Tv klystron

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of electronic equipment, in particular to a powerful mnogostanochnik span amplifying klystrons, and can be used in television transmitters picture and sound. TV klystron contains electronic gun, the input microwave energy input, intermediate and output duhsasana resonators with antiphase mode of oscillation. The case of each of the resonators has the form of a cylinder with an inner diameter D and height H and is closed on two sides the side covers with adjacent tubes, the openings in which are coaxial with the holes in the sleeve, symmetrically located inside this building. The height of the resonators, their diameters and sizes of holes in the floating pipes for all literal private range you selected are the same, and the magnitude of the effective characteristic impedance is chosen for each letter of the frequency range in accordance with the proposed formula. The technical result is to ensure, in the UHF range for the given bandwidth and the output power of television klystron maximum gain per unit length of the device while maintaining high SS="ptx2">

The invention relates to the field of electronic equipment, in particular to a powerful mnogostanochnik span amplifying klystrons, and can be used in television transmitters picture and sound as final amplifiers modulated oscillations UHF for television channels 21-60.

Modern TV klystrons presented a number of specific requirements. Bandwidth amplifier klystrons must be at least 8 MHz with uneven frequency response in this band not more than 1 dB. In order to compete successfully with powerful expensive solid state klystron amplifiers must have a high gain (at least 40 dB), so that at the input device you could use cheap low-power transistor pathogen. In addition, the klystron must have a minimum weight and dimension parameters to be resistant to mechanical and thermal loads, as well as to ensure the high quality of the amplified signal.

To ensure high signal quality relative levels of adverse fluctuations when the klystron mode of transmission of the image on the black level of the field, as well as the levels of spurious oscillations in Nera the Oh is the improvement of the electrical and mass-dimensional parameters television klystron. This problem can be solved by optimal choice of the design of the resonator system and the parameters of the electron stream.

From similarity theory [see Tsarev Century A. Generalized indicator of the quality amplifiers, klystrons / / E technique. Ser. Vacuum and gas-discharge devices 1992. - Vol.3(138). - S. 20-21] it follows that if you reduce the length of the resonator block n times, to maintain the value of the specified works gain bandwidth of the klystron must at the same time to increase producteffp, whereeffthe product of the square of the coefficient of efficiency of interaction M on the characteristic impedance of the resonator ; p - perveance electron flow.

To meet these requirements in a single-beam klystrons with odnosezonnye resonators with low characteristic impedance (<100 Ohm), you would have to use an electronic flow with high microperveance (p>3), or heavily loaded resonators at moderate values of space charge. Such klystrons (for example, a klystron KU-318) have a small gain, as well as large dimensions and weight. One of the famous tekhnicheskikh klystrons with odnosezonnye resonators, is the transition from chetyrekhraundovykh klystrons to petitoners. However, it is strongly deteriorate the weight and size parameters of such devices.

A more promising solution is the use in the design of the resonator system of klystrons duhsasana resonators with antiphase mode of oscillations that have 2-3 times higher impedance than odnosezonnye resonators. Such resonators are based on a segment of transmission line, short-circuited at one end and loaded by a dual capacity Bessette gap at the other end [see Katzman Y. A. microwave Devices. - M.: Higher. HQ., 1983. - 368 S.].

As a transmission line is often used cut a strip line, the outer conductor of which (case) has the form of a cylinder, closed on two sides of the side covers with holes for the passage of electrons, and the inner conductor is made in the form of a radial rod connected at one end with the casing, and the other with the Central electrode (plug) (see A/with the USSR 744780, M CL H 01 J 23/22, H 01 J 25/10, publ. 30.06.80, bull. 24, 10.07.80 year).

Klystrons with such resonators are used in the shortwave part of the microwave range, where they have sravnitel waves (the volume of the cavities and, therefore, the weight of the device increases in proportion to the cube of the wavelength).

The increase in the volume of cylindrical resonators increases the probability of excitation in them the higher modes of vibration, of which the most dangerous phase is the appearance of oscillations010the wavelength of which is proportional to the diameter of the resonator. Typically, the frequency of this oscillation is close to the frequency of the third harmonic of the amplified signal.

The corresponding harmonic component of the convection current modulated electron beam can efficiently interact with this kind of fluctuations that will raise the level of the third harmonic to invalid values, which will deteriorate the quality of the output signal. For elimination of this parasitic species oscillations of the areas of potential interaction with the electron beam it is necessary to reduce the diameter of the resonator.

