Device for heating and/or cooling
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a device for heating and/or cooling buildings, such as residential and office space, with the help of pipes passing them in the coolant or cooling medium, which is arranged in heat-conducting layer, for example, of hardened hydraulic binders, which is connected with the bearing plate of poorly conductive heat of the material. In order to obtain a uniform temperature distribution with economy of material, provided that the carrier plate facing the indoor side to maintain a uniform temperature has a profile which in cross section has a wavy form, i.e. has projections and depressions, passing each other under a flat angle, and pipe on the section of the depressions of the carrier plate, arranged in heat-conductive layer, pass with clearance from the edge and bottom of the trench. The technical result is the creation of a uniform distribution of heat and the surface temperature. 9 C. p. F.-ly, 4 Il. The invention relates to a device for heating and/or cooling buildings, such as residential or office. The device comprises a carrier plate, on which rests on passing Talon what about hydraulic binders with high thermal conductivity.Such devices are known. For example, in the United Kingdom patent GB 2035435 or patent Austria AT 381160 IN the described device, in which the flat bearing plates are thickened, the outer lateral surface of which is formed passing vertically to the upper side of the base plate forming. When this pipe is leaking coolant or refrigerant is laid between thickening.German patent DE 3300607 C2 relates to a liquid flat device for under floor heating, permit the passage of personnel during its installation, and heating pipes are laid in a seamless floors, which provides concave channels, which laid the pipe to protect it from possible damage and change positions.In known from UK patent 2035435 And the solution placed between the thickening of the tube are covered with a relatively thick layer of adhesive and then are stuck flooring. Thus the space between the pipes and flooring will be partially filled.In the device in accordance with AT 381160 IN thickening only blocked, and remain cavity through which may pass through the air.From AT 403396 IN a device of the aforementioned type, in which tegevuse astringent hydraulic means. The ribs of the carrier plate and sealing the pipe is covered with a layer of plaster with high conductivity, with the side walls of the ribs of the base plate are, except for the curves in the lower and upper parts, perpendicular to the upper side of the carrier plate. As the width of the ribs defines a gap between the pipes, as a rule, are relatively wide areas, which is only a thin conductive layer of plaster on the edges of the insulating carrier plate. This leads to the fact that recourse to the heated indoor side of the device are formed of strips of different temperature and time are displayed on the surface of the wall or ceiling. Depending on local conditions, the temperature difference can be severaloWith that in the operating mode "heating" leads to uneven thermal emission and accumulation of contaminants on the surface of walls and ceiling, and in the operating mode "cooling" creates additional conditions for condensation on the surface of the walls.The basis of the invention is to eliminate in a device of the above disadvantages of the prior art, in particular to provide a high speed control system when the minimum flow is surface side, facing the room, which is heated or cooled.The proposed solution creates the advantage that filled the hardened hydraulic astringent depression carrier plate employed in a very large part of the surface of this astringent. As a consequence, a very uniform distribution of heat and the surface temperature of the device to its converted to a heated room side with a drop of only 0.2-0.3oWith, that is an order of magnitude smaller than according to the prior art. In addition, the device according to the invention differs less accumulation of heat, therefore there is the possibility of speeding up the adjustment and prevent the formation of condensation on the surface. Another advantage is the ease of installation on site, in particular in the installation of the device on the ground.This has implications for the economic use of buildings with a low energy level, and also for buildings heated often only a few hours per day, such as schools, kindergartens, churches, cottages, etc.The invention is illustrated with the help shown in the drawings, the example run.in Fig. 4 is a top view of a carrier plate according to Fig. 1.The device according to the invention consists of a carrier plate 1 of poorly conducts heat and sound material, for example of pressed fibrous material, for example from hemp. To do this, instead of hemp can be used with success also mineral fibrous materials, foams, etc.This carrier plate 1 has on one