which are substances in water releases hydrogen peroxide, a special role belongs to the tetrahydrate sodium perborate and perborate monohydrate sodium. As other bleaching products are suitable, for example, percarbonate sodium, peroxypivalate, perrykaty of citrates, as well as generating hydrogen peroxide salts nagkalat or nagkalat, for example, natantia acid, peroxidative acid, dynamiclayout acid, phthalimidomalonate or indocanadian acid. Bleach is contained in the media in quantities of preferably from 5 to 25 wt. %, particularly preferably from 10 to 20 wt.%, preferably use monohydrate perborate or percarbonate.

As bleach activators can find the use of a substance, which in the conditions of hydrolysis of peroxide compounds generate the aliphatic nagkalat with the preferred number of carbon atoms from one to ten, especially preferably the number of carbon atoms from two to four, and/or which can generate unsubstituted or substituted adventurou acid. For this purpose are compounds which are O - and/or N-acyl groups I multiply acylated alkylenediamines, first of all tetraacetylethylenediamine, acylated triazine derivatives, especially 1,5-diacetyl-2,4-diketoacid-1,3,5-triazine, acylated glycoluril (acetylanthracene), especially tetraaceticacid, N-acylamide, especially N-nonavailability, acylated phenolsulfonate, especially n-nonanoyl or isanonymousallowed, anhydrides of carboxylic acids, especially phthalic anhydride, acylated polyhydric alcohols, especially triacetin, glycol diacetate, 2,5-diacetoxy-2,5-dihydrofuran described in patent applications in Germany And-19616693 and 19616767 esters of enols, and also acetylated sorbitol and mannitol and mixtures thereof respectively, as described in the application for the European patent A-0525239 (SORMAN), acylated derivatives of sugars, especially pentaacetate, pentaceratops, tetraallylsilane and octatetraene, as well as acetylated glucosamine or N-Alkylglucoside and gluconolactone, and/or N-the acylated lactams, for example N-benzoylnaphthalene known from international patent applications, And-94/27970 And 94/28102 And 94/28103 And 95/00626 And 95/14759 and 95/17498. Preferably also the use described in the application for patent of Germany And 19616769 of etilatsetata with hydrophilic substituents the use described in the application for patent of Germany And 4443177 combinations of conventional bleach activators. Such bleach activators are part of the funds in the usual quantities, preferably in quantities of from 1 to 10 wt.%, particularly preferably from 2 to 8 wt.%, based on all means.

When using tools for machine washing, you can get an advantage by adding to a conventional foam inhibitors. As foam inhibitors are suitable, for example, natural Soaps Soaps or synthetic origin which contain increased amounts of fatty acids with the number of carbon atoms from eighteen to twenty-four. Suitable foam inhibitors, which do not exhibit surface activity, represented, for example, organopolysiloxanes and mixtures thereof with microtonal silicic acid, which can be Sieniawa, and also paraffins, waxes, microcrystalline waxes and mixtures thereof with silenciobarnes silicic acid or bestialitytube. Successfully applied also mixtures of different foam inhibitors, for example a mixture of silicones, paraffins or waxes. Preferably the use of inhibitors of foaming, especially silicon and/or containing paraffin inhibitors of penumbra the NGO preferable for this mixture of waxes bestialityantara.

As salts polyphosphonate acids preferably used neutrally reacting sodium salts, for example salts of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid or ethylenediaminetetramethylene acid in amounts from 0.1 to 1.5 wt.%.

Used enzyme preparations belong mainly to the class of hydrolases, such as proteases, lipases or enzymes with lipolytic activity, amylase, pullulate and mixtures thereof respectively. You can use and oxidoreductases.

