Fuel briquettes and methods for producing briquettes (options)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the technology of production of briquetted fuel and can be used for household needs, metallurgical and chemical industries. The invention is: to improve the water resistance and thermoprotect briquettes on the basis of the heat-treated mixture of chopped carbon fuel and binder in the form of a lignosulfonate or molasses and oil sintering additive softening temperature of 140-170 or >250oWith contains 1-10% oil of sintering additives, 1-10% of a lignosulfonate or molasses and 100% carbon fuel selected from coal, coke, waste carbon electrodes, or a mixture thereof. Also described is a method of obtaining briquettes, comprising mixing powdered carbon fuel selected from coal, coke, waste carbon electrodes, or a mixture thereof, 1-10 wt.% powder oil sintering additive softening temperature of 140-170 or >250oC. Then, 1-10 wt.% the lignosulfonate or molasses bitteroot the mixture at 30 to 60 MPa, the heat treatment of the pellets is carried out at a temperature of 5 to 10oAbove the softening temperature of the oil sintering additives with subsequent cooling of the briquettes. Described that the native fuel with a binder - lignosulphonates or molasses 1-10 wt.% and the rest of the oil, briquetting the mixture and subsequent cooling of the briquettes at the same time as the rest of the oil used 1-10 wt.% powder oil sintering additive softening temperature of 140-170 or >250oWith, heat the chopped carbon fuel to a temperature above 5 to 10oWith the softening temperature of the oil sintering additives, bitteroot heated the mixture at 30 to 60 MPa. Cool cakes by mixing them with the original chopped carbon fuel with subsequent separation of the pellets and crushed carbon-based fuels. 3 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to the technology of production of briquetted fuel and can be used for household needs, metallurgical and chemical industry (production of iron, steel, non-ferrous metals, ferro-alloys, phosphorus, calcium carbide and other).

Known fuel briquette, comprising in wt.%: molasses 4-10, residual oil with a melting point of 50-70oFrom 0.2-0.7 and-carbon fuel from groups: coal, coal slurry, culm, or a mixture thereof to 100 (EN 2149889, WITH 10 L 5/16, 27.05.2000).

Nedostatocno reduce the mechanical strength after heating them in an inert atmosphere at a temperature of >500oC. These deficiencies increase the cost of storage of briquettes and limit their use in the chemical industry.

A method of obtaining briquettes fuel, which includes heating the crushed carbon fuel selected from anthracite, coal, coal coke at a temperature not exceeding 120oWith mixing it in a closed apparatus with 5-30 wt.% liquid lignosulfonate, which can be added is 0.1-1 wt.% oil of tar, compressing the mixture with a moisture content of 2.5-6% in the pellets, heating the pellets at 200-400o(GB 1047449, C 10 L 5/20, 02.11.1966). These briquettes have low smoke and good temperature resistance. The disadvantages of this briquette are not enough high moisture resistance and a marked decrease in their mechanical strength after heating in an inert atmosphere at a temperature of >500oWith that increases the cost of storage of briquettes and does not allow them effectively to use in metallurgical processes.

There is a method of producing fuel briquettes, comprising mixing powdered fuel is selected from coal, culm, coke or coke breeze with 2-6 wt.% powder oil of sintering additives (high-melting asphalt concentrate, the item of mesh 4-7 wt.% binder - low - or srednefranskogo oil residue, heat-treated mixture at 50-70oC for 20-30 minutes and then briquetting mixture (SU 261364, With 10 5/10 L, 13.01.1970).

The known method provides the raw briquettes and coccobello with high mechanical strength with abrasion in the drum. The disadvantages of the known briquettes and method are insufficient moisture resistance of the briquettes and insufficient mechanical strength after heating in an inert atmosphere at a temperature of >500oC. These deficiencies increase the cost of storage and transportation of bricks.

The closest is the fuel briquettes on the basis of the heat-treated mixture comprising in wt.%: binder - lignosulfonate or molasses 2-7, the rest of the oil (sludge, waste oil, paraffin GAC) 1-6 when the total content of the binder 10-32 and chopped carbon fuel selected from coke, coal fines, coal slurry, or mixture thereof to 100.

Method of producing fuel briquettes includes a mixture of chopped carbon fuel selected from the coke or coal, coal slurry, or mixture thereof with a binder - lignosulfonate or molasses and the rest of the oil at a temperature of <300C and subsequent cooling of the briquettes (EN 2130047, WITH 10 L 5/02, 10.05.1999).

