Vysocany push-pull amplifier and a device for separating the signal into two half-wave

 

(57) Abstract:

The group of inventions can be used, for example, as a high power amplifier audio frequency. The amplifier (Fig.1) makes no switching distortion due to the introduction of the splitter polarity (2) separating the linear signal into two half-wave fed to the inputs of the shoulders of the amplifier. Enhanced operating in linear mode, shoulders (3, 5) and (4, 6) of the amplifier, they are summarized on the load (3), thereby recovering the original signal form. In the booster the narrowband output stage. This reduced the high-frequency harmonics in the output signal of the amplifier and its current, led to self-adapt its parameters to the load when the change within wide limits its capacitive component. Proposed precision splitter polarity (Fig.2) provides low level of harmonics in the power consumed by the amplifier current. Technical result: reduced harmonic, and transient intermodulation distortion, improving the electromagnetic compatibility of the amplifier. 2 s and 5 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

Group of inventions relates to electrical engineering and can be used as vysokotochnoye or automatic control systems.

Known push-pull amplifier, which consists of the input stage, performed at the operational amplifier (op-amp), and output link, consisting of two arms [1] . Each shoulder output link contains a cascade of pre-amplification and output stage. Cascades pre-amplification work in linear mode and will coordinate inputs output stages with the output of the input stage of the amplifier at a constant level, and output stages connected to the load, i.e., the shoulders are push-pull output amplifier stage. The parameters of the preliminary stages shoulders chosen so that at zero voltage at the input of the amplifier through his shoulders output of the two-stage cascade runs small through current Io. This provides the mode class AB. The shoulders of the output stage of the amplifier is enabled by the gain circuit voltage. They covered deep local negative feedback, which improves the linearity of the dependence of the output currents of the shoulders on the applied to the voltage inputs and the accuracy of the summation of these currents on the load.

The output stage of prototype parts supplied to its input line signal into two half. This function is executed them with errors that occur in the s line signal into two half-wave causes crossover distortion, reaching 10% at scale output current of about o (in the range of output currents from minus o to plus a both shoulders of the output stage is active, the gain twice); translation of the shoulders of the output stage from the active state to the passive occurs by locking within them the power transistors, which causes a switching of the distortions caused by the inertia of these transistors.

The lower level of insertion output stage distortion is achieved in the prototype scope cascade two loops negative feedback (EP). The coverage of the output link loop feedback leads to the expansion of its bandwidth to units-tens of megahertz, while the narrow-band amplifier stage forming the tilt of its amplitude-frequency characteristics (AFC) loop total OOS in the area of the single frequency loop gain (fc) is the input stage. Make weekends broadband link amplifier range harmonic distortion as broadband. Easily reach the output of the amplifier and high-frequency components of distortion of its input stage.

Since the depth of the overall environment at high frequencies falls, amplit is its inverting input in the form of a signal OOS, is comparable, and often superior to the amplitude of the main signal. They shift the operating point of the input of the cascade of nonlinear plot (direct transmission characteristic of the input stage is a differential input linear only in the vicinity of the operating point with zero voltage), which is the reason for making the amplifier high level of intermodulation distortion.

Output broadband cascade prototype mode with current cutoff. The high-frequency harmonics in the consumption of the current great. In the form of interference they can affect the input circuit of the amplifier and other sensitive components, in which it is used. As in the first case, the induced harmonics increase the level introduced by the amplifier intermodulation distortion and, in addition, to deteriorate the electromagnetic compatibility.

Connect to a broadband output stage prototype load with a large capacitive component leads to a significant narrowing of its bandwidth, which causes deterioration of the transient response of the amplifier, or his arousal. Because all the differences of the output signal of the amplifier from its wholegrain intermodulation distortion. Maintaining the stability of the amplifier is achieved by narrowing the bandwidth of the input cascade that leads to proportional to the narrowing of the bandwidth of the entire amplifier and to increase such distortions.

Known technical solutions to reduce insertion of push-pull amplifier switching distortion. They are based on preventing the locking of the power transistors in the passive state the shoulder of the output stage. This is achieved by introducing additional feedback amplifier [2-4] , which complicate reduce stability, require careful balancing of the shoulders [5]. In such amplifiers are not fully removed, other types of switching distortion, high frequency harmonics in the consumption of current.

A device containing four resistors, two diodes and OS inverting input through a first resistor connected to the input of the device and through the third and fourth resistors - with its first and second outputs, respectively, the non-inverting input through a second resistor is connected to GND, and the output from the anode of the first and cathode of the second diode and the cathode of the first and the anode of the second diode with the first and the second is of negative polarity is transmitted to the first output device with a transfer ratio minus R3/R1, at its second output remains zero volts and the input voltage of positive polarity on the second output device with a transfer ratio minus R4/R1, with the first output remains zero voltage. Thus, the device splits an input signal into two half-wave, i.e., is a variant of the splitter polarity (RP). SPM - a device that divides the input signal by a nonlinear transformation on the two output signals mainly on the basis of its polarity.