Closest to the claimed combination of features for a klystron with dvuhkosournymi cylindrical resonators with antiphase mode of oscillation having a reduced diameter [A. S. 754519 USSR MKI H 01 J 23/20. Dvojnasobny resonator / S. N. Golubev, L. D. Esin, A. C. Nikonov, V. A. Tsarev; SLEEP (USSR). - Aubih line with the inner conductor, having a constant cross-section throughout its length and is made in the form of a covering sleeve cut regular radial spiral.

This conductor one end connected to the housing of the resonator, and the other with the sleeve installed inside the case.

The disadvantages of klystrons with such resonators using them as a powerful amplifiers modulated oscillations UHF range are:

1. The low mechanical strength and poor heat dissipation from the inner conductor, and that the form of this conductor is made without taking into account the inhomogeneous distribution of mechanical and thermal loads along its length. This causes instability of the resonator to mechanical and thermal stress, thereby limiting the level of achievable power klystron.

2. At small regular shortening resonance line capacity dual gap, that is, at high values of the characteristic impedance of the intermediate resonator it apart from the main out-of-phase species oscillations and the resonant frequency f0can be actuated on the overtones, roughly coinciding with the odd components of the harmonic spectrum of the modulated current e is Ala, as the device output levels of spurious fluctuations outside the frequency range can exceed a specific rate.

3. When reducing the length of the resonator block (by reducing the height of the resonators and the reduction of the lengths of the drift tubes) the possibility of self-excitation of the klystron due to positive feedback between the stages, and also because of the emergence of a negative electron shunt conductance introduced by the modulated electron beam in the intermediate resonators at small angles to the span between the centers of two adjacent gaps.

Tasks are addressed by the invention are the provision in the UHF range for the given bandwidth and the output power of television klystron with dvuhkosournymi resonators maximum gain per unit length of the device while maintaining high quality of the amplified signal and the stability of the resonators to mechanical and thermal loads.

Solving these problems is achieved by the fact that the TV klystron containing small input, output and intermediate duhsasana cylindrical resonators with antiphase mode of oscillation, vnut hole, coaxial holes in the floating tubes, mounted on the side cover, each resonator made mnogoletnim with the possibility of overlapping of the UHF television frequency band of one unified design of the resonator system, each of the resonators which has the inner conductor, one of which is attached to the body of the resonator massive electrode that serves as a support for the other part of the inner conductor, having a form open ring located coaxially of the sleeve and connected to it at the free end with a radial rod, and the height of the resonators, their diameters and sizes of holes in the floating pipes for all literal the same, and the magnitude of the effective characteristic impedance of the output resonator and the device parameters are determined from the following equation:

< / BR>
where f0- lower frequency band gain of the device (in MHz);

the characteristic impedance of the resonator at frequency f0, Om;

Pw- output power-mode gain of sync, kW;

M is the coefficient of efficiency of interaction;

p- microperveance electron beam, µa/IN3/2.

permissible to provide the selected bandwidth enhance the value of the characteristic impedance of the output resonator 350 Ohms.

The proposed technical solution is implemented next best options.

Option 1. To improve the mechanical strength, improved heat transfer from the inner conductor and simplifying the technology of manufacture bearing in the intermediate resonators mounted on one of the side covers and represents a piece of pipe mounted coaxially to the casing, in which is a through the slots so that the remainder of this pipe is a solid ring, combined with the longitudinal part of the tube, separating the solid and broken rings, and bearing in the input and output resonators are located in one plane with the open ring and is fixed on the cylindrical surface of the resonator.

Option 2. Bearing in the input and output resonators has the form of a circular segment, is located in one plane with the open ring and is fixed on the cylindrical surface of the resonator.

Option 3. To reduce the efficiency of the interaction of the third harmonic of the amplified signal in phase with the vibrations to acceptable values, which do not deteriorate the quality of the output signal, the diameter of the resonator is selected:
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When performing the right part of inequality (the upper limit) frequency common mode type oscillations E010will be more than 3.5 times greater than the frequency of the amplified signal and, therefore, will drastically decrease the efficiency of interaction of electrons with this kind of hesitation. The restriction on the diameter of the cavity bottom is connected with found empirically condition, breach of which the value of the characteristic impedance of the resonator begins to decrease.

Option 4. To obtain a given value of the works of the gain of the klystron bandwidth and eliminate the possibility of self-excitation of the klystron due to positive feedback between cascades through the holes in the floating pipes, and also because of the emergence of a negative electron shunt conductivity in the intermediate resonators when reducing the height of the resonators and the reduction of the lengths of the drift tubes, we found that the minimum height of the cavity must satisfy the following relations:

< / BR>
where H is the height of the resonator, m;

a - the radius of the transit channel, m;

- maximum operating wavelength, m;

Uo- accelerating voltage, Century

For example, PM.

