Spent ribs to reduce tire wear

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the design of tyres for road transport, mainly buses heavy trucks. On each side of the tyre tread has spent the rib, separated from the main tread ribs narrow edging groove having a width of not more than 1.5 mm, the Width of the surface of the spent ribs is in the range of 2.5-12% of the tread width. The outer surface of the consumable ribs indented relative to the transverse profile of the main ribs due to the radial ledge of approximately 0.5 to 2.0 mm, To define the shape of spent ribs using the shape factor, having a value of 0,10-0,50. The result is increased tire life. 2 C. and 18 h.p. f-crystals, 17 tab., table 4.

The invention relates to a car tire, and more specifically to a tire heavy-duty trucks. The invention is particularly useful in the operation of trucks in long-term transportation by reducing uneven tyre wear on the front axle.

The problem of uneven wear of the tires of trucks during prolonged transport is well known in this field technologo forward during the greater part of their service. The stresses in the tire from their rotation and maneuvering of the vehicle, exist for only a limited time in comparison with the stresses that occur in the tires from moving forward on the highway. Axial alignment of the truck, and also the elastic deformation of their suspension and the operation of the clutch acquire greater importance when there is tire wear. Normal stress can also become just as important in the case of wear, and the longitudinal and transverse directions.

Those models which propose different solutions to the problem of uneven wear and resistance to wear of the tires of the drive axles of trucks, are described in U.S. patents 4114618, 4480671, 4890658, 5010936, 5099899 and 5131444, the French patent 2303675 (FR675), the United Kingdom patent 2027649 (GB649), the Japan patent 3-253408 (JP408) and the patent application PCT 9202380 (RST). In these publications the proposed means of regulation forms in the area of shoulders of the rolling surface (tread) tires in an attempt to restrain the beginning of heterogeneous changes in the shape of the tread as the tire wear (namely, road wear). It is proposed to use edge grooves of various sizes and in various places, where the contact area of protectorate the first inner edge, to keep the beginning and to reduce the development of uneven wear during a considerable part of the life of tire tread.

From the preceding technical solutions are known to use the narrow edge of the ribs on the bus the front drive axle of the truck to control the wear on the main annular ribs. The main problem arising from the review of previous technical solutions, characterized by the fact that a relatively narrow edge ribs and a narrow groove separating the narrow edge of the rib from the first inner edge, is effective only when the bus is relatively new. Experience shows that a narrow edge edge wear out quickly with the formation of relatively large cavities, so that the narrow edge of the ledge not withstand a rather large part of the load on the bus after the onset of wear. This problem cannot be solved, not by providing a source of deepening or a large source of deepening, because the edge ribs of the tire develops its own significant permanent deepening during the initial wear. To reduce wear of the ribs and resistance tyres wear in the patent Australia 622983 (AU983), the patent application PCT 9202380 (RST) and PA is the year of publication are discussed more fully below.

In the patent Australia AU983 proposed bus for hire, working on long-distance transport at regular speed with medium and high bus load. The service life of the tire tread is raised by adding a narrow edging grooves having a width of 3.5 mm, with a broad edge ribs have a width, component, at least 13% of the overall width of the contact, and the recess edge of the ribs has a value from 0.5 to 5.0 mm widths edge of the fin is relatively large, accounting for at least 35 mm tire with the main tread width 200 mm

In the patent application PCT RST proposed bus car for long runs with regular speeds, which increases the resistance to separation of the layers pageprotection hardening. Resistance to hardening increases due to the narrow edge of the grooves having a width of from 0.6 to 8 mm, with edge ribs have a width of from 17 to 34 mm, the recess edge of the ribs has a value less than 40% of the depth of the main grooves of the tread. And where the width of the edge of the fin is relatively large, and the preferred deepening is also relatively high.

In the Japan patent JP408 proposed bus with reduced abrasionproof grooves with widths from 0.2 to 3% of the principal of the tyre width edge ribs have a width of more than 90% of the original depth of the grooves of the main part of the bus with a slope area of contact surface of from 20 to 60 degrees, however, the patent does not report the value of deepening the edge ribs. The slope of the area of contact surface edge of the ribs is at least 20 degrees to prevent wear from the gravel, as well as cracking and breaking grooves.

In another design, known from the preceding technical solutions to increase the service life of the tire tread by reducing uneven wear by adding separated from each other tubules, which are located in the transverse direction in the main ribs of the main grooves, and a narrow edging grooves in the first internal ribs. These tubules can be further improved by sloping tubules are sloped in the direction of depth from the line perpendicular to the surface of the tire. Sloping channel proposed in Japan patent 5-338418 (JP418) and AU983. In JP418 inclined tubules are arranged such that they have an inner end which is moved to the end surface during rotation of the tire. This inclined channel used to reduce deljennie in AU983, inclined at an angle to a line perpendicular to the surface of the tire at an angle from 5 degrees to 25 degrees. In these publications tubules used in combination with a very wide edge rib, as described earlier.