side a wavy profile in the form preferably of rounded protrusions 1A and depressions 1b. The protrusions 1A are the angles at the apex of about 30o. The angles at the vertex can have a different value, but is less than 45o. The protrusions 1A and depression 1b preferably have a rounded cross-section in order to avoid the formation of cracks due to temperature changes in the applied thin layer 11 of plaster.On the site of the depressions 1b is provided in the pipe 5, through which passes a coolant or cooling medium and which is arranged in heat-conductive layer 7 made of a material with high heat conductivity, for example of hardened hydraulic binders. The heat-conducting layer 7 may consist, for example, mortar, screed, a layer of concrete or plaster, which can be Smela, so, on the one hand, ensured the rapid operation of the device and, on the other hand, was possible effective temperature control. Thus the temperature difference on the surface of the ceiling and walls between the projections 1A and depressions 1b of the carrier plate 1 when the pipe diameter of 5-8 mm and between about 60 mm is only 0,2-0,3oWith compared to 3.2oIn the case of a flat carrier plate at equal intervals between the pipe and the same dimensions.In an embodiment in accordance with Fig. 1 such heat-conductive layer 7 fills only the depression 1b of the carrier plate 1. On the side facing the heated or cooled to the room, in this embodiment, the provided cover plate 10 of the heat-conducting material, for example metal, which is connected with the layer 7 and the projections 1A of the carrier plate 1 with ensuring good heat transfer.In the variant in accordance with Fig. 2 shows that the heat-conducting layer 7 covers the upper side of the projections 2 of the base plate 1. This layer 7 is covered with, for example, fiberglass 9, etc. and deposited layer 11 of plaster.Suitable fiberglass 9 to put on the still wet layer 7 and the ve relatively small angle at the vertex of the profile and with large gaps between the tubes 5 of the upper side of the projections 1a of the carrier plate 1, made of insulating material, form only a narrow strip, facing the indoor side of the device creates a uniform temperature.In the 2 holes in the carrier plate set of fixing means such as dowels 8, and thus the carrier plate 1 is mounted on the wall.Mount the carrier on the support plate 1 can be realized, as shown in Fig. 3, using the element for mounting on the ceiling so that the fluent material to the subfloor is concrete or stucco flow through the holes 3 in the back and fill the wavy profile of the carrier plate, and at the same time they surround and fill pipe 5. For manufacturing such an option it is advisable to use a wooden casing 12 and so on , which is placed on the projections 1A of the carrier plate 1 and after hardening of concrete or similar will be removed and replaced from the room side plate 10. Instead of the protective plate 10 can be applied, for example, a thin layer 11 of plaster. Laid in the concrete ceiling mesh marked position 6.The carrier plate 1 shown in Fig. 4. This bearing plate from a material with low heat conductivity provided with mounting holes, i.e. holes 2 for crematory passes the coolant or cooling medium, laid on the carrier plate 1 is preferably spirally and are in fluid concrete, plaster, etc. so that they do not touch the bottom of the depressions 1b, which are placed on the carrier plate 1 with gaps between the ribs 4. The ribs 4 can have points of inflection of the pipe 5 in addition to the vertical grooves horizontal grooves for knee rotation.The carrier plate 1 pre-made from a fibrous material, for example from hemp or mineral wool, etc. or foam and is equipped at the factory pipes are rigidly arranged in the rib 4. This bearing plate may be provided with a pipe 5 along the entire height and/or width or depending on conditions only partially. The carrier plate 1 can on all four sides to unite in large registers of pipes with other similar bearing plates, and pipe 5 passes through the grooves 1C to the adjacent bearing plates or respectively to inlet and outlet pipes. Made thus registers pipes can be fitted to walls and/or ceilings, and floors with a device for heating and cooling according to the invention.Of course, the invention is not limited to the described example. For example, instead of pipes 5, PI combination of those and other, or for special purposes, to establish the piezoelectric elements, etc. 1. Device for heating and/or cooling buildings, such as residential and office space, containing a carrier plate, on which the laid pipe (5) the so-called heat exchanger, through which passes a coolant or cooling medium, arranged in heat-conductive layer (7), for example, of hardened hydraulic binder, characterized in that the carrier plate (1) device formed undulating profile having a cross-section on facing the heated or cooled to the room side of the carrier plate (1) tabs (1A) and depression (1b), passing each other under a flat angle at the vertex, and the pipe (5) in the area of the depressions (1b) of the carrier plate (1) are at a certain distance from their lowest point and is covered with a thin layer of pulp.