A disadvantage of the known composition of the briquettes and the method of their derivation is that the briquettes have insufficient water resistance, which increases the cost of their storage and transport, and insufficient mechanical strength after heating them in an inert atmosphere at a temperature of >500oWith that limit their effective application in chemistry and metallurgy.

The task of the invention to provide briquettes with high water resistance and mechanical strength maintained after heating of the briquettes at a temperature of more than 500oC.

This object is achieved in that the proposed fuel briquettes on the basis of the heat-treated mixture comprising, by weight%: oil sintering additive with a softening temperature of 140-170 or >250oFrom 1-10, lignosulfonate or molasses 1-10 and chopped carbon fuel selected from coal, coke, waste carbon electrodes or their mixtures up to 100.

This object is achieved also two variants of the methods of obtaining the proposed composition of the fuel briquettes. In the first embodiment of the method of producing fuel briquettes involves mixing powdered carbon Topley the Cai with a softening temperature of 140-170 or >250oWith 1-10 wt.% and with a binder - lignosulfonate or molasses 1-10 wt.%, the briquetting mixture at 30 to 60 MPa, the heat treatment of the briquettes at a temperature above 5 to 10oWith the softening temperature of the oil of sintering additives and the subsequent cooling of the briquettes.

According to the second variant of the method of producing fuel briquettes includes heating the crushed carbon fuel selected from coal, coke, waste carbon electrodes or mixtures thereof to a temperature above 5 to 10oWith the softening temperature of the oil sintering additives, mixing the heated fuel with a binder - lignosulfonate or molasses 1-10 wt.% and with powder oil sintering additive softening temperature of 140-170oWith and more than 250oWith 1-10 wt.%, the briquetting mixture heated at 30-60 MPa and subsequent cooling of the briquettes; cooling of the briquettes can be carried out by mixing them with the original chopped carbon fuel with subsequent separation of the pellets and chopped carbon fuel.

When a mixture of powdered carbon fuel and oil sintering additives (LMI) with lignosulfonate or molasses are heated to a temperature of 5 to 10oAbove the softening temperature oil specialise, partially evaporates, there are initial signs of pyrolysis and get high adhesive fluid mixture which, on the one hand, it is distributed between the surfaces of the particles of carbon-based fuels and creates with them after cooling, mechanically durable, water-resistant briquettes. On the other hand, when the heating of such a briquette at a temperature of more than 500oWith in an inert environment is the final evaporation of water from the lignosulfonate or molasses and their co-pyrolysis with oil sintering additive and sintering with carbon fuels. This leads to maintaining high strength briquette when heated to temperatures above 500oWith in an inert environment.

In the proposed brick and ways of producing fuel briquettes used oil sintering additive in the form of a powder with a softening temperature in KISH 140-170oWith or >250oWith the properties described in A. I. Oliver, Y. I. Neshin and other Industrial coking coal charge reduced baking with oil sintering additive LMI-2, W. "Coke and chemistry, M., 1990, 10, 10-12 C.; Yu, S. Vasiliev, I. e. Drozdyk and others, the Use of oil fusible additives in the charge for coking, as well. "Coke and chemistry, M., 1989, 12, S. 4-6.

Oil spectacles mechanical strength while burning them on a grid-iron lattice furnaces, that is, when using briquettes for household and communal needs. In the manufacture of such briquettes spent a relatively small amount of heat, which reduces the cost of producing them. Oil sintering additive with a melting point at KISH >250oWith, although it will cause a relatively large heat losses, but it allows you to get water-resistant, preserving the high mechanical strength of the briquettes by heating them at a temperature of more than 500oWith in an inert environment. This property briquettes allows you to use them effectively in the domain, Ferroalloy production, in the manufacture of phosphorus and calcium carbide.

Use components with the following characteristics:

Oil sintering additive (LMI): sieve composition 0-2 mm, moisture working 8-10%, ash content of 0.8-3%, sulfur content 2-2,67%, volatile substances 20-35%, the sintering ability Horns 23-41%, softening temperature by KISH 140-170oWith 250 or moreoC.