The prototype has drawbacks:

1. When changing the polarity of the input voltage in the output signals are error caused by the presence of a time interval T during which the output voltage at its both outputs is identical to the input, since both diode closed loop feedback is switched off. The size of this interval is determined by the ratio

T=2U/V,

where Ua is the voltage drop across the open diode;

V - maximum slew rate of the output voltage of the shelter.

2. Output impedance in passive state shoulders high and equal to the resistance of the resistors R3 and R4, respectively.

3. Diagram of the device involves submitting WMO is="ptx2">

The group of inventions aimed at removing make push-pull amplifier switching distortion, reducing the level of harmonics in its current, ensuring its sustainable operation with variable over a wide range capacitive component.

In the exercise of invention is achieved reduction introduced by the amplifier is nonlinear, and transient intermodulation distortion by automatically adapting its parameters to the load variable within wide limits capacitive component, improves electromagnetic compatibility, you can create high-precision high-speed amplifier.

Troubleshooting introduced by the switching amplifier distortion is achieved by the transfer function of the linear separation of the signal into two half-wave special device. To do this push-pull amplifier, containing in each arm cascade preamplifier, the output of which is connected to the input of the shoulder of the output stage of the amplifier, put the splitter polarity (RP) whose outputs are connected to respective inputs of the stages of pre-amplification, the signals which are shifted cascades preamplifier Phnom, and negative half-waves of the input signal of the amplifier.

Additional reduction of high-frequency harmonics in the output signal covered by the total loop feedback amplifier and its current, as well as the creation of conditions to improve the performance of the amplifier is achieved by the fact that its output stage is made of narrow, forming the slope of the frequency response in the area of the single frequency loop gain, and the bandwidth of the output stage can be narrowed by connecting the capacitive load, and a stable operation of the amplifier to the load variable within wide limits capacitive component is achieved by the fact that cascades preamplifier and RP are not lifting the quartermaster lower frequency single loop gain.

In the group of inventions proposed SPM, which eliminated the inherent prototype disadvantages. For this device contains four resistors, two diodes, and an operational amplifier, the inverting input through a first resistor connected to the input of the device and through the third and fourth resistors - with its first and second outputs, respectively, the non-inverting input through a second resistor is connected to GND, and the output from the anode of the first and katada respectively, entered the third diode, the cathode of which is connected to the cathode of the first diode and through the first dakotabilities element with a source of negative voltage, and the fourth diode, the anode of which is connected to the anode of the second diode and a second dakotabilities element with a source of positive voltage, and the anode of the third and the cathode of the fourth diode are connected to the common wire.

Giving output signals RP smoother shape, reducing the level of harmonics in the power consumed by the amplifier current is achieved by the fact that the cathode of the third and to the anode of the fourth diode is connected to the divider of the three series-connected resistors, and the output device is not connected with the middle of them. For this purpose, it is applied first and second diodes with a lower total voltage drop than the third and fourth diodes.

Attached to a group of inventions drawings shown: in Fig.1 diagram of push-pull amplifier with SPM, Fig.2 diagram of the inventive SPM, Fig.3 is a diagram of a resistive divider, providing a weak cross-sectional relationship between the output signal RP of Fig.4 is a plot of the current flowing through the shoulders of the output stage operating in mode 2 (strigo is 4 (dashed line - in mode 3).

In Fig.1 is a diagram of one of the variants of push-pull amplifier with RP. Source 1 signal connected to the input of RP 2. Outputs RP 2 are connected to the inputs of stages 3 and 4 preamplifier. The outputs of stages 3 and 4 are connected to the inputs of the shoulders 5 and 6 of the output stage, respectively, and the outputs of the shoulders 5 and 6 are connected together and connected to the load 7.

The amplifier operates as follows. With source 1 signal sinusoidal voltage fed to the input of RP 2 (in the diagram shown symbolically option SPM at different precision diodes), which divides it into two half. Positive half-wave of the input voltage is transmitted to the upper exit RP 2, which is connected to the input of the pre-cascade 3 of the upper arm. Cascade 3 signal is amplified, inverted and shifted in DC level. His signal is input to the upper arm 5 of the output stage, connected in the circuit gain of the voltage. It is covered by deep local negative feedback, which results in improved linearity of the dependence of the output current of the leverage applied to its input voltage. When a negative half-wave of the input voltage on the upper exit RP 2 remains zero voltage, which is logical works and the lower shoulder of the amplifier (bottom exit RP 2, cascade 4, the shoulder 6 of the output stage). In the result of summation of the output currents of the shoulders 5 and 6 of the output stage to the load 7 on it stands an amplified signal source forms.

