The way the internal purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engine

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to engine, in particular for vehicles, and can be widely used in modern motor vehicles to reduce exhaust emissions. The invention allows for the synthesis of the interrelated effects on the fuel-air mixture for the intensification of the internal combustion engine. The way the internal purification of exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine by increasing the power and duration of the electric pulse ignition of the fuel mixture in the combustion chambers is that at the same time limit the fuel mixture by introducing additional adjustable air flow in the intake tract at an angle to the flow of fuel mixture to achieve the minimum exhaust emissions while maintaining stable engine operation in all modes. In a carbureted internal combustion engines introduced additional air flow from the atmosphere by the throttle of the carburetor perpendicular to the flow of air-fuel mixture. 6 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to the field of engineering, specifically to engine and vehicle, and may find wide application in Sovremennaya in any internal combustion engines (ice) with any number of pistons and chambers as well as rotary and turbine, and will help in the creation of clean and efficient vehicles with internal combustion engines.

Despite a significant number of developments and patents in this area, vehicles are still far from perfect and makes ecological and 70% of the total toxic pollution of cities on the planet.

All known invention in the form of methods and devices environmental cleanup VG engine can be divided into external (HS cleaning exhaust tract of the internal combustion engine) and internal (directly in the DIC). The brief analysis of famous inventions and patents on the subject. The greatest application is still in the methods and devices external cleaning HS directly in the exhaust tract of the engine.

Known and widely used chemical methods and devices external purification of exhaust gases from internal combustion engines by flameless catalytic afterburning of toxic components of exhaust gases in the exhaust tract of the internal combustion engine on the active surface chemical cell catalyst, covered with a thin layer of platinum, palladium, rhodium, etc. (patent of Russia No. 2023178, N 2023176, application Japan 62-167721).

Despite the significant use of such methods and devices clear what these solutions are the complexity and the high cost of their implementation, because their health is required injection system for precise fuel injection internal combustion engine, while virtually non-applicable in Russia; the relatively low life due to chemical contamination of the surface of the catalyst and premenopausally such devices; limited scope, only on vehicles with a petrol engine that runs on unleaded gasoline because of unhealthy chemical cell catalyst in the presence of VG impurities soot, sulfur, lead, etc.

Known methods and devices of the mechanical separation of solid and liquid impurities in the exhaust gases, typical of diesel vehicles, by mechanical separation by rotation of the exhaust stream with subsequent accumulation of soot and particles of oil in special bunkers with the systematic destruction (see , for example, patent of Russia No. 2023175). Their disadvantage is the complexity of implementation, significant energy consumption and high material consumption, since the volume of the separated carbon black is great because of its low density. Thermal decomposition of carbon black uneconomical and leads to increased carbon monoxide.

Known plasma methods and devices for ignition of whapeton is significant energy consumption, in additional consumption of fuel, adverse temperature conditions of the exhaust pipe when it is overheating plasma. In addition, increases the amount of oxidant, and hence the exhaust gases of the engine.

Known methods and devices of electrofiltration exhaust gases of internal combustion engines.with. N 117574; N 1404664) by the impact of electric field on electrically charged particles (solid and liquid) of the exhaust gases with their electrostatic deposition on special electrodes with subsequent systematic removal of sediment. The downside is the low reliability because of the difficulty of providing reliable electric insulation oppositely charged plates of the electrostatic precipitator in the conditions of deposition of soot, the soot on the inner surface of the plates and high temperatures.

Known combined electrochemical methods and devices for purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, for example, and.with. N 1188343, it has all the disadvantages of the catalytic afterburning of exhaust gases and electrostatic precipitators for cleaning. Known methods for purification of exhaust gases from the carbon black by thermal decomposition.with. N 181534). However, this method is also very energy-consuming and inappropriate for vehicles with low power generator. From the Oh mixture (FA) for example, a mechanical crushing drops of fuel (RF patent N 1772391), through improved fuel evaporation with the use of porous materials in the flow path of gasoline (RF patent N2006645), by preheating the fuel (RF patent N 1784069), etc.

