The method for producing briquettes from brown coal
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the production of briquettes from brown coals and can find application in mining and processing industry. The method includes electrochemical processing of brown coal in an aqueous solution of the sodium salt by passing an electric current with formation of a mixture of coal and humates, drying and briquetting at 85-95°C. Humates transferred to humic acid, treating the mixture of coal and humates hydrochloric acid to pH 4.0 to 4.5. The mechanical strength of the briquettes in compression is increased by 10.6-21.8 percent. table 1. The invention relates to the production of briquettes from brown coals and can find application in mining and processing industry. Known methods of briquetting coal with the addition of a binder in the form of humic acids and their salts /1,2/. Method of briquetting coal /1,2/ includes processing of brown coal 0.1% solution of caustic soda or ammonia at 50-60oC and stirring until a homogeneous mixture. In this mixture injected water to a moisture content of 6-10% and add to the briquetted coal crushed to class 0-2 or < 0.5 mm the resulting mixture was thoroughly mixed and subjected to briquetting at a pressure of 200-600 kg/cm22/A. C. the USSR 64451 C 10 G 5/12, 1945; Khatuntsev L. L. "Physico-chemical phenomena in the process of briquetting solid fuels), Izd-vo an SSSR, 147 C./.The disadvantages of the methods /1-2/ is a multistage process, due to the need of receiving at the first stage of humates on the second selection, the third injection into the coal supplied to briquetting, thorough mixing, and low mechanical strength of the briquettes.The prototype of the present invention may be a method of obtaining a mechanically stable briquettes described in /3/, which are as follows. After electrochemical treatment of brown coal in the electrolyte solution (chloride and sodium sulfate) the resulting pasty mixture of coal and humates. The resulting mixture of coal and dry humates and bitteroot at 85-95oC, resulting in a gain briquettes with high mechanical strength /RF 1804093, C 10 G 5/04, 1996/.The disadvantage of this method /3/ is limiting, i.e., the presence of limit values maximum mechanical strength of the briquettes in compression, which is caused by the technological parameters of the electrochemical process, in particular by the electrolysis time, t which decreases performance.The invention consists in that with the purpose of increasing the mechanical strength of the briquettes to compress the mixture of coal and humates treated with hydrochloric acid to pH 4.0 to 4.5, i.e., humates, rather than selecting from a mixture of coal, transferred to humic acid, resulting in the mechanical strength of the briquettes in compression is increased by 10.6-21.8 percent.To obtain briquettes was taken brown coal having the following characteristics (wt.%): Ad- 13,6, Wa- 6,6, Vdat- 53,1, Sd- 0,24, crushed to particles less than 2.5 mmThe original coal was processed by electrochemical method /4/ /RF 1648077, C 10 G 1/04/. I.e., to the original coal was added 33 ml of 5% solution of sodium chloride. The addition of the electrolyte solution is made so that the coal was in a pasty condition, but was not strong foaming. A portion of the coal was placed in the electrolytic iron cell, which was the cathode. The anode was applied to the platinum wire with a diameter of 0.45 mm Electrochemical processing in the near-cathode space was carried out for 3, 6, and 12 h at a constant voltage of 12.0 V and current of 1.0 A.At the end of the electrolysis the mixture of coal and humates delila humates (option 1, table).The second part was treated with 5% solution of hydrochloric acid so that the pH was equal to 4.0 to 4.5, i.e., humates were converted into humic acid. In this case, the role of the binder is performed humic acid (scheme 2, table).Obtained for two variants of the mixture (with humates and humic acids) to dry a little to a moisture content of 20-22%, was heated to 85-95oC and then pricecialis when the pressure briquetting 510 kgf/cm2. The resulting pellets had a density of 940-980 kg/m3humidity 14-19%, ash content of 14.4%, the calorific value of 16.1 MJ/kgThe strength of the briquettes was determined not earlier than 4 hours after the manufacture of briquettes. The mechanical strength of the briquettes on the compression of the raw coal under similar conditions briquetting was 30,0 kg/cm2.The test results briquettes are presented in the table.From the table it is seen that the mechanical strength of the brown coal briquettes increases in the case of the use as a binder of humic acids (option 2) 10.6 - 21.8% compared with the mechanical strength of the briquettes obtained by using as a binder of humates (variant 1).Thus the second method of producing briquettes provides a wide application of the method in the absence of the need for multi-step operations humic acids, their selection, further adding to the briquetted weight as a binder and reduce the time of electrochemical processing.In General simplifies the process while increasing the mechanical strength of the briquettes in compression. The method for producing briquettes from brown coal, including its electrochemical treatment in an aqueous solution of the sodium salt by passing an electric current with formation of a mixture of coal and humates, drying and briquetting at 85-95°C, characterized in that the humates transferred to humic acid, treating the mixture of coal and humates hydrochloric acid to a pH of 4.0 to 4.5.
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: carbon briquettes based on ground carbon-containing starting material (peat, coals, and the like) are fabricated by mixing starting material with 30-50% of water, treating the mix on rotary cavitation apparatus in 5 to 50 operation cycles at 15 to 70°С and cavitator rotor speed 3000-12000 rpm, pouring out thus treated mix into special molds, wherein mix is dried in air flow at 15 to 100°С to form ready-to-use briquettes (after cooling, if needed).