In another design, known from the preceding technical solutions to increase the service life of the tread by reducing uneven wear in the tread design regulate the magnitude of the normal load on the main ribs by adding a step edge that is adjacent to an edge or edges to be protected. From the description of the patent US444 follows that zone of step edges in contact with the soil in the main part of the width of the tread, adjacent to the soil to promote the perception of load acting on the tire. Full width speed zones is in the range from 5 to 25% of the area of contact of the tread with the ground, and speed zones are deepening, the magnitude of which is proportional to the load on the tire and the terrain tread and inversely proportional to the contact surface of the tread and the modulus of elasticity of the rubber tread. Use the largest holes of 2 mm or more. Contact speed zone with the ground is provided on the basis of encata area contains the site of contact of the tread with the ground and is limited to two narrow grooves or narrow slits, and the load transmitted from the areas of contact with the ground, dispersed across the lateral width of the tire. In the description of the patent US444 not reported to the width of the narrow grooves and slots and about the use of speed zones on the lateral edges of the tire tread.

Another patent, in which the proposed design of the tread, providing regulation of the magnitude of the normal load, the perceived speed edge, which is next to be protected by the rib or ribs, is the United Kingdom patent 532534 (GB534). The grooves between the ribs, perceiving the load, has a thinner edge, which is separated from perceiving the load of the edges of the narrow grooves of a width of approximately 0.8 mm thinner ribs can have cavities, but their value is not given. In the patent GB534 not informed about the presence of edges with grooves on the side edges of the tread.

There is a need for the presence of edge ribs, which becomes consumed by an edge to maintain contact with a ground surface to reduce stress, perceived the main width of the tread, especially the first inner edge. The means to maintain the load on the edge ribs can effectively reduce narantuul the need to provide more uniform tread wear across the tread. The first inner edge across the width of the tread on each of the lateral sides of the tire is subjected to high loads, causing a relatively high voltage, which must be reduced to reduce wear on the first inner edge to obtain the correct or uniform wear.

Therefore, the aim of the present invention is to create edge ribs on the outside from both side edges of the main width of the tread, which are consumed by the edges due to wear due to their perception of the greater part of the load on the bus for longer service life.

In particular, the purpose of the present invention is to develop proper form and dimensions spent ribs and a narrow edging grooves with new tires truck so consumed ribs provided effective protection for the main part of the tread after the occurrence of wear of the tire tread.

An additional objective of the present invention is to provide consumable side edge ribs of truck tyres to reduce uneven wear on the first internal ribs. Spent ribs help to delay the start neravnomernaya uneven tyre wear of the drive axis of the truck. Special attention is paid to the initial path and the wear of the adjacent annular grooves.

Another objective of the present invention is to develop a bus, a truck with a tape seal, frame, pane flanges and side walls, which contains spent ribs to provide reduce uneven wear of the main area of the tire tread, which results in uniform wear of relief throughout the main width of the tire tread.

Brief description of the invention

The above objectives, in accordance with the present invention are realized by the development of bus consumable edges to protect the main edges of the tire tread by slowing down the beginning of uneven wear and its development.

In one embodiment, the present invention provides an improved protector for heavily loaded bus. The bus has a skeleton that is located between the spaced cores of the sides of the tires, the Central region of the crown of the tire on the outside of the frame with tape seal to support the tread in contact with the supporting surface. Enhanced bus includes several major ribs which form the basic width of the tread to ensure contact with the supporting surface. On each side of the main ribs provided expended edge for contact with the supporting surface. Spent an edge is an edge, the edge, separated from the main rib edging groove having the width of the grooves is not more than approximately 1.5 mm Consumable edge surface has a width in the range of from about 2.5 to 12% mentioned the tyre width. Spent an edge has a recess defined by a radial ledge relative to the transverse profile of the main ribs. The ledge has a value in the range from approximately 0.5 to 2.0 mm at a new tyre. These improvements reduce uneven wear on the tires.

In another embodiment of the present invention used the tyre tread for tires drive axle heavy-duty trucks, operating on the long haul, to reduce wear. The tread consists of a main part of the tread having at least four annular ribs across the width of the main tread separated the main groove depth of the main grooves located around the outer surface of the tire between the side edges of the main width of the tread. The surface of the main part of the protector defines a side profile rotector, separated from the tread width of the narrow edge of the groove, in the vicinity of each of the side edges. Each spent the rib has a width of the side surface in the range from about 10 to 14 mm Narrow edging groove has a lateral width in the range from about 0.2 to 1.5 mm and a depth of narrow grooves approximately 90 to 110% of the depth of the main grooves. The narrow groove has an extended portion radially inward from the end of the narrow grooves to reduce cracking at the radial inner end. Spent the rib has a surface with a recess radially inward of the tire, limited radial ledge relatively homogeneous extensions of the side profile. The ledge has a value in the range from approximately 0.5 to 1.5 mm, which reduces the wear of the tread of the tires of the truck.

Description of drawings

Next will be described the structure developed for the implementation of the present invention, along with other design features.

