Composite bearing element of building structures
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of construction, mainly to areas such as the bridge, the construction of containers, the construction of high-rise and long-span buildings, towers, smokestacks, cooling towers, underground and underwater objects, and so on Composite element includes a fragment of the metal shell, reinforced by reinforcing elements having a cavity, a valve, a filler of concrete. What is new is that the reinforcing elements are located on one or both outer surfaces of the metal shell, the cavity in the reinforcing elements formed by the broken outline their free edges with smooth plots located at different distances from the outer surface of the shell, the valve passing through the cavity, is rigidly attached to additional directed along the reinforcing elements of the reinforcement rods in the extreme case, all located above the free edges of reinforcing elements, and the additional reinforcing bars, which is directly adjacent to the reinforcing elements, rigidly attached on the smooth areas of greatest removal of the reinforcing element from the shell. The technical result is achieved and potential application areas. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The invention relates to the construction, mainly to areas such as the bridge, the construction of containers, the construction of high-rise and long-span buildings, towers, smokestacks, cooling towers, underground and underwater objects, etc.For structures of these regions is not enough to create the designs of classical composition of the concrete and steel rod reinforcement due to a fundamental lack of concrete - the inability to perceive the tension of any significant magnitude, leading to discontinuity of the composite and invalid when creating a sealed shells and structures, perceiving multiple dynamic impact or contact with corrosive for steel environment.On the other hand, it is desirable reinforcement thin, sensitive to the imperfections of steel reinforced concrete shell structures shirts, not separating from the steel part of the structure in the difficult conditions of two - and three-axial stress States.Received widespread introduction of concrete or reinforced concrete slabs of reinforced concrete, stacked on steel pallet of profiled decking (. the x buildings.Such designs are not sufficiently reliable under the action of the local dynamic loads. The rigidity of the pallet is provided with profiling of thin steel, which is susceptible to corrosion and requires galvanizing or other costly corrosion protection. Profiling, increasing consumption of steel on the tray, does not provide the rigidity of the pallet across the direction of the corrugation when laying concrete and continuously. Providing transverse rigidity of the pallet is an additional problem to be solved only with the reduction of technical and economic indicators such composite systems.Also known construction, which uses cold-formed rolling profile of the Z - shaped form, one of the shelves which has a vertical side with slits ( pages 47, 49, Fig.2.9).Two such profiles by welding is formed trough-shaped beam, overlapping galvanized formwork sheets. For overlapping spans trough-shaped beams are positioned closely parallel to each other. In the slots in the vertical walls are unifying the rods, which are placed in the bottom mesh reinforcement monolithic concrete slab.This solution Weitnau system of steel plate and reinforced concrete ( pages 49, 50, 51, Fig.2.10 b, g), in which the pallet is formed of a thin steel sheet with a cross corners, welded to it by the edges of the shelves. The use of parts attached to the pallet vertical stiffness and given the sharp increase in the area of adhesion and the formation of flexible lugs provides, according to the authors of this decision, the joint work of the steel sheet and concrete in both longitudinal and transverse directions.However, this solution does not guarantee the delamination of the concrete from the steel sheet in the areas between the corners, the installation step which should not be too small for economic reasons.Know the connection of the upper belt of steel beams with a concrete slab using a special reinforcing zigzags, welded on mounting (see , Fig.10.2(a), page 294).The disadvantages of this solution are restrictions on the greatest diameter of the valve 25...40 mm, which gives the cross-sectional area not more than 4.9...12.6 cm2insufficient for heavily loaded structures.Weld element from steel sheet and reinforcing zigzags has high Flexural rigidity of the plane of the sheet. Multiple kinks, not providing the high geometric accuracy of zigzags, the fixture dramatically increases the amount of welding. However, reinforcing the zigzags can be used as components of more complex composite structures.The closest technical solution to the claimed design is, in which the steel sheet is welded on the connecting elements of the strips with holes created by drilling or punching. These