In relation to the linear input signal of the amplifier to its output stage operates in class b with a constant end-to-end no-load current, while the shoulders of the amplifier relative to the fed to them from outputs of the TL signals operate in a linear mode (linear output currents of the shoulders), thereby switching distortion in the output signal of the amplifier is missing. The same level introduced by the amplifier crossover distortion depends on the accuracy of the TL's function and the accuracy of the summation of the output currents of the shoulders on the load. The quality of RP can be estimated by the level of distortion in the signal, obtained by summing its output signals. If it is linear or contains only harmonics of high order, lying far outside the bandwidth of the shoulders of the amplifier, crossover distortion will not be at the amplifier output. On low-power hardware components, you can create a relatively simple device that meets these requirements.

Since the output voltage of the amplifier is the sum of two different the key input, i.e., the output currents of the shoulders of the amplifier should be operated only applied to their inputs signals (with the exception of weak cross-links between the shoulders of the amplifier, which can be adopted to carry out the same functions, as shown in Fig.3 resistive divider).

In the amplifier with the SPM output stage covered only one loop of negative feedback is common. This allows a tilting of the AFC loop gain of the amplifier in the area of frequency fc output stage, i.e., to perform his band. The stability of the amplifier is achieved by the formation of a horizontal section in response to the amp and SPM in the area of frequency fc. The positive effect of swapping the locations in the narrowband and broadband amplifier cascades due to the fact that the narrowband output cascade harmonic distortion as narrow-band, and high frequency harmonics that are made preliminary broadband cascades and SPM output stage acts as a lowpass filter, so they are strongly attenuated in the output signal. This reduces the quality requirements used in the amplifier SPM while maintaining high technical indicators effort to this amplifier capacitive load does not impair the stability of its work (provided what AFR preliminary stages and RP are not lifting lower frequency fc), and leads to a narrowing of the bandwidth of the output stage and the amplifier, and to a proportional decrease of the maximum slew rate output voltage maximum output current does not change), i.e., an automatic adaptation of parameters of the amplifier to the load. Transient response of this amplifier is always purely aperiodic in nature. The narrowing of the bandwidth, there is less than in the prototype (provided that will maintain the stability of the prototype) due to the significant difference in narrowing the bandwidth of narrowband and broadband cascades upon connecting a capacitance of the same magnitude. Harmonic distortion in the output signal at the same time not increase, because simultaneously with the decrease at high frequencies, the feedback level is decreasing high-frequency harmonics in the output signal source (not covered by the loop EP) of the amplifier due to the filtering action of the output stage. In addition, connecting the reservoir to the output of the amplifier improves frequency symmetry of his shoulders, increases the depth of local negative feedback in the shoulders of the output stage at high chaitali can be used as high-precision high-speed amplifier. The maximum slew rate of the output voltage applied to the amplifier output stage, (V.max) is associated with its parameters in the following ratio

V.max = 2fc.o Kwih of U.max,

- PI equal 3,14...;

fc.o - cutoff frequency of the output stage;

Cvyh - gain output stage;

The U.max - the maximum amplitude of the control voltage.

The maximum slew rate of the output voltage of the amplifier reaches U.max only if the condition

V.max>V.max U.max/U.max,

where V.max - the maximum rate of rise of voltage control;

U.max - the maximum amplitude of the output voltage of the amplifier.

This condition in the proposed amplifier is typically done because of his prior cascades broadband. Since the gain of the signal frequency above FC. o with the maximum amplitude across the shoulders of the output stage may be excessive through current, then we can speak only about the ability of the amplifier to play with speed V.max pulse signals of maximum amplitude, the frequency of which does not exceed fc.o.

This amplifier can be used declare RP, the scheme of which is shown in Fig.2. It consists of resistors 8 and 9, connected to the inverting and reinvestiruet inputs of the shelter 10, and the second the findings of these resistors to the input of the device and GND respectively. Inverting input of the shelter 10 through the resistors 11 and 12 connected with the first and second outputs, respectively, and the output from the anode of the diode 13 and the cathode of the diode 14. The cathode of diode 13 is connected to the first output device, the resistor 15 and the cathode of the diode 16, and the anode of diode 14 to the second output device, with the anode of diode 17 and resistor 18. The second terminals of the resistors 15 and 18 are connected to sources of positive and negative voltage, respectively, and diodes 16 and 17 to GND.