The invention will be easier to understand after reading the following description and by reference to the accompanying drawings, made a part hereof, illustrate examples of the invention and where:

On Phi is according to the prior art;

In Fig.2 fragmentarily shows the top view of the tire according to the invention, showing the new terrain tread;

In Fig.3 shows an enlarged segment of the bus according to the prior art in Fig.1, showing details of the tread;

In Fig.4 shows an enlarged segment of the tire according to the invention, showing details of the tread;

In Fig.5 shows a radial cross section of the tire of Fig.1 according to the prior art, obtained on the part of the cutting edge along the line 5-5;

In Fig.6 shows a radial cross section of a tire according to the invention, obtained on the part of the cutting edge along the line 6-6 of Fig.2;

In Fig.7A presents a radial cross section of the tire or according to the prior art or according to the invention, obtained from the inner main grooves along the line a-a of Fig.1, 2, 3 or 4;

In Fig.7B presents a radial cross section of a tire according to the prior art or according to the invention, obtained from the inner main grooves on line In In Fig.1, 2, 3 or 4;

In Fig.7C presents an annular cross-section of the crown portion of the tire tread according to the invention, obtained in parallel and near the edge with a groove along the line C-C of Fig.2;

In Fig. 8 shows the radial 8-8 of Fig.2;

In Fig.9 presents a graph showing the distribution of the average longitudinal stress as a function of the length of contact of the first inner edges of the tires according to the invention and bus type, obtained when using the model, finite element, and the edge is under load in contact with a support surface;

In Fig. 10 presents a graph showing the distribution of the average shear stress as a function of the length of contact of the first inner edges of the tires according to the invention and bus type, obtained when using the model, finite element, and the edge is under load in contact with a support surface;

In Fig. 11 presents a graph showing the distribution of average normal stress as a function of the length of contact of the first inner edges of the tires according to the invention and bus type, obtained when using the model, finite element, and the edge is under load in contact with a support surface;

In Fig. 12 presents a graph showing the distribution of the average longitudinal stress as a function of the length of contact of the first inner edges of the tyres under the image is agrusti in contact with the supporting surface;

In Fig.13 presents a graph showing the distribution of the average shear stress as a function of the length of contact of the first inner edges of the tires according to the invention and bus type, obtained by actual test bus, and a rib is under load in contact with a support surface; and

In Fig.14 presents a graph showing the distribution of average normal stress as a function of the length of contact of the first inner edges of the tires according to the invention and bus type, obtained by actual test bus, and a rib is under load in contact with the supporting surface.

Description of the preferred variants of the invention

Hereinafter the invention will be described in more detail with further reference to the drawings. Bus conventional type or the tire 10 according to the prior art shown in Fig.1, 3 and 5, has a narrow edge edge limited edge grooves 28 at the lateral edges of the main tread. Narrow edge ribs are recessed relative to the main part of the tread, having ribs 12, 14 and 16, being limited by the grooves 22 and 24. During normal operation of the vehicle narrow ribs remain recessed within the period of services the Torah bus is located between the side edges 15. Narrow ribs can settle on the first internal rib in the process of maneuvering the vehicle to skid the first internal ribs. These narrow edging edges, typical of the prior art have a bonding effect with the first internal ribs, which ensures the preservation of the flat lateral or transverse profile of the tread surface of the tire. Narrow edging edges are worn mostly with the same speed, while the main part of the tread keeps stable radial distance of the recesses or ledges, relative to the main profile of the tread. However, the stable ledge size is relatively large and the voltage at the first internal ribs 12 can remain relatively high, especially after the tire has been in operation for a relatively long period of time. The present invention solves the problem of the limitations of these stresses, and it may persist throughout the life of a tyre to improve from the point of view of the beginning of the non-uniform wear.

Bus 30 according to the invention has spent edging ribs 38, which are relatively wide, as shown in Fig.2, 4 and 6. Reshade who meet the amount in the range of from about 2.5 to 12% of the base width TW of the tread (Fig.8). The preferred size range From approximately 5 to 10%. The lateral width of spent ribs typical bus heavy truck is approximately 5 to 20 mm in the scope of protection of the invention. The preferred width From the surface of the sacrificial ribs is in the range from approximately 10 to 17 mm Lateral width consumable ribs may vary from about 2.5 to 12% of the basic width of the tire tread. The lateral width of the narrow edge of the groove is of such a size as 1.5 mm in the scope of protection of the invention. The width of the narrow edge of the groove 48 has a preferred value of width G, less than or equal to approximately 1.0 mm In particular, the small values of the width G is from about 0.2 to 0.4 mm give the best improvement from the point of view of non-uniform wear. Used in practice, the magnitude of the width of the narrow edge of the grooves are in the range of approximately 0.2 to 1.0 mm, However it is necessary to adjust the appearance of cracks in the grooves.

The main part of the tread is defined by edges 32, 34 and 36, reduced annular grooves 42 and 44. Spent the rib has a minimum initial deepening (or radial ledge) radial internal Source deepening of N consumed ribs radially inside of the main part of the tread of a new tire of the truck is preferably in the range from approximately 1.0 to 1.5 mm The deepening of the outer surface of the consumable ribs from the profile line may vary within the scope of protection of the invention. The upper surface of the sacrificial ribs can have a value of S angle of inclination relative to the line profile of less than approximately 15 degrees. The recess preferably has a constant distance H from the line profile P, constituting the angle of zero degrees (Fig.6). Zero tilt angle allows consumable edge to perceive a large part of the total load on the tire (see Fig.6).

Normal full width of contact of the tire tread is located between the side edges 35. The width TW of the tread is defined as the lateral distance between the outer edges of the first internal ribs 32 (Fig.8). Tread width is a main part side, perceiving the load of the width of the tire tread. The ability of spent ribs to secure the load on the bus critically affects the life of the tire by reducing the magnitude of non-uniform wear of the tire tread.