Coal: sieve composition 0-8 mm, moisture working 8-16%, ash 8% to 30%, a sulfur content of 0.3-2%, a volatile content of 0.5 to 45%, the calorific value 1500-8000 kcal/kg

Waste carbon electrodes: sieve composition 0-8 mm, moisture 2-1P CLASS="ptx2">

Coke breeze: sieve composition 0-8 mm, moisture working 5-20%, ash content of 7-20%, a sulfur content of 0.3-2%, a volatile content of 0.5 to 7%, the calorific value 6200-7000 kcal/kg

Lignosulfonate sodium, potassium and ammonium basis: dry matter concentration of 40-55%, bulk density of 1.08-1,27 t/m3.

Molasses is a waste of sugar manufacture: concentration of dry matter 30-52%, bulk density of 1.08-1.26 in t/m3.

Option 1

Example 1. Use the following components: coal with a moisture content of 10% to 94.7 kg, tamper with moisture content of 10% and a softening temperature at KISH 140oWith 1kg, lignosulfonate with a concentration of dry matter 40% 43 kg of Coal and powder LMI pre-mix, which dosed served in the receiving hopper located at the input end of the twin-shaft continuous mixer, and lignosulfonate in the form of a spray serves the second receiving hopper located at 1/4 of the length from the input end of the mixer with a stirring mixture of coal dust and tamper with the lignosulfonate. The mixture with the ambient temperature of the mixer serves on Wallaby press where its at 30 MPa bitteroot, and the briquettes are fed into the heat chamber, where they make their termoklimat when the ambient air temperature in the hopper. These briquettes in the form of a circular lens with a diameter of 40.5 mm and a height of 26-32 mm have a moisture content of 1%, high water resistance (not reduced mechanical strength while soaking of bricks in water for 48 h), the calorific value of 6,500 kcal/kg, thermoresistance, which is characterized by high mechanical strength dropping (86-90%) after ignition of the briquettes without access of air at 600oC for 30 min (this is more than 18% higher than in the known method). The briquettes contain the components in the following ratio, wt.%: oil sintering additive 1; lignosulfonate 2; coal 97.

Example 2. In example 1, but instead of lignosulfonate is used molasses. You get a cake, shape, size and properties similar to those obtained in example 1, with the following ratio of components, wt.%: oil sintering additive 1; molasses 2; coal 97.

Example 3. Use the following components: coke breeze with humidity 20% 76,8 kg, tamper with humidity 10% to 8.7 kg and a softening temperature at KISH 340oWith the lignosulfonate concentration of solids 55% 14,5 kg of Coke breeze and powder LMI pre-mix, which dosed served in the receiving hopper located at the entrance the funnel, located on 1/4 of the length from the input end of the mixer. The mixture from the mixer at ambient temperature serves on Wallaby press, where it bitteroot at 60 MPa, and the briquettes are fed to the chambers where they hold their heat treatment at 350o(10oAbove the softening temperature LMI) for 15 minutes Hot briquettes to cool at ambient temperature. These briquettes in the form of a circular lens with a diameter of 40.5 mm and a height of 26-32 mm have a moisture content of 1%, the water resistance (not reduced the mechanical strength of the briquettes after soaking in water for 48 h), the calorific value of 6,300 kcal/kg, thermoresistance, which is characterized by high mechanical strength dropping (87-92%) after ignition of the briquettes without access of air at 600oC for 30 min (this is more than 20% more than that in a known way).

The briquettes contain the components in the following ratio, wt.%: oil sintering additive 10; lignosulfonate 10; coke breeze 80.

Example 4. In example 1, but LMI has a softening temperature of 170oWith, instead of lignosulfonate is used molasses instead of coke breeze mix in equal proportions coke breeze and small waste carbon electr minutes The briquettes on shape, size and properties similar to the pellets of example 1, contain the components in the following ratio, wt.%: oil sintering additive 10; molasses 10; a mixture of small waste carbon electrodes with coke fines 80.

Option 2.

Example 5. Use the following components: coal with a moisture content of 8% to 97.1 kg, lignosulfonate 1.9 kg, tamper with moisture content of 8% and a softening temperature of 140oWith 1 kg of Coal screw feeder is served in a vortex chamber rapid heating, where it is heated to 150o(10oAbove the softening temperature LMI), which also serves the coolant in the form of flue gases with a temperature of 300-320oC. Coal from the vortex chamber through the heat-insulated cyclone served in insulated continuous mixer. In the mixer feeder-dispenser serves powder LMI and lignosulfonate, where they are mixed for 3 minutes the Mixture after mixing with a temperature of 130-140oWith served on Wallaby press, where it bitteroot at 30 MPa. Briquettes coming from the press, cooled in a bunker ready briquettes at a temperature of ambient air. These briquettes in the form of a circular lens with a diameter of 40.5 mm and a height of 26-32 mm have is after soaking in water for 48 h), thermoresistance, which is characterized by high mechanical strength dropping (88-89%) after heating the pellets in an inert atmosphere at 600oC for 30 min (which is higher by 18% than in the known method).

