A method of enrichment of the fuel shale
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to processing, fuel, petrochemical areas and can be used to enrich the fuel and raw materials, especially low-grade. The invention consists in that in the method of enrichment of the fuel oil shale, comprising the treatment agent, the formation and separation of liquid residue as a processing agent used crude oil and shale as a fuel used slates, dried to equilibrium moisture, and the treatment is carried out by filtration of the crude oil through the oil shale at a temperature of the processing agent is not higher than the temperature of the beginning of the volatile components. In addition, the process is carried out in temperature ranges from room temperature up to +50°C. Technical result is an increase of ecological culture production while reducing energy consumption and simplify the method. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il., 3 table. The invention relates to the field of fuel production from shale and may find application in oil shale processing, fuel and petrochemical industries.It is known that in the future will increase the consumption of oil shale as an energy source and will razvivawciesja, woodworking and other industries. (Getting from oil shale fuel and non-fuel products. That Is, Gorlov, A. B. Wills-Epstein).The known method of producing motor fuels from oil shale by semi-coking in the generators. (Zelenin N. And. Shale fuel. Costoptimized, 1948 S. 71).Also known a method of producing motor fuel by interaction (thermal) with the solvent at temperatures from 400-430oC, a pressure of 30-50 bar and the ratio of the slate : solvent 1 : 1,3-2,0. The resulting distillate separated from the ash extract and consult last. While coke is separated from the liquid products (ed. St-in the USSR N 104264, CL 10 G 1/02, 1956).The known method are somewhat different from the latter by the fact that the shale interaction with the solvent and ash coking of the extract are in the presence of polydimethylsiloxane, taken in an amount of 0.01-0.2% at 20oC (ed. St-in the USSR N 941396 C 10 G 1/04).The disadvantages of these methods are the high energy costs, hazardous conditions due to high temperatures, the use of dangerous flammable substances.Known also another way of exploitation of oil shale. Processing Slano the cooling and unloading nearly equal large quantities of spent shale.However, this method is uneconomical in relation to shale, have low organic matter content.The first patent on the processing of oil shale was obtained in 1694 in the UK. Later, many techniques were developed based on distillation in a retort, introducing improvements to the regeneration as much energy as possible, present in oil shale (patent of Russia No. 2049804, IPC C 10 G 1/04).The disadvantages of these methods in the following: high energy consumption, the presence of olefins and heteroatoms in the resulting product. Attempts were made to circumvent the disadvantages and solution of this problem by the use of solvent extraction oil shale at room temperature.In Israel patent N 51676 describes a method for the fuel gas and hydrocarbon from the carbonate-bearing shale. According to this invention, oil shale is subjected to distillation in a retort at a temperature of approximately 500oC through combustible gases, which contain mainly hydrogen, CO2, CO and steam. Then the residual consolidatasi gravel is heated at a temperature of 1100oC in the presence of steam and air, the remainder of which were thrown away in waste.A known method of obtaining a carbon-containing briquettes (patent RF N 2096442, C 10 L 5/04, 5/10, 5/30 ), including the initial drying wet shredded fuel material (coal coke breeze, peat, wood waste), mixing it with a binder (lignosulfonate, liquid glass), briquetting the mixture, the heat treatment of the briquettes at 200-700oC and cooling them.The disadvantages of this method is that no additional enrichment of the combustible organic substances, high temperature heat treatment of the briquettes, the complexity of the operation of the cooling of hot briquettes in a drum mixer. Therefore, this method may serve only as a distant analogue of the claimed invention.There are a number of publications (authors - Wills-Epstein A. B., and others) related to the processing of oil shale including a high amount of mineral components, low organic matter content, for example, the log input: Chemistry of solid fuels, so-14, 2, S. 67-70, 1980. The publication summarizes a series of experiments processing of the Baltic oil shale. Presents methods of processing oil shale, the mechanism of which is reduced to the destruction of the organic matter present in the oil shale, the report noted, this extract is useful as a fuel for the engine or power unit, as raw material for coke production, etc. Separation of the final products produced by distillation.The disadvantages of this method is the high energy cost because of the oil shale to a temperature of 400-430oC for 6-10 h at pressure of 30 to 50 atmospheres in the presence of a solvent which has