The shape of the edge of the field bus 30 is better characterized by a shape factor, which binds the width of the surface, the slope M of the edge 40 and a depth D-H narrow edge of the groove 48 (Fig the internal groove 48 to the intersection with the outer surface 40 of the edge bus in first point 38b spent ribs 38. The lateral distance To be determined from the axis of the outer side wall 48b narrow edge of the groove to the first point. The second point 38A spent ribs is determined by the axis of the outer edges of the top surface 39 of spent ribs. Inclined straight line 40A drawn between the first point 38b and the second point 38A. The ratio of the axial distance of the slope line 40A to the radial distance of the line slope is defined as the slope of M. Thus, the slope M is approximately equal to (K-C)/(D-H). Usually the amount of shear for tires according to the invention is in the range from approximately 0.1 to 0.3.

The shape factor SF is defined as SF=M(D-H)/C, along with the narrow width of the groove G is a good indicator of the ability to form edges to protect the first inner edge. The depth D of the narrow edge of the groove is preferably approximately 90 to 110% of the depth D' of the main grooves (Fig.8). The form factor is such that the load on the tire was perceived mostly consumed by an edge to reduce the voltage at the first internal edge. Typically, the shape factor SF for tires manufactured according to the invention, has a value of approximately from 0.05 to 0.50, while the typical bus in accordance with Ref the capacity factor of the form is about 0.2. The coefficients of the form of spent ribs according to the invention are such that the load on the tire was perceived mostly consumed by an edge to reduce the voltage at the first internal rib 32. In addition, the width of the narrow edge of the groove 48 is such that the spent ribs 38 in contact with the first internal ribs 32 in the process of direct move forward with the subsequent perception of normal and lateral loads on the bus.

Bus 30 according to the invention, shown in more detail in Fig.4 and 6, has spent ribs 38, which are located on the sides of the width TW of the main area of the tread. The goal is to protect and the protection of the main area of the tread from the non-uniform wear and its development during the life of the tire. As a result, the edge of the ribs, which are spent to take most of the load on the bus for longer tire life, provide this protection. Edge edge be spent because they are more effective over a longer period of time during the service life of the tire. They are worn together with the width TW of the tread, and the depth H of the recesses or radial urocissa direct the vehicle is moving forward.

Edge spent ribs 38 are designed so as to relieve the main ribs of the tire tread from high voltages, especially in the process of direct forward movement. In addition, consumable ribs according to the invention have a geometric shape, which allows them to maintain their efficiency over a longer tire life. This is achieved through the main design features of spent ribs. The first design feature is the width of consumable ribs, which is relatively large in comparison with the main majority of previous technical solutions. The second design feature is the use of a slight deepening of N to the upper surface of the ledge spent ribs in a direction radially inward from the line R side profile of the main area of the tread (Fig. 6). These two structural features are the unique choice for tires of the present invention. The third design feature that can be used is the slope of the M portion of the side wall of the sacrificial ribs. The fourth design feature of the present invention is a narrow edging groove 48. This groove is in the gap is such that so spent the rib 38 has come in contact with the first inner edge 32 when the tread surface applied load. The depth of the narrow edge grooves of approximately 90 to 110% of the depth of the main grooves, allows consumable edge 38 to act independently from the first internal ribs 32 during the service life of the tire. A relatively small width G of the gap is less than or equal to approximately 1.5 mm, can cause stress concentration at a bottom narrow edge of the groove. Stress concentration may cause cracks in the tread, which may lead to the need to remove the tire before a problem will arise wear. To reduce the stress concentration at a bottom narrow edge of the grooves at a bottom inner surface of the narrow edging grooves may be provided a minimum radius of approximately 1.0 mm

The following variant of the present invention includes the introduction of tubules on the side edges of each of the annular ribs. This option combined with the design features of the consumable ribs and a narrow edging grooves to protect the tires from the beginning of non-uniform wear and its development. The channel 45 is provided for the outer cronk trany for the main ribs 32, 34 and 36 adjacent to the main grooves 42 and 44. The channel 45 and 46 are angled L with respect to the lateral line 32A. As shown, the tubules are in the direction of the grooves in accordance with the rotation of the tire. Side angle L has a value in the range from approximately 15 to 35 degrees. The channel 45 and 46 can have the angle of the V located with an inclination to the rear side relative to the normal N to the surface of the tread, as shown in Fig.7C. The angle of the V located at an angle to the normal, has a value in the range from approximately 0 to 20 degrees. The preferred angle is approximately 5 to 15 degrees.

As part of this option with the edge of the channel, as shown in Fig. 2 and 4, the preferred tire 30 has the same channel on all edges of the main ribs 32, 34 and 36. However, according to the invention requires the presence of the other channel on one side compared to the other edges. Internal annular grooves 42 and 44 in the preferred embodiment of the invention must be the same. Preferred details of the internal grooves shown in cross section in Fig.7A and 7B. The bottom of the grooves may have a sinusoidal shape and be located koltseobrazno around bus is okowa side of the grooves has a variable angle relative to the annular surface CF the main grooves. Preferably the channel has edges 46a, 46b of the corresponding edges that are parallel to the annular plane of the groove.