The known device the improvement of quality of preparation of fuel assemblies containing special rotating impeller, grid evaporators on the path of FA installed, for example, in the carburetor engine (patent RF N 1772391, RF patent N 1784069). Their disadvantage is the creation of additional aerodynamic resistance in the intake tract of the engine and reducing its power with the same fuel consumption.

Known methods and devices of internal environmental cleanup HS engine through an internal process intensification ignition of the fuel-air mixture(FA) in the combustion chambers of internal combustion engines, for example, by increasing the capacity of electric spark ignition fuel assemblies from a more powerful electronic systems spark or plasma ignition (RF patents NN 1835462, 1838664, 2002975) - any of these patents may be a prototype. Despite some reduction in carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in the part of VG from their implementation (up to 30-40%), these analogues do not allow repeatedly to decrease the in the combustion chambers of the engine.

This prototype method has also disadvantages associated with increasing the power consumption of internal combustion engine due to the increased electrical load from such ignition system on-Board electrical network, the increase in the level of electrical noise, reduced service life of the car electronica due to the rapid electrocorrosion wear of the Central spark plug electrode. All these analogues and prototype, of course, also provide a reduction in toxicity of the HS engine, but due to suboptimal ratio of fuel and air in the intake tract of the engine, especially at idle engine at closed throttle of the carburetor, these methods do not allow for deep environmental cleanup HS engine and, in addition, reduce the degree of resistance of the engine, especially in transient conditions. In addition, this increases the aerodynamic drag of the intake tract, which leads to a decrease in engine power.

The objective of the proposed method is related to the synthesis of these two effects on FA for the intensification of internal combustion engines, as for deep depletion FA, at least at idle, and a sharp reduction in toxicity HS engine while improving the efficiency of time to increase the intensity and duration of exposure to high-voltage ignition pulses for the intensification of ignition and stabilization of combustion of fuel in combustion chambers of the engine.

This object is achieved due to the fact that in the known method the internal purification of exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine by increasing the power and duration of the electric pulse ignition of the fuel mixture in the combustion chambers simultaneously limit the fuel mixture by introducing additional adjustable air jet at an angle to the flow of fuel mixture to achieve the minimum exhaust emissions while maintaining stable engine operation in all modes.

The development of the method lies in the fact that in a carbureted internal combustion engines introduced additional air flow from the atmosphere by the throttle of the carburetor perpendicular to the flow of the fuel-air mixture.

The development of the method lies in the fact that the adjustment of the additional air jets operate at idle to maximum engine speed when fully closed throttle.

The development of the method lies in the fact that simultaneously ionize and electrostatically sprayed fuel and ozoniruyut the intake air in a strong electric field with intensity of at least 1 kV/see

The development of the method lies in the fact that the engines of innesi or tangentially with respect thereto through an orifice in each of the intake manifolds in front of the cutoff of the fuel injector.

The development of the method is that is sprayed through a needle of the syringe into the additional air flow water distrurbance aerosol, and simultaneously process them in a strong electric field with intensity not lower than 1 kV/see

The development of the method lies in the fact that regulate the flow of additional air and water aerosols and the parameters of the electric field, which handles the fuel and additional air-water mixture, depending on the mode of operation of the engine and the quality of its fuel by the condition of minimum exhaust emissions.

Implementation of the proposed method internal environmental cleanup HS gasoline internal combustion engine shown in the example of carburetor ice (Fig. 1,2). The device for implementing the method is an upgraded gasoline internal combustion engines and consists of the air filter 1, the carburetor 2, the fuel float chamber 3 fuel line 4 and elektroshlifovalnaya from the chassis engine fuel nozzle 5 is attached to the fuel line 4, the device is equipped with additional elektroshlifovalnaya the spacer 6, located under the carburetor 2 containing metal spray grid 7, the revolving mechanical regulator 8 of submission to the center of the intake manifold 10, combustion chamber of internal combustion engine 11, the battery 12 connected to the high voltage regulated voltage Converter with output voltages from 5 to 30 kV, the passing insulators 14, through which serves electric potential at the fuel injector 5, the system electrosurgery 15 (shown schematically), a thin nozzle 16 for supplying water aerosols and secondary air by the throttle of the carburetor 2.