a boiling point in the range from 210 to 340oC. in Addition, the critical conditions for the safety of personnel requiring high quality and low environmental quality of the work inherent in technology solutions for the processing and refining of shale - boiling solvent, high temperature heating of oil shale up to 430oC, large amounts of waste, small - useful product serious shortcomings of the claimed methods, making you look fundamentally different approaches.Closest to the proposed method is a technology joint thermal cracking of oil shale (for example, sapropelite) and oil tar oil (residual oil) (RF patent N 2009162, C 10 G 9/10 ). During thermal cracking of heavy oil feedstock from shale processesa for the preparation of raw materials through the use of techniques of varying the degree of polydispersity and kinetic stability of the reaction system. This technology includes the following basic stages:
the mixture of residual oil feedstock, and in the case of thermal hydrocracking of tar and risaykl (so Kip. above 370oC), with shredded combustible shale with obtaining a paste;
thermocracking or thermal hydrocracking paste in the hollow reactor;
the separation of the solid product from the liquid by centrifugation or vacuum distillation;
distillate ash-free liquid products of thermal cracking units or thermal hydrocracking.Schematic diagram and material balance of thermal cracking units tar with oil shale is shown in the drawing.During thermal hydrocracking of tar mixed with risaykl (ratio of 1 : 0.2 to 0.4) and the Baltic oil shale (15%) under a pressure of 10 MPa and a temperature of 425oC is reached deep conversion of heavy crude oil in the gasoline fraction with so Kip. 200oC and diesel fraction with so Kip. 200-370oC - the total yield of 90% and above. An important advantage of the method is the possibility of thermal hydrocracking without expensive catalysts and at a relatively low pressure (3-5 MPa) and thermal cracking units without hydrogen. It is possible to reduce capital and operating at the high temperature, the need for the use of the autoclave, a large solid waste materials, the complexity of technology.The task of the invention is to develop enrichment method shale high economic and environmental level while reducing waste and simplifying technology.The essence of the invention lies in the fact that in the method of enrichment of the fuel shales, including the processing of the raw product, the formation and separation of the liquid residue, preparation of raw produce moisture measurement and bringing it up to the equilibrium value of drying, and as a processing agent used crude oil. The treatment is carried out at a temperature of the processing agent is not higher than the temperature of the beginning of the release of volatile oil components by filtering it through the slate.Furthermore, the method is carried out in the temperature range from room temperature up to +50oC. It is the best temperature regimes.The method is as follows.Slate regardless of field and depth is controlled by a check on the humidity. Then bring it to the values of equilibrium moisture content, usually not more than 3 wt.% in relation to the total weight of SNIA completely dehydrated shale may although it is inconvenient and causes additional costs of energy and heat. Drying the humidified raw material can be performed by any method: under favorable weather conditions the summer period is directly under the open sky or under a canopy in the presence of precipitation. Then the slate even layer stack on glass, metal, ceramic or made of another, resistant to oil, filter material, located inside the tank for carrying out the method. Capacity for oil is also made from a material resistant to it. The recommended height of the layer of shale in the unit it is recommended that no more than the maximum length of the fuel briquette, which can be obtained. The size of the particles stacked layer of slate can be different depending on the type of equipment available to the user. Very small particles of dust type < 0.1 mm is not only easy to use (dust, pollution), but also ineffective in the process of interaction of shale oil because of the low permeable (filter) ability due to lack of transport pores for the passage of the processing agent. Then in the tank serves the oil to pass the enriched product and to increase the production and operation of fuel briquettes. The amount of oil is installed at the beginning of the technical process by the first portions of the processed products. The criterion for the adequacy of the quantity of the supplied oil is the lack of drops flowing from the processed product. We need to do is extract the processed shale at diafragmirovanija pallet for a possible runoff of excess oil. For this you can use another tank. Excerpt saves oil, increases production, because the residues are returned to the process. For achieving the desired characteristics of the enriched product is fed to the briquetting and packaging. Depending on the upcoming conditions of transportation and storage selected binder and film materials for packaging briquette. Specific examples confirming the effectiveness of the inventive method enrichment shale deposits, are presented in table. 