Cross section of a tire according to the invention shown in Fig.8. Bus 30 is symmetrical with respect to passing through its mid-plane M of the tire, so that the radial cross section can be shown only half of the tyre. The tire rotates about the axis of rotation AR of the wheel of the car. The bus contains ribs and grooves of the tread T of the tire, as described above. For tires according to the invention for the protector, you can use standard rubber materials. The main width TW of the tread of the main area of the contact surface of the tire provides protection from non-uniform wear by using consumable ribs 38 and a narrow edging grooves 48, as described above. Tape seal 60 below the tread is to illustrate the tires of several tapes 62, 64 and 66. Tapes have, as a rule, hardening of parallel metal twisted yarns intersecting at an acute angle at each layer of concrete adjacent layer. The frame 70 is held below the ribbon from side to side 90 and surrounds the core 92 of the edge. The frame has at least one frame layer, and preferably several SL is technicaly sides. The surface 50 of the side walls having a rubber portion 52 of the side walls, is located between each side and the corresponding side edge of the tape seal 60. The inner layer 80 of rubber material helps to keep the wheel in the inflated condition.

The decrease in voltage at the first internal ribs 32 of the preferred option bus 30 according to the invention shown in the graphs of Fig.9, 10 and 11. The combined effect of tread design and materials can be modeled and analyzed using a high-speed computer. The results for stress Sx in the longitudinal direction X by the first inner edge is shown in Fig.9. Longitudinal stresses Sx bus 10 according to the prior art shown in curve 110, and for tires according to the invention is shown as curve 130. Voltage is shown on the graph as the value of the average voltage across the width of the ribs as a function of the annular distance along the length of contact of the first internal ribs. Edge is in contact with the supporting surface, and measurements are made relative to the center of the contact length (zero point). These longitudinal stresses show that the tire according to the prior art and the bus saigusa force, which are elevated for tires according to the invention.

The results for stress Sy in the transverse direction Y on the first inner edge is shown in Fig.10. Cross-Sy voltage for bus 10 according to the prior art shown as curve 210, and for tires according to the invention is shown as curve 230. Voltage is shown on the graph as the value of the average voltage across the width of the ribs as a function of distance along the length of contact of the first internal ribs. Edge is in contact with the supporting surface, and measurements are made relative to the center of the contact length (zero point). These transverse stresses show that the tire according to the invention has a significantly higher cross-Sy voltage than the tire according to the prior art.

The results for stresses Sz in the perpendicular Z-direction on the first inner edge is shown in Fig.11. Normal stress Sz for bus 10 according to the prior art shown in curve 310, and for tires according to the invention is shown as curve 330. Voltage is shown on the graph as the value of the average voltage across the ribs as a function of distance along the length of contact of the first internal ribs. Edge nahoditsya). These normal stresses show that the bus 30 according to the invention has a significantly smaller normal stress Sz than the tire 10 according to the prior art.

It was calculated that the combination of stress for the tires according to the invention should be significantly less. For additional confirmation of the advantages of the tire according to the invention compared to the bus according to the prior art and other previous technical solutions can be compared to the real stress values obtained in the tests, with values of the estimated voltage. The results of real tests for wear also described below in the section of experimental results, to further confirm the calculated results in Fig.9, 10 and 11, showing the advantages realized in the present invention.

The benefit received in relation to non-uniform wear, usually implemented using a combination of several individual benefits. Increase the width of the consumable ribs and the introduction of deepening N. for this purpose, the ribs provide longitudinal stresses Sx, best for first internal ribs 32. In addition, the decrease in the recess H in comparison with used tire 10 according to the STW due to longer tire life. The decrease of the distance G of the gap between the sacrificial rib 38 and the first inner edge 32 provides contact one edge to another, which contributes to support the first inner edge and the decrease in the cross-Sy voltage on the first inner edge. Because consumed edge and the first inner edge mostly snapped together when the load, eliminating the influence of the edges of the ribs, and normal stress Sz on the first inner edge become more favourable. Joint closure, generally provides higher rigidity spent ribs and increases the resistance to high shock loads and abrasive effects of the environment compared to the bus according to the prior art. Spent the ribs of the tire tread according to the invention the initial wear out at a slower speed than the narrow edges of the tire according to the prior art, because of their higher radial structure (reduced radial ledge), which will allow you spent the edges to keep the advantage at the expense of longer tire life.

The results of experiments

Bus conventional type or a corresponding prior art has experienced along with the advantages which I have. Tires were heavy tyres truck with the same size 275/80 R22,5, load range and use, as defined by the Standard 1997 Yearbook of the Tire and Rim Assotiation, Inc. of Copley, Ohio.

Had two tires of conventional type and two of the tires according to the invention, which were tested on a driving axis of the two identical working on long-distance transport vehicles and exchanged between vehicles, to compensate for any differences in the suspension systems of vehicles. The following results illustrate the benefits of the tire according to the invention.

The tire of conventional type and tire according to the invention are mostly the same size except for the geometry of the edge ribs and a narrow edging grooves (see Fig. 6). Table I shows the geometric parameters of the tire of conventional type and tires according to the invention. The depth of the narrow edge of the grooves was made equal to the depth of the grooves on the main tread width (approximately 15 mm). Tubules were provided with a lateral outer edge of the first internal ribs, with regular bus type had a lateral and oblique angles of zero, and the tire in accordance with the present invention had the bone side is s for bus conventional type was 0.81 and the tire according to the invention had the shape factor is 0.22.