Particularly suitable substances with enzymatic activity obtained from bacterial strains or fungi such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Streptomyces griseus and Humicola insolens. Preferably used protease type subtilisin and especially protease derived from Bacillus lentus. Particular interest are mixtures of enzymes, for example of protease and amylase or protease and lipase or enzymes with lipolytic activity, or a mixture of protease and pullulate, or from pullulate and lipase or enzymes with lipolytic activity, or of protease, amylase and lipase or enzymes with depoliticises, but of particular interest are mixtures containing protease and/or lipase, or mixtures containing enzymes with lipolytic activity. Examples of such enzymes with lipolytic activity are known cutinase. In some cases, justified the use of peroxidase and oxidase. To suitable amylases include, first of all-amylase, ISO-amylase, pullulanase and pectinase. From cellulases are used preferably cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase and-glucosidase, also known as cellobiase used and their mixtures. Because different types of cellulases differ in karboksimetilcelljulozojj and avicelase activity can be obtained with a special mixture with the desired activity.

The enzymes can be adsorbed on substances-media and/or covered with a sheath made of special substances to protect them against premature decomposition. The content of the enzymes, their mixtures or enzyme granules may be, for example, from about 0.1 to 5 wt.%, preferably from 0.1 to about 2 wt.%.

In addition to the phosphonates these tools can contain other stabilizers enzymes. So, for example, the composition can wmini salts of calcium with the preferred calcium content of about 1.2 wt.% based on the enzyme. Addition of calcium salts as stabilizers serve salt and magnesium. However, is particularly preferably used for this boron compounds such as boric acid, boron oxide, borax and other borates of alkali metals, such as salts of orthoboric acid (H3IN3), metaboric acid (HBO3and peraboni acid (tetraboric acid, H2IN4O7).

Inhibitors extensive wash designed to hold washed from the fibers of the particles in suspension in the washing solution, i.e. they are used to prevent reverse adhesion washed dirt. For this purpose, suitable water-soluble colloids, with mostly organic nature, for example, water-soluble salts of polymeric carboxylic acids, glue, gelatin, salts of acids derived from starch or cellulose alkylation fragments with carboxylate and sulphonate functions, or salts of acid esters of sulfuric acid with cellulose or starch. For this purpose, suitable water-soluble, containing acidic functional groups of the polyamides. In addition, you can find application and preparations based on soluble starch and other than the above mentioned products on the basis of religon. However, it is preferable the use of ethers of cellulose, such as carboxymethyl cellulose or its sodium salt, methyl cellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and mixed ethers, for example, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxypropylcellulose, methylcarboxymethylcellulose and mixtures of these substances, as well as polyvinylpyrrolidone, for example, in amounts from 0.1 to 5 wt.% based on the detergent.

These tools can contain as optical brighteners derivative diaminodiphenylsulfone or their salts with alkaline metals. Suitable, for example, salts of 4,4'-bis(2-aniline-4-morpholino-1,3,5-triazinyl-6-amino) stilbene-2,2'-disulfonate or substances of similar structure, which instead morpholino group include the substituents as diethanolamine, melamina, aniline or 2-methoxyethylamine group. In addition, means may be optical brighteners of the type substituted definitiion, for example, salts of 4,4'-bis(2-colfosceril)-diphenyl, 4,4'-bis(4-chloro-3-colfosceril)of diphenyl or 4-(4-chlorostyryl)-4'-(2-colfosceril)of diphenyl with alkaline metals. You can apply a mixture of the above optical brighteners.

oWith, preferably up to 62oC. the Filing of a nonionic surface-active substances at a temperature below 45oC and a pressure of 1 bar are in the liquid state of aggregation, carried out by spraying through a nozzle, causing them to be transported powdery composition. In the mechanical action of the screw extruder preliminary mixture plastification and then under pressure from 50 to 100 bar, preferably the ideal of thin rods with a diameter of 1.4 mm, that immediately after the release of cut the cutting device for pellets almost round shape (the ratio of length to diameter of about 1, the cutting is carried out on the hot material). Received hot chips for one minute round in the apparatus of the drum type (Marumerizerand if necessary, put on him a fine powder.

Bulk density of the obtained extrudates lies within 80050 g/L.