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the heat-conducting layer (7), which laid the pipe (5), together with the projections (1A) and valleys (1b) covered on the free sides with a thin layer (11) of plaster or material subfloor.3. The device under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the layer (11) of plaster laid fiberglass (9).4. The mouth is of material.5. The device according to p. 4, characterized in that the material of the carrier plate (1) is used hemp.6. Device according to one of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the carrier plate (1) made of foam.7. Device according to one of paragraphs. 1-6, characterized in that the angle at the vertex profile < 45o.8. Device according to one of paragraphs. 1-7, characterized in that the distance between the tubes (5) from the lowest point of the basin (1b) is approximately 20% of the pipe diameter.9. Device according to one of paragraphs. 1-8, characterized in that in the area of the projections (1A) of the carrier plate (1) has holes (2) and (3).10. Device according to one of paragraphs. 1-9, characterized in that the projections (1A) and depression (1b) is rounded.
FIELD: building, particularly three-dimensional structures used as cover and floor panels in civil, public and industrial buildings.
SUBSTANCE: structure has thin-walled three-dimensionally shaped members of unified shapes. The members are made of thin-walled roll steel with thickness t=0.5-3.0 mm. Steel strips are bent in opposite directions along right-handed and left-handed screw lines and connected one to another along congruent edges. Each next member to be connected to the structure is bent in opposite direction in comparison with previous one.
EFFECT: possibility of in-line building structure production by cold profiling with the use of wasteless perforation, increased labor productivity, reduced material consumption and labor inputs, elimination of separate rods connection in structure units, reduced number of location and starting marks, increased assemblage processibility.
SUBSTANCE: structure is designed for buildings with a frame that comprises pillars, a reinforcement slab, longitudinal and transverse steel beams and connecting elements. Connecting elements are arranged in the area of pillars and have the first and second arms. The first arm is fixed to the longitudinal beam, and the second one - to the transverse beam. Slabs comprise a stiffening structure. Connecting elements are L-shaped or Δ-shaped elements to transfer stretching forces. Connecting elements perceive at least diverting horizontal stretching forces. Transverse sides of one or more reinforced concrete ceiling slabs rest with their lower surfaces against wider lower shelves of transverse beams. Longitudinal sides of the slabs contact longitudinal beams.
EFFECT: giving stiffness to ceiling slabs relative to horizontal compressing forces and stretching strains.
11 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: spatial construction-structure of higher earthquake stability includes rod elements from glass-plastic pipes and nodal joints also from glass-plastic pipes, but of larger diameter. In the upper nodal joints six rod elements are formed, which are arranged from each other at the angle of 60° and are forwarded down relative to the horizontal plane at the angle of 30°. In the nodal joints with medium verticality three rod elements meet - from upper and lower nodal joints at the angle of 120° in the plan, and at the angle of 30° relative to the horizontal plane. The lower nodal joint arranged at one axis with the upper one is created in the same manner as the upper one, but it is turned upside down, besides, in the lower nodal joint apart from ascending ones there are another six horizontal rod elements directed towards other lower nodal joints and displaced relative to ascending rod elements by 30° in the plan, which form a lower belt of the spatial construction structure.
EFFECT: higher rigidity and stability under high static and dynamic loads.
SUBSTANCE: triangular lattice of the rod structures, besides the upper (compressed) belt, the lower (stretched) belt and the braces between them is also provided with additional semi-racks and half-braces having a Y-shaped outline. Each pair of these half-braces is connected at one end to the upper belt, and rests on the semi-rack with the other end. Wherein the upper nodal junctions of the half-braces (the upper rods of the Y-shaped racks) divide the panels of the upper belt into three parts, and the lower nodal junctions of the semi-racks (the lower rods of the Y-shaped racks) are combined with the junctions of the lower belt and the lattice braces.