EFFECT: simplified fabrication process and increased process efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: process to manufacture purified carbon from brown coal implies treating loosened batch mixed with water in cavitation apparatus, which provides for disintegration of organic portion of carbon-containing mixture down to particles of less than 20 mcm. Then, resulting water-carbon mixture is directed to separation tank for sedimentation of mineral mass, which is regularly dumped. From the separation tank, mixture is fed to electrophoretic separation device, out of which paste-like carbon-containing mixture is extracted. Cavitation apparatus power is selected in such a way so as to obtain inorganic particles larger than the organic ones in the water-carbon mixture. Impact cavitation action is applied to continuous slurry flow, while water-carbon mixture is held in the separation tank for at least 20 sec.
EFFECT: high efficiency; production of low-ash purified carbon from brown coal.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure for fabrication of briquettes consists in preparation of raw materials, in loading into briquetting device, in briquetting and in briquettes drying. As carbon containing materials there is used peat and/or plant residues and/or wood wastes. Raw material is prepared in a disk extruder at temperature 70-100°C and humidity 45-60 %.
EFFECT: production of briquetted fuel from various kinds of carbon containing materials possessing high qualitative indices; reduced expenditures for production.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of fuel components briquetting - coal sludges, fine classes of coal, coke dust. The method of coke dust briquetting consists in production of a concentrate. The concentrate is produced by enrichment of coke dust with particle size of less than 1 mm with initial ash content of 10-16.8 wt %, and sulphur content of 0.4-0.5 wt %, by the method of oil agglomeration to ash content of 5.0-5.5 wt% and sulphur content of 0.05 wt %. The prepared concentrate and binder heated to 100-133°C - carbamide taken in the amount of 4.0-6.0% to the weight of the initial concentrate. The mixture is briquetted in steps, for this purpose at first the load of 5-6 atm is set, with a delay of 3-5 min. and further to 15 atm with a delay under the maximum load of 3-5 min.
EFFECT: production of fuel briquettes with low ash content and sulphur content, recycling of coke dust.
1 cl, 6 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel from compacted biomass whereat moist biomass is dried prior to compaction. Before drying, biomass is mechanically dewatered for decrease in moisture content and ground before mechanical dewatering. Note that biomass is ground to puree state, rubbed to obtain fiber and subjected to fine grinding to destruct cellular structures to biomass consistency varying from paste to fluid. Invention relates also to appliance for producing fuel from compacted biomass. Fine grinding allows better removal of water either mechanically or at preliminary dewatering.
EFFECT: decreased amount of contaminants released in combustion and boiler corrosion, higher combustion heat and ash fusion point.
11 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compressed base for use in co-combustion power aggregates and house heating, containing first particles of biomass material selected out of a group including planting stock of soy beans, sage, planting stock of corn and sunflower, and second, carbon particles, where compressed base containing first and second particles and a linking agent (algae or wax) is resistant to fragmentation. Invention relates to a method of obtaining compressed base containing biomass material, carbon particles and algae or wax as linking agent. In addition, invention describes a total of compressed bases in container for use in co-combustion power aggregates and house heating.
EFFECT: compressed base resistant to fragmentation.
23 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention includes mixing of ground solid fuel with a binder, briquetting of the mixture under pressure, where the ground solid fuel is coke dust with particle size of less than 1 mm, and the binder is coking sludge in the amount of 8.0-10% to the weight of coke dust, the mixture of coke dust and the binder is heated to 100°C, pressed in stages: first the load of 5-6 atm is set with a delay of 3-5 min and then up to 15 atm with a delay at the maximum load for 3-5 min, the finished fuel briquette is tempered at 250-300°C without access of air for 10-12 min. The produced briquettes may be used as fuel for combustion in domestic and industrial furnaces, and also for coking in chemical-recovery and metallurgical industry.
EFFECT: production of smokeless fuel briquettes of higher strength, improved environmental situation in coal processing regions, reduced prime cost of fuel briquettes.
2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of recycling solid residue of tyre pyrolysis, which includes enrichment of solid fuel by method of oil agglomeration. As solid fuel used is solid carbon residue of tyre pyrolysis with initial ash content 11.40-11.66%, sulphur content 1.2 wt %, preliminarily crushed to particle coarseness 0.1 mm, with liquid fraction of pyrolysis being used as reagent for enrichment in amount 4.0-6.0% to weight of water, used for enrichment, after which granulation of obtained concentrate and application of water-resistant smell-absorbing coating from petroleum products on the surface of granules.
EFFECT: obtaining moulded fuel from solid residue of automobile tyre pyrolysis with low ash content and sulphur content.
4 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a fuel briquette which includes a carbonaceous component and binder.As the carbonaceous component coke dust with particle size smaller than 1 mm is used and as the binder a mixture of coking sludge with carbamide, with the following ratio of components is used, wt %: binder (a mixture of coking sludge with carbamide in ratio of 1:1) 8-10, coke dust - the balance.
EFFECT: obtaining smokeless high-strength fuel briquettes, improved environmental situation in coal processing regions and low cost of the fuel briquettes.
2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a solid composite fuel from peat, which includes heat treatment of peat at 200-500°C without air access, mixing binder with a crushed carbonaceous residue, moulding a briquette from the obtained mixture and drying, wherein the pyrolysis condensate obtained during heat treatment is separated into a pyrolysis resin and tar water by filtering; the binder is obtained dissolving dextrin in the tar water in ratio of 1:(5-25), and the briquette made from the carbonaceous residue and binder is dried at 20-105°C and left to cool to room temperature, followed by deposition of filtered pyrolysis resin on the surface of the briquette to obtain composite fuel, which is dried at 20-105°C and held at room temperature for 7-14 days.
EFFECT: obtaining moisture-resistant solid composite fuel.