The device operates as follows. When the engine is running at idle in the intake manifold 10 creates a vacuum of air, under the action of the fuel injector 5 stems and crushed fuel in the main air stream passing through the air filter 1. However, due to almost fully closed throttle valve of the carburetor 2 (it is in Fig. 1,2 not shown) in this mode, the internal combustion engine, the fuel mixture is usually probaganda and bad mixed with air, which leads to increased toxicity VG.

In our case, the additional flow of air entering the intake tract 10 through a calibrated orifice 9 of the regulator 8 air flow perpendicular to the main flow of the fuel mixture, impoverishes it, and simultaneously provides eenou power (1.5-2 times) electrical ignition pulses from the ignition system 15. Additional cleaning effect VG from the implementation of this method arises from electrostatic crushing because of the mutual repulsion same electrically charged droplets of fuel and ozone air under the influence of an electric field between the fuel nozzle 5 and the grid 7. It is known that ozone is compared with the conventional air is much more powerful oxidizer, so ozonization of air in the intake manifold of internal combustion engine also intensifies the process of ignition and combustion of the fuel mixture, which also improves the purity of the VG, and the injection of water sprays through the pipe 16 into the intake manifold 10 leads to a decrease in the chambers 11 of the engine the temperature of the burning mixture to ensure the minimum conditions of education in the process of burning toxic oxides of nitrogen.

The easiest way to configure the device for a minimum of toxicity VG idling engine is to regulate the intensity of the additional air flow by changing the diameter of the holes 9 by the rotation of the drum controller 8 to the fixing of maximum engine speed at a constant fuel consumption. Indeed, during experiments was observed almost 5% overtoom air through the opening 9.

As a result, as shown by the bench test method for internal combustion engine from the VAZ 2106, the steady operation of the internal combustion engine in all modes when the depletion of the fuel mixture in two or more times, and toxicity VG (COxHx, NOxand other components) due to more intensive and complete combustion of the fuel mixture in the combustion chamber 11 is reduced by 50-90%.

It is clear that when applying an excessive amount of air in the intake manifold 10 of the engine through the supply regulator 8 with an opening 9 a maximum diameter of, for example 4 mm, obtained swargamenna fuel mixture, which is not ignited by the ignition system 15. This effect allows the use of the proposed method and as an effective means of protection against theft of the vehicle, just in the Parking lot to put the controller 8 maximum penetration hole 9 in the intake manifold 10 of the engine. Of course, for a standard normal engine start it is necessary to reduce the cross-section of the openings 9 or even drown his knob 8.

1. The way the internal purification of exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine by increasing the power and duration of the electric pulse ignition of the fuel mixture in emerytalny air flow in the intake tract at an angle to the flow of fuel mixture to achieve the minimum exhaust emissions while maintaining stable engine operation in all modes.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that a carbureted internal combustion engines introduced additional air flow from the atmosphere by the throttle of the carburetor perpendicular to the flow of the fuel-air mixture.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the adjustment of the additional air jets operate at idle to maximum engine speed when fully closed throttle.

4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that simultaneously ionize and electrostatically sprayed fuel and ozoniruyut the intake air in a strong electric field with intensity of at least 1 kV/see

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in engines with fuel injection by the fuel injection of the additional air flow from the atmosphere injected transversely to the flow of the fuel mixture or tangentially with respect thereto through an orifice in each of the intake manifolds in front of the cutoff of the fuel injector.

6. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the sprayed through a needle of the syringe into the additional air jet of distilled water aerosol, and simultaneously process them in a strong electric field with intensity not lower than 1 is arsoli and the parameters of the electric field, which handles the fuel and additional air-water mixture, depending on the mode of operation of the engine and the quality of its fuel by the condition of minimum exhaust emissions.

 

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