Test tires continued up until the wear on the tires of conventional type has not reached the level when the tires had to be discontinued. Right-side tires left on the right side of each car, when I made the exchange of the tire between the cars. For the period of tests made several exchanges.

Table II shows the relative amount of wear for each edge of the right tire, while table III shows the relative wear for each edge of the left tire. The amount of wear shown in the outer part of the first inner edges of the tire of conventional type. The last column shows the relative magnitude of the distance travelled to the time of termination of use of the bus.

The test results on the relative wear in tables II and III show significantly more homogeneous character of wear in relation to the edges of the tires according to the invention. For right hand drive car tires maximum wear was on the first inner edge to the inner side of the tire relative to the vehicle. They were both withdrawn from use at the same distance travelled, however, the wear on the bus semaly wear of the tire of conventional type was on the first inner edge to the outer side of the tire relative to the vehicle. For the left tire according to the invention, the maximum wear was on the inside of the tire as the previous. The left tire according to the invention has been withdrawn from use in distance travelled 1.5/1,0100= 50% longer than the distance traveled by the tire type, and tire wear according to the invention was only 0.7/1,0100= 70% of the wear of the tire of conventional type. These results demonstrate the effective benefits of the tires according to the invention in respect of wear and tear.

Were made to measure the actual voltage at test tyres for comparison of stresses calculated using the model by finite element (FEM) and a high-speed computer. The results for the stresses obtained using computer models were described and discussed previously, as shown in the graphs of Fig.9, 10 and 11. New graphs showing the relative maximum voltage at the first internal ribs obtained from the results of real tests is shown in Fig.12, 13 and 14.

The results of real tests stress Sx in the longitudinal direction X by the first inner edge is shown in Fig.12. Longitudinal stresses Sx bus conventional type shown in curve 112, and for tires according to image the first and the inner edge shown in Fig. 13. Cross-Sy voltage for bus conventional type shown in curve 212, and for tires according to the invention is shown as curve 232. The results of real tests stress Sz in the perpendicular Z-direction on the first inner edge is shown in Fig.14. Normal stress Sz for bus conventional type shown in curve 312, and for tires according to the invention is shown as curve 332. The General conclusions made previously regarding the voltages received at the computer method FEM, broadly comparable with the stresses obtained from the results of real tests. Indeed, the graphics are exactly the same. Table IV shows the comparison between the relative maximum voltage at the first internal ribs for regular bus type bus according to the invention for stresses Sx, Sy, and Sz in each case.

In all cases, the maximum stresses were smaller on the bus according to the invention than on the bus conventional type. The same General decrease in the values of Sx, Sy and Sz are marked for tires according to the invention compared with the tire of conventional type for both comparisons. Normal stress Sz significantly affect the regulation of wear on the first inner edges of the tire. Yu to reduce wear and prolong the useful life of the tires.

Although the preferred variants of the present invention have been described using specific terms, such description is given solely for illustrative purpose, and it goes without saying that modifications and variations without deviating from the idea and scope of protection defined by the following claims.

1. Protector for heavily loaded bus with the frame between spaced at some distance from each other cores of the sides of the tires, the Central region of the crown of the tire on the outside of the frame with tape seal to support the tread in contact with the supporting surface, which has several major ribs formed by the grooves of the tread, mainly koltseobrazno around the outer surface of the tire, which form the basic width of the tread to ensure contact with the supporting surface; consumable edge to ensure contact with a support surface on each side of the main width of the tread, and spent the rib is separated from the main ribs narrow edging groove having a width of not more than about 1.5 mm; and spent the rib has a width of poverhnosti to the transverse profile of the main ribs due to the radial ledge, the ledge has a value of approximately 0.5 - 2.0 mm in a new tire; and spent the rib has a shape factor SF is defined as the product of depth D-H narrow edge of the groove and the slope M of the outer edge of spent ribs, divided by the width of the side surface, expressed as a

SF= (D-H)M/S,

having a value of about 0.05 - 0.50 to where the bus load is perceived mostly consumed by an edge to reduce the voltage by at least the first inner edge of the main ribs, which results in reduction of uneven wear on the tread.

2. Protector under item 1, characterized in that the consumable edge surface has a width approximately 5 to 10% of the base width tread.

3. Protector under item 1, characterized in that the sacrificial rib has a width surface approximately 10 - 17 mm

4. Protector under item 1, characterized in that the radial ledge relative to the transverse profile has a value of approximately 1.0 to 1.5 mm

5. Protector under item 1, characterized in that the width of the narrow edge of the groove has a value of about 0.2 - 1.5 mm to ensure contact consumable ribs with the first internal ribs in the t a depth of about 90 - 110% of the depth of the main grooves of the tread, and the depth of the groove measured in the radial direction from the main surface of the tread ribs.

7. Protector under item 6, characterized in that the narrow edge of the groove has a smooth inner surface which includes an extended portion with a radius in the deepest zone of the narrow edge of the groove, and an extended part of the smooth inner surface has a radius of at least 1,0 mm

8. Protector under item 1, characterized in that each of the narrow edge of the grooves has an expanded portion at the radial inner end of the narrow groove, and the extended portion has a smooth inner curved surface with a radius of at least 1.0 mm to reduce the formation of cracks at the above-mentioned radial inner end.