In this formula takes into account that the length of the drift tube between the resonators is selected (to avoid electromagnetic coupling between the cascades) from the condition that it is greater than 2 radii of the transit channel, and the angle span the full length of the double gap in the intermediate resonators is selected in the field, corresponding to positive values of the electronic shunt conductance.

Option 5. To increase the work of the gain bandwidth of the klystron at least one of the resonators (for example, output) introduced an additional inner conductor, forming with the main inner conductor bypass the filter system. It should be noted that this option does not exclude such a case, when all the cavities of the klystron made in the form of filter systems.

Below we consider the optimal design of the filter system formed by the primary and secondary inner conductors.

Option 6. Bearing main inner conductor has the form of a circular segment, is located in one plane with the open ring and is fixed on the cylindrical surface of the resonator, and an additional inner conductor, repeats form is thus, that the open ring additional conductor is under (over) open ring main conductor, an additional conductor connected to the conductive element in communication with an external load.

Option 7. The primary and secondary inner conductors repeat form the main inner conductor in the intermediate cavity and mounted on one of the side covers resonator with a shift in the azimuthal and longitudinal directions with the possibility of capacitive tuning, an additional conductor connected to the conductive element in communication with an external load.

The features distinguishing the claimed solution to the prototype, determine compliance with this decision, the criterion of "novelty".

Not known to the authors of the technical solution with the set of distinctive features of the proposed solution, therefore, conclude that the alleged invention meets the criterion of "significant differences". In Fig.1 shows a longitudinal section of the TV klystron, and Fig.2 and 3 show cross-sections of the input and intermediate resonators. In Fig.4 shows a cross section of the output resonator made for the version 6. In Fig. 5, 6 show openelectrophy gun 1, the input microwave energy 2, input 3, intermediate 4 and output 5 duhsasana resonators with antiphase mode of oscillation. The case of each of the resonators has the form cylinder 6 with an inner diameter D and height H and is closed on two sides the side covers 7 with the passage of the pipes 8, 9 holes in which the aligned holes in the sleeve 10, symmetrically located inside this building. The height of the resonators, their diameters and sizes of holes in the floating pipes for all literal the same, and the magnitude of the effective characteristic impedance is chosen for each letter in accordance with the proposed formula by changing the length of the sleeve.

The inductive part of the resonator formed by short cut step-inhomogeneous line, the outer conductor of which is the body of the resonator. The inner conductor consists of two parts. One part of the guide is attached to the body of the resonator massive electrode 11 that serves as a support for the other part of the inner conductor, having a form open rings 12, which is located coaxially of the sleeve and connected to it at the free end with a radial rod 13. Tuning resonators for a given litecam bearing in the intermediate resonators mounted on one of the side covers and represents a piece of pipe, mounted coaxially to the casing, in which is a through the slots so that the remainder of this pipe is a solid ring 14, combined with the longitudinal part of the pipe 15, separating solid 14 open 12 rings and bearing 11 in the input 3 and output 5 resonators located in one plane with the open ring 12 and is secured to the cylinder 6.

To tune to a selected frequency within one letter of the klystron are equipped with capacitive elements frequency 16.

Communication device with the input 2 and the output 17 of the high-frequency energy is made in the form of conductive elements 18. The manifold 19 with air cooling is designed to receive the spent electron beam.

To increase the work of the gain bandwidth in one of the cavities (as a rule, output or input) introduced an additional inner conductor 20 (Fig.5, 6) connected to the conductive coupling element 18 with the external load and forming with the main inner conductor 12 of the double-circuit system with the parameters of the band pass filter.

The device operates as follows. In the absence of the amplified signal e is ispolnenie in the sleeve 10 and passing the pipe 8 resonators 3, 4, 5, and scatters on the collector 19.

When a signal is sent through the input RF energy 2 through the coupling element 18 in a double gap of the input resonator 3 with opposite phase voltages is modulated electron velocity, which then enters passage pipe 8 in the modulation of the electron density. Electron bunches are additionally sealed, passing through the interaction space formed by the sequence of intermediate resonators and arranged between the drift tubes.

While the length of the inner conductors of all of the resonators induced high frequency currents the maximum range of a short circuit, i.e. at the place of attachment on the body of the resonator massive electrode 11, and the minimum in the contact open ring 12 with a radial rod 13, as well as in the area of contact of the rod with the sleeve 10. This causes the resistance of all of the resonators to mechanical and thermal (electric) loads and increases the level of achievable power klystron in a continuous mode of 10-15 kW.