The briquettes contain the components in the following ratio, wt.%: lignosulfonate 1; oil sintering additive 1; coal 98.

Example 6. Use the following components: coke breeze with humidity 10% to 90 kg, tamper with moisture content of 10% and a softening temperature at KISH 300oFrom 10.3 kg and molasses 9,7 kg of Coke breeze screw feeder is served in a vortex chamber rapid heating, which also serves the coolant in the form of flue gases with a temperature of 700oAnd 3 to heat the coke breeze to 310o(10oAbove the softening temperature LMI). The heated coke breeze through insulated cyclone served in insulated continuous mixer, which also serves powder LMI and molasses. After stirring for 3 min mix it with a temperature of 280-300oWith served on Wallaby press, where bitteroot at 40 MPa. Briquettes coming from the press, cooled at ambient temperature. The briquettes in the form of a circular lens with a diameter of 40.5 mm and a height of 26-32 mm ness after soaking in water for 48 h) and thermoresistance, which is characterized by high mechanical strength of the briquettes on reset (88-92%) after ignition of the briquettes without oxygen at 600oC for 30 min (this is 20% higher than in the known method).

The briquettes contain the components in the following ratio, wt.%: molasses 5; oil sintering additive 10; coke breeze 85.

Example 7. In example 6, but instead of coke breeze used small waste carbon electrodes or their mixture with coke fines in equal proportion, and hot briquettes to a temperature of 230-250oWith served in a drum mixer, which also serves a small unheated waste carbon electrodes or their mixture with coke fines. In a drum mixer briquettes are cooled by heat transfer from the hot briquettes to carbon based fuels. After leaving the drum mixer small waste carbon electrodes or their mixture with coke fines with a temperature of 80-120oWith separated from the bricks on vibroresearch.

The briquettes contain the components in the following ratio, wt.%: molasses 5; oil sintering additive 10; small waste carbon electrodes or their mixture with coke fines 85.

Properties of bricks similar to that already after 0.5-2 h them soaking in water.

Thus, as follows from the examples, increasing water resistance and thermoprotect briquettes achieved.

1. Fuel briquettes on the basis of the heat-treated mixture of chopped carbon fuel and binder - lignosulfonate or molasses and remaining oil, characterized in that as the rest of the oil it contains oil of sintering additive with a softening temperature of 140-170 or > 250oWith the following ratio of components, wt. %:

Oil sintering additive 1 - 10

Lignosulfonate or molasses - 1 - 10

Carbon fuel selected from coal, coke, waste carbon electrodes or their mixtures Up to 100

2. The method for producing briquettes under item 1, comprising mixing powdered carbon fuel selected from coal, coke, waste carbon electrodes or their mixtures with binder - lignosulfonate or molasses 1-10 wt. % and the remainder of the oil, briquetting the mixture, the heat treatment of the briquettes and the subsequent cooling of the briquettes, characterized in that as the residual oil use 1-10 wt. % powder oil sintering additive softening temperature of 140-170 or > 250oWith, mix it with chopped carbon toplu carried out at a temperature of 5 to 10oAbove the softening temperature of the oil sintering additives.

3. The method for producing briquettes under item 1, comprising heating the crushed carbon fuel selected from coal, coke, waste carbon electrodes or mixtures thereof, mixing the heated hydrocarbon fuels with a binder - lignosulfonate or molasses 1-10 wt. % and the remainder of the oil, briquetting the mixture and subsequent cooling of the briquettes, characterized in that as the residual oil use 1-10 wt. %, powder oil sintering additive softening temperature of 140-170 or > 250oWith, heat the chopped carbon fuel to a temperature above 5 to 10oWith the softening temperature of the oil sintering additives, bitteroot heated the mixture at 30 to 60 MPa.

4. The method according to PP. 2 and 3, characterized in that the cooled hot briquettes by mixing them with the original chopped carbon fuel with subsequent separation of the pellets and crushed carbon-based fuels.

 

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