strips are welded vertically to the waist sheets of steel beams thin coal seams, possibly with the use of machines ([31 pages 14, 15, Fig.6,  pages 16, 17, Fig. 4). Contact steel and concrete of this type provides a secure grip and endurance as concrete and steel structure. On the destructive force does not influence the location of transverse reinforcement over a band-stops, or pass it through the hole.This valve eliminates the delamination of the concrete from the steel strip. Due to the penetration of concrete into the holes of the steel strip are formed of concrete dowels with two cutting surfaces.The disadvantage of this solution, taken as a prototype, high intensity, complexity, perform hole punching with increasing thickness of the ribs, and the transition to the drilling or milling of holes gives a sharp turnround trudem with capless filler, it is possible to reduce the consumption of materials and the complexity of this design, and to create conditions for significant expansion of the scope of possible applications of the considered composite, which is the object of the invention.The solution is achieved by the fact that the composite bearing element of building structures (KNACK) comprising a fragment of the metal shell, reinforced by reinforcing elements having a cavity, a valve located in the cavities of hardening elements across their direction, a filler such as concrete, located in the space between and above the reinforcing elements according to the invention the reinforcing elements are located on one or both outer surfaces of the metal shell, the cavity in the reinforcing elements formed by the broken outline their free edges with smooth plots located at different distances from the outer surface of the shell, the valve passing through the cavity, rigidly attached to additional directed along the reinforcing elements of the reinforcement rods in the extreme case, all located above the free edges of reinforcing elements and the additional reinforcing bars, which vplot ofnausea element from the shell.It is desirable that reinforcing elements according to the invention would have an additional cavity formed by the broken outline of the edges adjacent to the surface of the shell. Valid to reinforcing elements according to the invention, at least everything would be made in the form of bent rebar.It is desirable that KNACK according to the invention would have voids in the aggregate.It is advisable that emptiness according to the invention, at least everything would be made in the form of channels.When vertical or close to vertical location of the pallet, in the case of welding ribs to both of its outer surfaces, feasible two-way concrete different on each side of the composition and thickness.In the proposed design reinforcing elements may enable receiving cavities of any size and formation consumption of the material of the ribs of any thickness and is not constant height, including and not flat.In addition, it is possible to separate the production of reinforcing mesh of the main and additional rods with technically not complicated its subsequent rigid coupling with welded part of the composition.the conditions for education in the filler of voids and channels, in some cases leads to a decrease in the weight bearing elements and opens up the possibility of the devices within them various communications.The invention is illustrated by drawings. In Fig.1 presents a General view of the metal component of the composite support member of Fig.2 - section KNACK along the reinforcing elements; Fig.3 is a cross section KNACK with unilateral arrangement of reinforcing elements and placeholder.Composite bearing element of building structures consists of a metal shell 1, the reinforcing elements 3 forming a cavity in a broken outline their free edges with smooth areas in which is located the valve 5, is rigidly attached to the additional reinforcing rods 4, directed along the reinforcing elements 3 and rigidly attached to them on smooth areas of greatest removal of the reinforcing element 3 from the shell 1. Additional reinforcing bars 6, directed along the reinforcing elements 3, are located in the cavities between the reinforcing elements 3 and is rigidly attached to the armature 5. In the aggregate 2 can be formed cavities 7, made for example in the form of channels.There are three possible cases education constructiontype from the placeholder edges to provide docking for mounting a metal part in a composite material with subsequent concreting joints. Moreover, the material of the filler 2 in the joints may differ in their physico-technical properties from the main part of the filler in the mounting blocks. In the second case, industrially manufactured mounting block with one placeholder 2, and after joining metal parts of the filler 2 completely fits with the other side surface of the shell 1, including in the area of the seam on the other side of the shell 1. In the third case in the Assembly process or after the complete Assembly of metal parts KNACK, design fully americawest on the object.KNACK works as follows. At the stage of mounting the metal frame fully perceives external influences, dead weight, pressure still wroclawskiego filler and possibly weight mounting hardware. During operation of the internal potential energy of deformation is accumulated and distributed in KNACK between the metal part and the filler in accordance with the laws of mechanics the deformation of a solid body in the framework of spatial tasks.LITERATURE