9. Protector under item 1, characterized in that the width of the grooves is not more than approximately 1.0 mm

10. Protector under item 8, characterized in that the width of the grooves has a value of approximately 0.2 to 1.0 mm

11. Protector under item 8, characterized in that the width of the grooves has a value of approximately 0.2 to 0.4 mm

12. Protector under item 1, characterized in that the main ribs contain canals and in accordance with the rotation of the tire under a lateral angle of about 15 35ofrom the line perpendicular to the narrow edge of the grooves, and having an angle with the inclination of the back relative to the perpendicular to the surface of the tread approximately 0 - 20o.

13. Protector under item 1, characterized in that the shape factor SF spent ribs has a value of approximately 0.2.

14. Protector for tires of heavy truck on the drive axis of the vehicle used for long-term traffic, which reduce wear contains the main part of the tread having at least four annular ribs including first internal ribs across the width of the tread separated main grooves having a depth of the main grooves encircling the outer surface of the tire between the side edges of the main width of the tread, and the tread surface in its main part defines the profile of the main tread; spent a couple of ribs, one at each lateral edge of the tread separated from the first internal ribs narrow edging groove, adjacent to each one of the mentioned side edges, and each spent an edge has a lateral width of the surface approximately 10 - 17 mm; narrow CROs is lubini main grooves to ensure contact consumable ribs with the first internal ribs in the process of direct forward movement under load bus, this narrow groove has an expanded portion at the radial inner end of the narrow grooves to reduce the formation of cracks on the radial inner end; and spent the rib has an outer surface, depth radially inward of the tire, limited radial ledge relatively homogeneous projection side profile, the ledge has a value of approximately 0.5 to 1.5 mm, whereby the load on the tire of the truck perceived, for the most part, spent edges to reduce stress at least at the first internal ribs, which reduces tread wear tires of the truck.

15. The tread on p. 14, wherein the extended portion of the narrow edge of the groove has a smooth inner curved surface with a radius of at least 1,0 mm

16. The tread on p. 14, characterized in that the lateral width of the narrow edge of the grooves is not more than approximately 1.0 mm

17. The tread on p. 14, wherein each of the first internal ribs contains tubules along the axis of the outer edge, an angled approximately 15 - 35ofrom a line perpendicular to the bonds of the tread approximately 5 - 15o.

18. The tread on p. 14, wherein the sacrificial rib has a shape factor SF is defined as the product of depth D-H narrow edge of the groove and the slope M of the outer edge of spent ribs, divided by the width of the side surface, expressed as a

SF= (D-H)(M/S,

having a value of approximately 0.2.

19. The tread on p. 15, characterized in that the surface area consumed edge represents an inclined radially inward surface relative to the side profile, having a radial ledge at the narrow edge of the groove and the angle less than approximately 15o.

20. The tyre tread under item 19, characterized in that the angle is zero degrees, providing a constant radial ledge relative to the side profile.

 

Same patents:

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: car control device comprise steering wheel (3) coupled with first element (4) that supports second element (13) to drive gears (16) running on axles (17, 18) to transfer motion to turn controlled front wheel (7). Second element (13) is coupled with LH and RG gears (16) running on LH and RD axles (17, 18). One ends of the latter are bent off at 90° with respect to axles and have sliding contact with first element (4). Other ends of axles (17, 18) are coupled with casings (19, 20) furnished with rolling bearings (21, 22) fitted on axle (23) supporting controlled front drive wheel. Tire of aforesaid wheel can have spherical central part (11), while its edges can have support triangular ledges (12) to provide for car stability in turning to the right or left. Proposed device can be used in three-wheeled car with one controlled front wheel (7), two rear driven wheels and streamline body.

EFFECT: higher maneuverability and stability on turns.

2 cl, 3 dwg

Pneumatic tire // 2388617

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to automotive industry. Central groove (14) directed along circumference is arranged on equator (CL) of tread (12). Note here that first transverse grooves (20) are arranged on both sides of aforesaid central groove that are formed with smaller angle with respect to tire axial direction compared with first transverse groove (20).One end of every first transverse groove (20) and one end of every second transverse groove (22) are connected with shoulder zone groove (18) directed along circumference, while shoulder zone transverse grooves (23) are arranged on outer side of every shoulder zone groove (18) directed along circumference. Every shoulder zone transverse groove (23) runs from jointing part towards tread edge (12E) and is formed at smaller angle to tire axial direction than that of first transverse groove (20).

EFFECT: higher adhesion of tire.

7 cl, 6 dwg

Pneumatic tire // 2436685

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive tire to be used on ice- or snow-covered roads. Proposed tire comprises tread 2 including ring shoulder grooves 6c running nearby edges E of contact with soil, and transverse shoulder grooves 7d arranged between said groove 6c and said edge E. Said tire shoulder features such shape that protector outer surface 2a and tire side surface 14 located radially inward and axially outward from aforesaid edge E intersect to form an edge or and angle wherein each shoulder block B4 is furnished with lengthwise lamella 11 in zone running axially inward from said edge E for 2 mm or more, and for 10 mm or less. Tire side surface 14 is furnished with recess 15 located in lengthwise direction in at least a part of raised region produced by the ledge of lengthwise lamella 11 on said surface 14, while radially recessed edge of recess 15 is located in radial position corresponding to zone making 505 to 100% of the depth of lengthwise lamella 11.