This task also contributes to optimum form of the inner conductor, performed as part of a pipe, in which the longitudinal part 15 and the inner conductor in places of maximum flow of RF currents reduces electrical losses.

In the process of interaction in the resonators 3-5, in addition to the main antiphase types of oscillations are excited harmonics corresponding to in-phase (F010) and antiphase (overtone). However, their effective interaction with the second and third harmonics of the convection current of the electron beam excluded. This is because the oscillation system based on a step-inhomogeneous line, what are the resonators in the proposed design of the device, have filtering properties for odd harmonics of the amplified signal, i.e. have a distribution of resonant frequencies different from the normal law of numbers, so the level of the third harmonic at the output of the device will be 2-3 orders of magnitude less than the output device selected for the prototype.

Reduce the diameter of the resonator, the minimum possible value which is selected from the condition D<0.22 M2).

The adjustable connection between the resonant circuits of the filter is carried out by displacement of the inner conductors 12 and 20 in the azimuthal and longitudinal directions to ensure maximum bandwidth with minimum uneven frequency response.onator and microperveance electron beam (defined according to the basic formula of the present invention) TV mnogolyetnii the klystron with dvuhkosournymi resonators provides in the UHF range for the given bandwidth and the output power of the maximum gain per unit length of the device.

The device provides in a single, unified design getting all the letter (from 470...790 MHz) power output not less than 9 kW with a gain of not less than 40 dB when the total length of the resonator unit, not exceeding 0.5 m, and the diameter of the resonators, not exceeding 0.12 m in Addition, the device provides high quality of the amplified signal and the stability of the resonators to mechanical and thermal loads.

Thus, tasks are addressed by the invention, is solved.

The design of the device is relatively simple, technological, achieves high repeatability of the geometric dimensions of the resonators and their configuration on the specified characters. This reduces the complexity and cost of works for the manufacture of the device as a whole, which is important in conditions of mass production.

1. TV klystron containing input, output and intermediate duhsasana cylindrical resonators with antiphase mode of oscillation, the inner conductor of which one end is connected to the housing of the resonator, and the other with the sleeve having a passage hole, coaxial with the holes in the floating tubes, mounted on the side cover, each reason is predstavljaet a fixed to the body cavity massive electrode serves as a support for the other part of the inner conductor, having a form open ring located coaxially of the sleeve and connected to it at the free end with a radial rod, and the height of the resonators, their diameters and sizes of holes in the floating pipes for all letters of the frequency range selected is the same, but the magnitude of the effective characteristic impedance of the output resonator and the device parameters are determined from the following equation:

< / BR>
where f0- lower frequency band gain of the device (in MHz);

the characteristic impedance of the resonator at frequency f0, Om;

Pw- output power-mode gain of sync, kW;

M is the coefficient of efficiency of interaction;

p- microperveance electron beam, µa/IN3/2.

2. TV klystron under item 1, characterized in that the bearing all the intermediate resonators mounted on one of the side covers and represents a piece of pipe mounted coaxially with the casing, in which is a through the slots so that the remainder of this pipe is a solid ring, combined with the longitudinal part of the pipe, bore in the input and output resonators has the form of a ring segment, located in one plane with the open ring and is fixed on the cylindrical surface of the resonator.

4. TV klystron under item 1, characterized in that the diameter of the resonator is selected

9a<D<0.22min,

where D is the diameter of the resonator, m;

min- minimum operating wavelength, m;

and the inner radius of the span of the pipe, m

5. TV klystron under item 1, characterized in that the minimum height of the resonator satisfies the relation

< / BR>
where H is the height of the resonator, m;

a - the radius of the transit channel, m;

- maximum operating wavelength, m;

Uo- accelerating voltage, Century

6. TV klystron under item 1, characterized in that at least one of the resonators introduced an additional inner conductor, forming with the main inner conductor 2 dual filter system.

7. TV klystron under item 1, or 2, or 6, characterized in that the main bearing inner conductor has the form of a circular segment, is located in one plane with the open ring and is fixed on the cylindrical surface of the resonator, and the additional inner conductor patetonga thus, that the open ring additional conductor is under the open ring of the main conductor or above it, with an additional conductor connected to the conductive element in communication with an external load.

8. TV klystron under item 1, or 2, or 6, characterized in that the primary and secondary inner conductors repeat form the main inner conductor in the intermediate cavity and mounted on one of the side covers resonator with a shift in the azimuthal and longitudinal directions with the possibility of capacitive tuning of the additional resonance of the conductor in the conductor connected to the conductive element in communication with an external load.

 

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