To obtain the corresponding invention means M1 take a homogeneous pre-mixture consisting of 61 wt.% dried in the spray dryer granulate 1 (composition below), 6 wt.% alkylsulfate with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen (composition: 92,00 wt.% the active substance, 3,70 wt.% sodium sulfate, 2,80 wt.% other applicants with the original products of salts and not converted into sulphate of initial products and 1.50 wt.% water), 3 wt.% sodium salt of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid (in powder form), 20 wt.% monohydrate sodium perborate and 6 wt.% polyethylene glycol with a relative molecular mass 4000 as binders. In the transported powder mixture serves 4 wt.% ethoxylated fatty is E. this preliminary mixture is fed to the extruder. In the following the dimensions of the particles according to the sieving, the extrudate has a bulk density 758 g/l and the following test conditions on solubility is characterized by a rate of 8%.

Data sieving the mixture M1: 1,60 mm sieve - 6 wt.%; 1.25 mm to 76 wt.%; 1.00 mm - 8 wt.%; 0,80 mm - 4 wt.%, 0,80 mm - 6 wt.%.

To define the properties of the residue after dissolution and thus, to determine the rate of solubility (L-test) in chemical beaker with a volume of 2 l fall asleep 8 g of the analyzed funds under stirring laboratory stirrer with a propeller nozzle installed at a height of 1.5 cm from the bottom of the glass, when the stirrer speed of 800 rpm and continue stirring for 1.5 minutes at a temperature of 30oC. Experiment is carried out in water with a hardness of 16od. In conclusion, the detergent solution is poured through a sieve (80 μm), chemical glass is washed with a minimum amount of cold water and poured it through a sieve. The experience is carried out twice. The sieve is dried in a drying Cabinet at a temperature of 40oC2oC to constant weight and weigh the residue of detergent. The result of the experiment is the average of two separate experiments by percentage. When the popular the experiments in this was not necessary.

The tendency to form gels when dissolved in aqueous medium was investigated in experiments with a towel and basin. To do this in the pelvis plastic dark color (such as dark red in color) add 5 l of tap water (hardness 16od, temperature 30oC) and poured in 25 g of product M1. After 15 seconds, the tool is distributed by hand on the pelvis, even after 15 seconds in the resulting washing solution is dipped blue Terry towel and conduct regular hand washing. After 30 seconds, wipe with a towel wall of the pelvis, and in the next 30 seconds towel squeeze and conduct a visual assessment. The results were evaluated in points:

1 point: perfect, no visible remains,

2 points: tolerant individual, not interfering residues,

3 points: noticeable when the critical assessment of interfering residues,

4 points: clearly distinguishable interfering residues in increasing the volume and quantity.

The cleaning solution is drained decantation and after adding water in an amount of 5 to 10 ml also conduct a visual assessment. The results were evaluated in points:

1 point: perfect, no visible remains,

2 points: tolerant individual, but do not interfere with the remnants, very fine, adding water does not build zlecenie interfering residues in increasing the volume and quantity, the formation of agglomerates and lumps that adding water into the gel.

The means M1 as in the experiment with a towel, and experiment with pelvis scored from 1 to 2 points.

For comparison have a tool V1 containing the same components in the final product, but in its composition the copolymer is not injected in powder form and in the form of a solution in water with a concentration of about 30 wt.%. The excess water removed by drying in a fluidized bed. Bulk density of the extrudate is equal to 770 g/l, the experiment on solubility showed the result of 28%. Experience with towel tool V1 received a score of 3-4 points, experience with the pelvis it is estimated by only four points.

Detergent M2 especially shined when washing colored fabrics. To obtain take 65,71 wt.% dried in the spray dryer granulate 2 (composition below), 11,83 wt.% obtained in the fluidized layer of the composition with alkylsulfates (composition: 75 wt.% alkylsulfate with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, 17 wt.% sodium sulfate, 3 wt.% sodium carbonate, 1 wt.% water, the rest is salt solutions), 2,96 wt. % of sodium salt of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid (in powder form), 6,99 what assay 4000 and of 8.92 wt. % ethoxylated fatty alcohol with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen, carrying an average of seven ethylenoxide fragments, all of this is mixed as described above to obtain a pre-mixture and send it to the extruder.