EFFECT: reducing the number of nodal junctions of the lattice rod elements, reducing additional labour costs and structural material consumption.
2 tbl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall of each I-beam is made corrugated, and its flanges are made of different sizes. The upper flange of each beam is made with a width less than the bottom flange width, the permanent formwork is made as a set of individual formwork elements, each of which is made in the section in the form of an open trapezoid with a top and a bottom base of a height "h" equal to 0.8 -0.9 "H1" of the I-beam height, but not less than 1/30 of the flooring span, and is placed on the lower flanges of the beams alternately, connecting them together. They are made of two segments connected overlapped when being laid on the bottom flanges of the beams, and said segments are fastened to one another, and the ends of each formwork element of the permanent formwork, lying on the lower flanges of the beams, are fixed to the lower flanges of the beams.
EFFECT: creating a large-span flooring not requiring large labour costs, convenient in installation and having an increased carrying capacity, including due to the complete support of the permanent formwork on the lower I-beam flanges.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly floor members for underfloor heating/cooling systems.
SUBSTANCE: floor member comprises sheet with at least one groove, heat-conducting layer extending over one main sheet surface and along each groove side to form depression for heat-conducting wire receiving opened from top side thereof. Depression tightly encloses wire and passes over half of cross-sectional perimeter thereof. Upper wire side is flush with upper sheet surface or located below thereof. Sheet has thin foldable foil with thickness of less than 200 μm.
EFFECT: reduced floor member thickness, increased simplicity of floor member dimension selection by cutting foil inside the groove.
6 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: hot-water central heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: plate heating panel comprises top and bottom plates made in block one opposite to the other to define inner passage for hot water, a number of joining members each of which passes symmetrically from the top and bottom plates to the bottom and top plates and connects the top plate with the bottom plate, inner passage for hot water defined by a number of joining members, and two connecting members for supplying and discharging hot water.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydron or panel radiant heating or cooling systems used for heating living quarters and production facilities, and can be used in floor heating or cooling system both in independent systems wherein thermal conditions are provided by various heat sources, and in central heating system. Floor heating system of living quarters and production facilities consists of supply and return pipelines and heat energy transfer means, which are arranged in parallel grooves that are located at an equal distance from each other and routed in upper surface of heating panels above which there installed is heat-conducting surface. In the grooves of heating panels there arranged is a set of jet-type tubes serving as heat energy transfer means and made in the form of separate sealed metal housings with evaporation and condensation zones, into inner cavity of which there pumped in vacuum is liquid heat conductor, at that, each of those tubes is connected to supply pipeline at an angle of 2-3° relative to the base of heating panels.
EFFECT: reducing the volume of heat carrier and decreasing costs required for fuel and energy, reducing heating time and time of response to change of heating loads, and simplifying the system design and operation thereof.
3 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: structure comprises bearing layer, in which at least one slot is provided, passing from layer surface deep down. Slot is intended to locate line to maintain even temperature. Slot has several sections, axes of which are displaced and/or arranged at the angle relative to each other. Sections follow each other directly or via transition parts. For fixation of line at least one lateral side of slot in specified areas in sections of slot and/or on transition sections is partially arranged with undercut. Slot continuously narrows to its mouth in one area between bottom and mouth of slot.
EFFECT: simple and reliable fixation of line for maintenance of even temperature.
18 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to develop heating devices based on resistive film elements is carried out by cutting sections from a heat film roll, which are connected by current-conducting buses with a stapler with the help of brackets, areas of connection of current-conducting buses with heat film sections and with assembly wires are coated with an insulating tape. The current-conducting bus is a solid copper bus. Connection of the current-conducting bus and the wire is carried out by wire bending and fixation with brackets, areas of connection of current-conducting buses with heat film sections are glued with a heat-resistant insulating tape, which is applied at one side of the insulated heat film, and the second side is insulated, bending the insulating tape along the line of heat film cutting.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to accelerate process of assembly, to increase heat emission and to reduce its cost.