EFFECT: preventing wobble, reduced wear.

5 cl, 7 dwg

Pneumatic tire // 2456168

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry. Tire carcass ply is laid between two double beads. Breaker ply is recessed on carcass ply outer peripheral side in tread section. Tread is provided with multiple main grooves extending along tire circle. Maximum depth of each main groove varies from 8.5 mm to 15.0 mm. Relationship between height of actual tire profile SH and that of profile SHstd calculated from tire size is set to 0.97≤α≤0.99. Relationship between contact areas makes 65-70% under conditions of measurements whereat air pressure makes 200 kPa and load making 50% of bearing capacity at said air pressure. Mean contact pressure P varies from 300 kPa to 400 kPa.

EFFECT: longer life, efficient braking on moistened surface.

13 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

Auto tire // 2531534

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, namely, to tread pattern. Tire 1 comprises: circular groove 12 made in crown zone, tread runner 22 divided by said groove 12 and crosswise grooves made at tread runner. Crosswise grooves comprises first crosswise groove 32 dividing the tread runner into several blocks and second crosswise groove 51 dividing the block 42 separated by first crosswise groove into block first and second parts 61, 62. Circular groove part depth in contact with second block is smaller than that of circular groove in contact with first block.

EFFECT: higher stiffness, better tread drainage.

5 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

Tyre // 2561656

FIELD: motor vehicle industry.

SUBSTANCE: tyre has section of the tread for contact with the road surface. In the tread there is section of the side groove in the direction crossing with the circumferential direction of the tyre, and contact section divided by the section of the side groove. The contact section includes: surface of contact with soil to contact with the road surface; side surface made in the direction of the tread width on the external side of the contact section; the side groove surface creating the groove wall of the side groove section, made in the circumferential direction of the tyre at one end of the contact section; and narrowing surface that crosses the surface of contact with soil, side surface and the side groove surface at corner section, formed by the surface of contact with soil, side surface and side groove surface.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat radiation without losses of the treat strength and its wear resistance.

6 cl, 14 dwg, 1 tbl

Air tire // 2573190

FIELD: motor car construction.

SUBSTANCE: tire (1) has the groove on bottom (50B2) with multiple ledges (500) made thereat. Said ledges (500) extend from one sidewall (50B1) to the opposite sidewall (50B3) of the groove. Ledges (500) are located in the groove at preset intervals P complying with the condition 1.25≤P≤10L, L is the length of grooves (500) along the groove. Lateral grooves (60) made in the tread side strip extend from the groove to the tread side strip (9). Outlets (60a) are made in the tread side strip. Side grooves extend at the angle to direction twd over the tire (1) tread width on projection on the tire tread surface that makes 15-60 degrees.

EFFECT: ruled out tire overheating.

7 cl, 20 dwg, 1 tbl

Pneumatic tire // 2577439

FIELD: motor car construction.

SUBSTANCE: claimed tire comprises the tread crown and rolling surface with crosswise grooves made therein. Tread side strip extends from the tread edge radially inside the tire and has the surface with ledge located on one side in the tire circumference direction and the holes for crosswise grove opening to the tread side strip. Said ledge has radially outer end face spaced from the tire centre in radial direction more than radially inner end face of crosswise groove opening to the tread side strip. Note here that the outer outline of said ledge in cutaway view in the direction over the tire width extends radially inward and has the flexure points.

EFFECT: heat dissipation in the area of crosswise groove, reduced temperature on the crown area at loaded tire rolling.

13 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl

Tyre // 2584637

FIELD: motor industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry. Tire (1) has multiple projections (500) at groove (50B2) bottom. Projections (500) pass from one sidewall (50B1) to other side wall (50B3), wherein side walls form groove. Projections (500) are located in groove with preset intervals. Lateral grooves (60) pass from side of tread (9) and have outputs (60a) into it. Air supply facilities (100R) supply air in lateral (60) grooves.

EFFECT: reduced tire heating.

6 cl, 20 dwg

Pneumatic tyre // 2601084

FIELD: motor vehicle industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, in particular, to all-season tires. Pneumatic tire with shoulder blocks (26) has width (W) of any of two types, measured along tire circumference. Tread contact with soil boundary (T) cross section of smaller width (W) shoulder blocks (26) in plane of which lies tire axial center, has shape of rectangular section (34) formed by curve with curvature radius (R) of 10 mm or less, or shape of rectangular section (34) coming down on cone along straight line with length of 10 mm or less. Tread contact with soil boundary (T) cross section of larger width (W) shoulder blocks (26) in plane of which lies tire axial center, has shape of rounded section (38), formed by curve, having radius of curvature (R) from 30 mm to 60 mm in both cases, inclusive. Tread and soil contact boundary (T) of rectangular shape (34) is located closer to side by outer tire width, than rounded (38) tread and soil contact boundary (T).

EFFECT: improving tire noiseless with preservation of operating characteristics on snow.

6 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

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