1. Streletskaya N. N. Composite superstructure bridges. M.: Transport, 1981. - 360 C.2. Reparative who you are. (General provisions). M : VINITI, 1993.- 27 C. the book: Einfuhrung in das Thema Stahlverbund-Bruckenbau/Bode H.//Stahlverbund - Bruckenbau: Ber. Tag., Kaiserslautem, 5 Oct., 1988. Dusseldorf, 1990.- C. 5-8. - It.3. Refereed publication. Design and construction of Railways. No. 2766 PSID (21). Summary No.110. Cable-stayed bridges with composite beams stiffness. M: VINITI, 1993. Book: Schragseilbrucken im Verbund für das Ausland/Saul R.//Stahlverbund - Bruckenbau: Ber. Tag., Kaiserslautem, 5 Oct., 1988.- Dusseldorf, 1990. - S. 75-84. - It.4. Refereed publication. Design and construction of Railways. No.PS(26). Summary No. 145. Connecting device for composite structures with high efficiency and endurance. M : VINITI, 1993. Book: Economical Shear Counectors with High Fatigue Strength / Andra H.-F.// IABSE Symp., Brussels, 1990.- Zurich, 1990. - S. 167-172.-Eng. 1. Composite bearing element of building structures, including the fragment of the metal shell, reinforced by reinforcing elements having a cavity, a valve located in the cavities of hardening elements transversely of their direction, the filler of concrete, located in the space between and above the reinforcing elements, characterized in that the reinforcing elements are located on one or both outer surfaces of the metal is DAMI, located at different distances from the outer surface of the shell, the valve passing through the cavity, is rigidly attached to additional directed along the reinforcing elements of the reinforcement rods in the extreme case, all located above the free edges of reinforcing elements, and the additional reinforcing bars, which is directly adjacent to the reinforcing elements, rigidly attached on the smooth areas of greatest removal of the reinforcing element from the shell.2. Composite bearing element of building structures under item 1, characterized in that the reinforcing elements have an additional cavity formed by the broken outline of the edges of the ribs adjacent to the surface of the shell.3. Composite bearing element of building structures under item 1, characterized in that the reinforcing elements, in the extreme case, all executed in the form of bent rebar.4. Composite bearing element of building structures under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the filler created void.5. Composite bearing element of building structures under item 4, characterized in that emptiness, in the extreme case, all executed in the form of channels.
FIELD: bridge building, particularly preloaded continuous composite bridge structured of steel and reinforced concrete to connect cast-in-place reinforced concrete panel with metal assembly.
SUBSTANCE: span structure includes reinforced concrete panel connected to steel beam by rests embedded in panel body and welded to steel sheet secured to beam. Steel sheet is connected to steel beam belt by high-strength bolts inserted in belt orifices. Orifices have circular shapes in over-pier zone, remainder orifice parts are oval and located so that major oval axis extends along longitudinal span structure axis. Lengths of oval orifices are variable and depend on degree of elastic deformation due to applying squeezing force to reinforced concrete. The greatest length is in preloaded reinforcement anchoring area and length is reduced towards over-pier zone. Ratio between maximal length a of oval orifice to length b of orifice located in over-pier zone and having minimal length a/b = 1.0 - 4.0. High-strength bolts inserted in oval orifices are closed with protective caps to protect bolts against concrete action. Cap contour mates to oval orifice outline. Method of span structure production involves concreting reinforced concrete panel and applying tensioning force to high-strength reinforcement on steel sheet having rests welded thereto and connected to steel beam, wherein steel sheet is connected to steel beam by high-strength bolts inserted in oval orifices and bolts are slackened before reinforcement tensioning. After that reinforced concrete panel resiliently reduces in length on beam belt under the influence of squeezing force and bolts slide along longitudinal orifice. Then protective caps are taken off and blots are tightened with desired force.
EFFECT: prevention of concrete stretching in over-pier area; increased strength and crack-resistance of reinforced concrete panel; increased service life of span structure.
2 cl, 4 dwg