1.The inventive method simultaneously enriched shale refines the oil due to its treatment by filtering through a layer of shale (see tab. 2). Enriched with more than boiling and more depleted magelonidae components filtered oil with a lower viscosity traveo way - practically no waste and its high ecological culture.The temperature of the enrichment process of the slate by filtering oil through it, as a rule, is within(+5)-(+50)oC. Conduct of the enrichment process of shale oil at a temperature above the 50oC is not recommended due to possible evaporation of volatile toxic and flammable products from the oil. The implementation process at temperatures below +5oC is difficult due to a significant increase in the viscosity of the oil, reducing the efficiency of the enrichment, and the possibility of phase separation system with falling ice crystals. Recommendations on quantities used pressures justified by the savings in energy use. Therefore, it is expedient processing of oil shale carried out at atmospheric pressure.This method allows the use of shale oil and different fields (see table). Particularly promising application of the claimed technology in regions where both occur and shale oil, as for example the territory of Saratov, Samara, Volgograd and other areas. Problems of subsistence (non-conforming) oil and inefficient shale allow to solve the fuel is not only NGOs, local fuel and inexpensive. NCV Volga shale enriched with oils, depending on the field last may reach values of 10.7-12.9 MJ/kg (GOST 7917-81), which is much higher specific heats of combustion of raw shale concluded within 6,8-of 9.3 MJ/kg This indicates the increase in fuel condition processed shale.Projected reserves of oil shale only in the European part of Russia is 56 billion tons, and studied the Volga basin - 43% of total reserves, therefore, the high relevance of the development of environmentalists Cesky acceptable enrichment technologies shale without the high cost of energy in these processes.The method was tested in laboratory conditions and in the conditions of specific fields of Saratov and Samara regions. 1. A method of enrichment of the fuel oil shale, comprising the treatment agent, the formation and separation of the liquid residue, characterized in that the processing agent used crude oil, train oil shale moisture measurement, as well as fuel and oil shale used slates, dried to equilibrium moisture, and the treatment is carried out by filtration of the crude oil through the oil shale p is the procedure under item 1, characterized in that the process is carried out in the temperature range from room temperature up to +50oC.
FIELD: solid fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabrication of hydrocarbon moldings in the form of briquettes or granules. Which can be used as natural solid fuel substitutes for municipal and industrial needs but also as fertilizers and/or soil structure improvers. Carbon-containing moldings contain (i) ground peat and/or lignin (5-50%), (ii) wood-vegetable components in the form of sawdust and/or wood chips, and/or bark, and/or straw, and/or chaff, and/or seed shells, and/or oilcake, and/or plant stems and leaves, and/or animal components in the form of poultry dung and/or manure (1-10%), and (iii) binder in the form of burnt lime, sodium hydroxide, or potassium hydroxide (balancing amount). Method of fabrication comprises dispensing, mixing, grinding, and activation of peat and/or lignin with binder, after which is added above-indicated wood-vegetable and/or animal components and resulting mixture is remixed. Final mixture is converted into moldings, which are then compacted by lying during 2 to 30 h.
EFFECT: extended consumer's market of low-cost and environmentally safe fuel product, enabled utilization of wide range of energy organic wastes, and improved fertility of soil.
6 cl, 9 ex
FIELD: solid fuel technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for application in production of solid fuel in metallurgy and for domestic necessities. Method of restoring sieve composition of coke comprises mixing off-grad coke with binder, such as various cement brands and Portland cement, moistening, briquetting of mix followed by heat treatment, and cooling. Off-grad coke utilized is coke fines fraction 0-10 mm and/or coke nut fraction 10-25 mm belonging to a certain types, which are mixed with binder at ratio (60-95):(5-40), respectively. Moistening is provided by adding water to 35% based on the weight of mix. Heat treatment is effected with steam. Cooling proceeds at ambient temperature to residual moisture content 5%. Mix is completed with filler in the form of organic or inorganic naturally occurring or man-made substances. Briquetting is effected on either vibration or press equipment. Coke briquette contains 60 to 95% of above-defined off-grade coke and 5 to 40 % of binder. Size of thus manufactured briquettes corresponds to required sieve composition of coke.