1 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to room floor heating and/or cooling systems and can be used for creation of optimum microclimate parameters in domestic and office buildings and structures. A floor heating (cooling) system containing a heat-insulating layer, a concrete layer with a low-inertia heat exchange coil arranged in it for circulation of a heat carrier or a cooling medium, which is located near the floor surface, a heat-conducting metallic material, additionally contains an accumulation heat exchange coil located deep in the concrete layer, with that, low-inertia and accumulation heat exchange coils are combined with bypass lines provided with gate valves and a circulating pump, and a metal mesh contacting the low-inertia heat exchange coil is used as a heat-conducting material.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing efficiency of use of cold (heat) accumulated in solid mass of the flooring and control of cold (heat) release to maintain the most optimum room microclimate parameters.
SUBSTANCE: floor heating system of residential and industrial rooms, filled with heat carrier includes supply and return pipelines and heat energy transfer tubes laid equidistant from each other. Set of tubes is connected with one end to one check valve, and with other end - to the second check valve located in the hydraulic pump. Hydraulic pump housing has corrugated metal pipe with thin wall, one end of which is connected to the supply pipeline, and the other is plugged, wherein the source of thermal energy through supply pipeline is connected with flow converter, connected through the return pipeline with a circulation pump and heat energy source.
EFFECT: it allows to increase heat transfer coefficient of heat exchange surfaces and increase capacity of heating system, as well as provide reliable heat carrier circulation in pipeline circuit.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, particularly, to development of design solutions to create efficient, environmentally friendly buildings and structures, where the specified air temperature is maintained, and can be used in construction of facilities for heating and/or cooling rooms in residential and industrial buildings, warehouses and livestock farms, in greenhouses for heating the soil when growing early vegetables, by means of pipes with passing in them a heat carrier or a coolant. Assigned task is solved by that method of construction of energy-efficient structures, according to which a foundation is erected in a process sequence, on the foundation a base is installed, after that, wall are erected, then mounted are covering, elements of the roof and the roof, ventilation and heating system is mounted by means of which the specified temperature is maintained in premises, in the heating system to transfer the floor heat of the specified temperature heating mats are used, which are made modular in the form of multilayer panels, which are placed on a prepared base with a hydraulic insulating heat-reflecting layer and are connected to the power supply system of the structure. Herewith each heating mat is equipped with a thermal element and is made with a heat-insulating and a heat-accumulating layers, which are made from sieving into fractions of 3-16 mm of encapsulated porous aggregate, mainly, expanded clay, the porous aggregate is bound with a cement-glue composition only at contact points of capsules, herewith the aggregate layers are laid one by one and continuously by fractions, the heat-insulating layer is laid of the aggregate with fractions of 5-16 mm, the heat-retaining layer is laid of the aggregate with fractions of 3-10 mm, herewith the heat-insulating layer is laid with thickness of not less than 20 mm, and the heat-retaining layer - with thickness of not less than 30 mm and not less than 3.5 diameters of the thermal element. Besides, a system for maintaining temperature in the construction containing the heating device accommodating thermal elements for heating and heat transfer to the floor. Herewith the heating device is made in the form of a heating mat with a heat-insulation layer and a heat-retaining layer, and the thermal element is made in the form of a corrugated thin-wall pipe and is arranged in the heat-retaining layer between two metal grids mounted on distancers, inside the thermal element there is a heating element in the form of a wire or a spiral, which is made from a heat-resistant and chemical-resistant alloyed with rare-earth metals alloy, and the free thermal element inner space is filled with a mixture of non-conducting electricity-refractory, fire-refractory materials.
EFFECT: technical task of invention is to develop a project of a building and a structure, in which supported is a preset uniform temperature, for which a system for maintaining a preset temperature in a room shall be developed, including for this purpose a heating device shall be developed supporting the specified temperature.
7 cl, 3 dwg