In the following dimensions according to sifting the extrudate has a bulk density 811 g/l and experience in solubility is characterized by a rate of 2%. In the experiment with the pelvis tool received a score of 1-2 points.

Data sieving the mixture M2 in the sieve 1,60 mm - 2 wt.%; 1.25 mm to 90 wt.%; 1.00 mm - 7 wt.%; 0,80 mm - 0 wt.%, pass through a sieve 0,80 mm - 1 wt.%.

For comparison, also have a tool V2 containing the same components in the final product, but in its composition the copolymer is not injected in powder form and in the form of a solution in water with a concentration of about 30 wt.%. The excess water removed wyszukiwarek fluidized bed. Bulk density of the extrudate is significantly below 800 g/l, the experiment on solubility showed the result of more than 20%. If alkylsulfate composition is not part directed to extrusion processing of the mixture and is introduced into the funds by subsequent mixing according to the method described in the patent application of Flem 7%, as in the experiment with the pelvis, it received a score of 1-2 points.

90 parts by weight of the extrudate M2, 3 parts by mass of the enzyme granulate, 4 parts by weight of granulated foaming inhibitor, 2.5 parts by weight of the polymer (Repeatersbrand company rhône-Poulenc), and 0.5 parts by weight of silicic acid (for post-processing surface) have a tool A2, which has a bulk density of 820 g/l (an increase of bulk density!) and is characterized by the rate of solubility of 7% during the same evaluation in the experiment with the pelvis.

If this scheme have a similar mixture of 90 parts of the mass obtained in comparing the extrudate with the addition alkylsulfates composition, the rate of testing the solubility increases to 12%, while the bulk density is reduced to 735 g/l

Corresponding to the invention means are also drawing from 3 to 5 wt. % non-ionic surfactants on the obtained in the spray dryer composition, which is then sent to a preparatory operation together with the nonionic surface-active agent.

Corresponding to the invention means are also, for example, with ispolzovaniya of cetylstearyl alcohol with an average of ethylenoxide fragments, equal to twenty, in a ratio of from 1:2 to 5:1.

Corresponding to the invention, products are obtained by the introduction of the pre-mixture of Las in the form of a powder of sodium salt of alkylbenzenesulfonate with the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl fragment from nine to thirteen, consisting of 85 wt.% the Las, 4.5 wt. % of sodium carbonate, 3.5 wt.% sodium sulfate, 2 wt.% sodium chloride and 4 wt.% water and desulfuromonas compounds. Depending on the formulation of the final product obtained extrudates are characterized in the above-described experiment on solubility index of less than 15%, or less than 10%. If the experiments of comparison instead of the powder of Las use a concentrated aqueous paste of Las and then removing the water by drying, all obtained in this way, products are characterized by the rate of solubility of more than 20%.

The compositions obtained by drying in a spray dryer granules:

The granulate 1:

26,30 wt. % of Las with the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl fragment from nine to thirteen,

1,10 wt.% ethoxylated alcohol-based acids of animal fat with an average number of the carbon from twelve to eighteen,

9,40 wt.% sodium carbonate,

4,00 wt.% sodium salt of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid,

39,50 wt.% zeolite And, based on anhydrous active substance,

2,80 wt.% amorphous disilicate sodium,

13,60 wt.% water,

the rest of salts from solutions.

The granulate 2:

12,07 wt. % of Las with the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl fragment from nine to thirteen,

3.00 wt.% sodium soap-based fatty acids with the number of carbon atoms from twelve to eighteen,

0.03 wt.% sodium hydroxide,

4,15 wt.% sodium carbonate,

to 0.80 wt.% phosphonate,

to 0.80 wt.% polyvinylpyrrolidone,

57,75 wt.% zeolite And, based on anhydrous active substance,

4,15 wt.% sodium salt of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid,

16,65 wt.% water,

the rest of salts from solutions.