EFFECT: enabled full restoration of all fractions of needless process coke residues to useful sieve composition appropriate for fabrication of environmentally safe briquettes with improved consumer's properties without considerable investments.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel briquettes from carbon-containing fine-fraction materials. Proposed method comprises preliminary mixing of melasses and lime-containing component to get modified binder to be mixed with fine-fraction carbon-containing mineral material and forming briquettes with the following ratio of components, % by weight: melasses 1.8-7.0, lime-containing component (in terms of Ca(OH)2) 0.8-3.2, fine-fraction carbon-containing mineral material making the rest. Ratio between melasses and carbon-containing component (in terms of Ca(OH)2) makes 1:(0.25-0.75), respectively. In compliance with the other version, proposed method comprises preliminary mixing of melasses and lime-containing component to get modified binder to be mixed with fine-fraction carbon-containing mineral material, fine-fraction vegetable materisl and forming briquettes with the following ratio of components, % by weight: melasses 3.0-9.0, lime-containing component (in terms of Ca(OH)2) 1.2-4.5, fine-fraction carbon-containing vegetable material 5.0-20.0, and fine-fraction carbon-containing mineral material making the rest. Ratio between melasses and carbon-containing component (in terms of Ca(OH)2) makes 1:(0.25-0.75), respectively.
EFFECT: improved ecological properties, simplified production process.
11 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure for fabrication of briquettes consists in preparation of raw materials, in loading into briquetting device, in briquetting and in briquettes drying. As carbon containing materials there is used peat and/or plant residues and/or wood wastes. Raw material is prepared in a disk extruder at temperature 70-100°C and humidity 45-60 %.
EFFECT: production of briquetted fuel from various kinds of carbon containing materials possessing high qualitative indices; reduced expenditures for production.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: flaky fuel briquette comprises the main part, including coal and a binder, and an ignition part, and has longitudinal holes in the entire volume of the briquette. The ignition part is located on the end surface of the briquette coaxially with holes in such a manner that the larger part of the all holes cross section is on the ignition part. The area of the ignition part cross section is less than the area of the briquette cross section and is made as increasing from the end surface of the briquette to its centre. At the same time the ignition part may be made in the form of a truncated cone, in the form of coaxial cylinders contacting with each other, besides, the smaller cylinder is arranged one above the other or in the form of a voluminous multiple-beam star.
EFFECT: reliable ignition and burning of the ignition and main parts, higher reliability of adhesion between the main and the ignition parts, the fuel briquette differs with high completeness of fuel mass burning and low hazardous emissions to the atmosphere.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fuel briquette that contains coke and anthracite fines, molasses as binding agent and additional binding agent - industrial vegetable oil. At that, briquettes have cylindrical shape with the following dimensions: diameter x height - 100x100 or 110x110 or 120x120 mm. The invention also refers to the method for obtaining fuel briquettes, which involves dosing, mixing of coke and anthracite fines and binding agent - molasses, briquetting of mixture under pressure of 35-50 MPa and drying of briquettes, and which differs by the fact that industrial vegetable oil is added to molasses prior to dosing at the following ratio of molasses : oil, wt %: 9-12 : 0.5-2; briquettes are arranged on trolleys and drying is performed at continuous discrete trolley movement (every 10 minutes) through the distance equal to the length of one trolley; at that, temperature vs. time drying mode is characterised with three stages: first stage - 100-300°C during 40 minutes, the second stage - 380-200°C during 100 minutes, the third stage - 200-100°C; besides, drying of briquettes at the first stage is performed with opposite flow in relation to trolley movement, and with cocurrent flow of drying agent at the second and the third stages.
EFFECT: improvement of the method.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method for production of coal briquettes from coal slurry and coal fines with a binder - an aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte - a flocculant on the basis of a polyacrylamide (PAA). As an intensifying additive to increase adhesion as a charge is compressed in process of pressing, the initial solution of PAA is complemented with water-soluble surfactants from the class of polyethers based on propylene glycol. Coal briquettes are used for communal-domestic and technological purposes.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of application.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce briquette fuel includes stages for preparation of initial components, mixing, pressing and drying. Components used are a carbon-containing material, such brown coal medium-temperature coke of the initial grain-size composition, a mineral binder, such as subcoal aleurolite, a strengthening modifier, such a 3% aqueous solution of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or an aqueous solution of 10% flour paste, a hydrophobe modifier, such as fuel oil of M100 grade and water, at the following ratio of components, wt %: mineral binder - 1-10; strengthening modifier - 1-30; hydrophobe modifier - 1-10; water - 1-30; carbon-containing material - balance. After mixing of components the briquette mass is pressed into briquettes under pressure of 20-200 MPa, and then briquettes are dried at the temperature 100-250°C.
EFFECT: method improvement.
4 cl, 15 ex