The proposed device operates as follows. Input voltage of negative polarity causes a positive voltage at the output of the shelter 10. The diode 14 when it is closed, and through the open diode 13 is closed loop feedback, leading to flow through the resistors 8 and boy the inputs of the shelter 10, the voltage is also zero, the voltage on the first output device is equal to the voltage drop across the resistor 11, and the second is the voltage drop across the diode 17, caused by flow through it and through a resistor 18 current from the source of positive voltage. Positive input voltage causes the output of the shelter 10 negative voltage, which through an open diode 14 leads to another circuit loop feedback through the resistor 12. The voltage on the second output device is equal to the voltage drop across the resistor 12, and on the ground - the voltage drop across the diode 16, caused by flow through it and through the resistor 15 of the current from the source of negative voltage.

The elimination of the inherent prototype deficiencies in the proposed SPM is achieved as follows:

using the newly introduced resistors 15 and 18, performs the function dakotabilities elements, and diodes 16 and 17 is formed by the bias voltage, which opens or fully opens the diodes 13 and 14 at zero voltage at the output of the shelter 10, which can significantly reduce or completely eliminate the aforementioned time interval T;

- output impedance in passive state shoulders RP is now resistance otego the second output voltage is maintained at a constant level due to the stabilizing effect of the newly introduced elements that allows you to use both inputs of the shelter 10 to feed them as input signal, and the signal OOS.

The shape flowing through the shoulders of the output stage current follows the shape of retiring exits the TL signals. This allows you to control the shape of the output currents of the shoulders of the amplifier by giving retiring exits the TL signals of desired shape (in this RP should meet the main criterion of quality - low distortion in its total output). For example, using SPM and the resistive voltage divider circuit which is shown in Fig.2 and 3, you can implement the following modes of operation of the output stage.

1. With constant end-to-end no-load current is achieved by the use of diodes 13 and 14 is equal to or greater voltage drop than the diodes 16 and 17.

2. Mode with a gradual decrease in the current flowing through the passive shoulder, if you increase the current flowing through the active shoulder, achieved by the introduction of weak crosstalk between the output signal RP with is shown in Fig. 3 resistive divider (the resistance of the resistors 19 and 20 is the same and is much less than the resistance of resistor 21).

3. Mode, accompanied by a decrease in the rate of change proii, is achieved by the use of diodes 13 and 14 with a lower direct voltage drop than the diodes 16 and 17.

4. The combination of the last two modes.

In mode 3 (4) SPM operates as follows. When the voltage at the output of the shelter 10, not to exceed the difference in the voltage drop on the above-mentioned diodes, the diodes 13 and 14 are open, both outputs RP active, and his transfer coefficient on both outputs half (the time interval tl-t2 and t3-t4 in Fig.5) than when only one active its output, since the resistors 11 and 12 through the open diodes 13 and 14 are connected in parallel. This RP provides a more gradual change of the current during the transition shoulder of the output stage from the active state to passive and back, which helps to reduce the level of harmonics in the power consumed by the amplifier current.

Sources of information

1. Ceremony Y. USC with correction of dynamic characteristics. Radio, 1990, 2, S. 62-68.

2. Mitrofanov Y. eco mode And power amplifier. Radio, 1986, 5, S. 40-43.

3. Bragin, the power Amplifier CC. Radio, 1990, 12, S. 62-64.

4. USSR author's certificate 1741251, CL H 03 F 3/26, 1990.

5. Lomakin, A., Parshin B. Switching distortion in power amplifiers CC. - The S="ptx2">

1. Push-pull amplifier, containing in each arm cascade preamplifier, the output of which is connected to the input of the shoulder of the output stage of the amplifier, characterized in that it introduced the splitter polarity, the outputs of which are connected to corresponding inputs of stages of pre-amplification, the signals which are shifted cascades preamplifier DC level, providing the current flowing through each shoulder of the output stage and the positive and negative half-waves of the input signal of the amplifier.

2. Push-pull amplifier under item 1, characterized in that during its coverage of the total loop negative feedback output stage is made of narrow, forming the slope of the amplitude-frequency characteristics in the area of the single frequency loop gain.

3. Push-pull amplifier under item 2, characterized in that the bandwidth of the output stage is narrowed by connecting the capacitive load.

4. Push-pull amplifier under item 2 or 3, characterized in that the cascades pre-amp and splitter polarity are not lifting the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the lower frequency single loop gain.

6. The splitter polarity on p. 5, characterized in that the cathode of the third and to the anode of the fourth diode is connected to the divider of the three series-connected resistors, and the output device is not connected with the middle of them.

7. The splitter polarity under item 5 or 6, characterized in that it applied the first and second diodes with a lower total voltage drop than the third and fourth diodes.

 

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