Other relevant invention proceeds from M3 to M10 are the following compounds and get them presented above (see tab.1 and 2).

The results of the experiment by washing in a basin for funds from M3 to M10:

M3 - 1-2

M4 - 1-2

M5 - 1

M6 - 1-2

M7 - 1

M8 - 1

M9 - 1-2

M10 - 1-2

A similar result is she 1,2-polypropylenglycol, low polyvinylpyrrolidone, swollen anhydrous polymers, as diphosphate starch glycerol, polyvinylpyrrolidone glycerol and modified cellulose glycerin; and polyhydroxyalkane amides of fatty acids of the above formula (I) or (II) where R2to R6, [Z] and [Z'] have the above meanings, and their mixtures.

1. The method of obtaining detergents or cleaning agents, compositions, or processed source products for their production in the form of decorated particles with a bulk weight of more than 600 g/l by combining the components of detergents or cleaning agents, compositions and/or source ingredients for their production by giving them the appropriate form in the merge process or in a subsequent operation, when first preparing a preliminary mixture containing separate source products and/or compositions, at least one anionic surfactant and water-soluble binder, which upon receiving means serves both as to facilitate the sliding means, and adhesive means for solid compositions or, respectively, the initial products of detergents or cleaning agents, and when transferring funds into an aqueous solution of a binder SL is eaten pressure at a temperature below 45o, Characterized in that a) use original products and/or compositions that are at room temperature and normal pressure (1 bar) in solid form and having a melting point not below 45oWith; b) as a binder is used, at least one compound from the group comprising: the modified branched and linear polyethylene glycols, 1,2-polypropylenglycol, a low-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone, oxyalkylene fatty alcohols and otsopirtti, ethoxylated methyl esters of fatty acids, branched and linear, ethoxylated fatty acids, compounds containing a hydroxyl group and a functional group of ester, swollen anhydrous polymers, Alkylglucoside General formula

RO(G)x,

where R is a primary linear or branch in the form of a methyl group (C8-C22)-alkyl;

G means glycosidic unit with 5 or 6 carbon atoms;

x is a number from 1 to 10,

polyhydroxyalkane amides of fatty acids of the formula (I)

< / BR>
where R2CO means (C6-C22)-acyl;

R3means hydrogen, (C1-C4) alkyl, (C1-C4) hydroxyalkyl;

[Z] denotes a linear impairedposition amides of fatty acids of the formula (II)

< / BR>
where R4means linear or branched (C7-C12) alkyl, linear or branched (C7-C12) alkenyl;

R5means linear or branched (C2-C8) alkyl, cycloalkyl with the number of carbon atoms from two to eight, aryl with the number of carbon atoms from two to eight;

R6means linear or branched (C1-C8) alkyl, (C1-C8) oxyalkyl, cycloalkyl with the number of carbon atoms of from one to eight, aryl with the number of carbon atoms of from one to eight;

[Z'] means if necessary oxyalkylene linear polyhydroxyethyl with the number of hydroxyl groups in the alkyl chain of at least 2,

and mixtures thereof in an amount of from 2 to 15 wt. % (counting on the pre-mixture), and a binder at temperatures below 45oC and pressure of 1 bar is in solid form, but in terms of processing in the melt; C) the total water content in the pre-mixture does not exceed 15 wt. %, and this water is not in free form.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the pre-mix the content of free water in the source of the products or compositions, such as zeolites and/or silicates, preferably not p characterized in that preliminary mixture contains up to 10 wt. % liquid at temperatures below 45oC and at a pressure of 1 bar nonionic surfactants, mainly used in detergents or cleaners oxyalkylated alcohols, preferably fatty alcohols or oxaspiro with the number of carbon atoms in the chain from eight to twenty, and especially with the average number ethylenoxide fragments from three to seven to one mol of the alcohol, and add a pre-prepared mixture of liquid nonionic surfactants and binders with dezintegriraat action is preferably carried out separately.

4. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the melting temperature introduced into the pre-mixture single source substances and entered into the pre-mix compositions exceeds 45oAnd it is preferable, when it exceeds 50oC.

5. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-4, characterized in that the preliminary mixture of 80 wt. %, preferably not less than 85 wt. % and particularly preferably not less than 90 wt. % consists of original compositions and substances with a significantly higher temperature has been melted down who I am, what stage of compacting is carried out in the temperature range exceeding the melting temperature by several degrees, preferably the temperature difference can be from 2 to 20oC.

7. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-6, characterized in that use binder contained entirely in the liquid state at temperatures not exceeding 130oC, preferably at temperatures not exceeding 100oC and particularly preferably at temperatures up to 90oC.

8. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-7, characterized in that the binder serves to pre-mix the latter, moreover, it is added foresee more uniform, homogeneous distribution of the binder in the mixture of solid substances in the form of a solidified melt or in powder form.

9. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-8, characterized in that the introduction of the binder in the composition of the mixture takes place at temperatures that ensure it is recycled in the form of a melt, and the preferred melt temperature range from 60 to 150oS, particularly preferably in the temperature range from 80 to 120oC.

10. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-9, characterized in that processor CLASS="ptx2">

11. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-10, characterized in that use pre-mixture with a binder content of not more than 10 wt. %, particularly preferred binder content is in the range from 3 to 6 wt. %, considering in each case at the preliminary mixture.

12. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-11, characterized in that the process of making the appropriate form as granulation, compacting, pelleting, clumping or extrusion, is carried out at a temperature above the melting point of the binder, and the process temperature is preferably not more than 20oWith exceeds the melting point of the binder.

13. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-12, characterized in that the duration of thermal effect between the preparation of the preliminary mixture as mixing and/or homogenization, and making the appropriate form, as by compaction, is in the range from 10 s to a maximum of 5 min, preferably it is not more than 3 minutes

14. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-13, characterized in that the giving of the relevant forms is carried out by extrusion, in this pre-mix compact under pressure with its transfer to plastic status is part of the extruder with subsequent grinding of the extrudate using a rotary cutting device, preferably the particles of the granulate, similar in form to the balls (pearls) or having the shape close to cylindrical, and the temperature in the transition zone of the screw extruder, prior to the distributor and the perforated plate, at least, achieve, but more preferably exceeding, the melting temperature of the binder.

15. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that the duration of thermal effect in the zone of compression in the extrusion process does not exceed two minutes and particularly preferred duration of thermal treatment in the range from 30 s to 1 min

16. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-15, characterized in that obtained by imparting an appropriate form of the product has a temperature of not more than 80oC, preferably from 35 to 75oAnd particularly preferably from 40 to 70oWith, in particular up to 60oC.

17. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1-16, characterized in that the preliminary mixture, characterized by a relatively broad size distribution of particles and a relatively high content of fine particles, is transferred to the final product with a relatively narrow size distribution part of azizia or processed starting material in the form of decorated particles with a bulk weight of more than 600 g/l, obtained by the method according to one of paragraphs. 1-17, characterized in that it has a cellular structure, the cells of the honeycomb filled with solid matter.

19. Detergent under item 18, characterized in that there is in granular or extruded form, and it is not less than 80 wt. % is obtained in accordance with the invention compositions or processed starting substances, especially if it is not less than 80 wt. % is obtained in accordance with the invention, the base granules or base extrudate, it is particularly preferable when other components also presents compositions or processed source substances obtained in one of the paragraphs. 1-17.

20. Means under item 18 or 19, characterized in that the shell presents pulverized or at least fine components (so-called thin components), glued in the Metropolitan area during melting.

 

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