The device farm building elements
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular for supporting structures - trusses. The technical result of the invention is to increase the rigidity of the structure. The farm includes a plate, at least one belt and one or two lattices. Each grille is made of rods or wires or strips arranged in the longitudinal direction in the form of a zigzag line, the ends of the trusses manufactured as a single unit in the form of a monolithic part or connected to one another in a monolithic piece so that the intermediate region between the two trusses or between the belt and the plate of the farm is filled with this material. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. The device farm building elements for farms with open gratings, farms with two belts, trusses with two zones, at least one of which is cast, and belts for slab molded element with a lattice of rods, bars or rack material or with a lattice of rectangular plates or similar, perhaps the profiled collected diagonally similarly, the diagonal elements of the lattice in farms with open lattice, and thus forming an open lattice attached to the belt or to poiny farm, high hardness, hardening compounds as hardening and securing the trusses.The present invention relates to a new design of all farms or zones and can also be used for other parts of the farm. It can also be used in the design of trusses with monolithic grating or gratings consisting of gratings, the thickness of which is less than the width of the belt, and with such lattices, which are equipped with openings to reduce weight.This invention can also be used for farms with a lattice of rectangular plates or similar, perhaps the profiled collected diagonally similar to a diagonal parts of the lattice in lattice girders, which thus form an open lattice, for example, in accordance with the patent Sweden N 488312.Farm with open gratings are usually exposed to the so-called shear forces. In the farm, or the element beam form, or in the slab with a belt designed as a farm with an open lattice with diagonals, United on the principle of zigzag, these diagonals are either stretching or compressing the load due to the displacement forces generated in the farm. If the study, in the same plane, these rods will be exposed to twisting forces acting in the direction arising from the fact that one of the diagonal rod is always stretched, and the second is always compressed, or Vice versa. Even a very slight deformation of the torsion has a huge impact on the deformation of the farm. The most desirable to obtain a device that would reduce the impact of such forces on the farm.Farm with open arrays are also exposed to transverse forces acting on a farm in areas around fasteners. Walls often are at the top of the truss elements and the farm must be able to withstand the immense pressures that inevitably entails a reduction of the loads on the farm.The difficulty of production farms with open gratings of optimal length, because for economic reasons, the manufacturers try to use the identical form, for example, with the same gaps between the curves. It is desirable to streamline the installation of all farms.In addition, we are currently developing new technology for heating and ventilation of residential buildings, which consists in the supply of preheated air in the narrow opening at the base of the building, then this air is under niteline to heat the air. If serving heat pipe is placed along the external wall below the structural slab flooring, the air under the slab is also heated, the heated floors, and passing through the tube the air is heated, the heated areas of the home. It is desirable that the design allowed for the installation of such pipes and other installations of wiring the load-bearing parts.Another way of monitoring the temperature of the air along the exterior walls is to hang curtains on the distance from the inner part of the outer wall, the top of the curtains seals the floor slab and belt. It is desirable to have a locking device to install the above screens.In addition, we are currently developing new technology for the construction of multi-storey houses made of very light materials. For example, between the permanent forms of insulation of foamed plastic is placed so-called aerated concrete. The disadvantage of thus obtained the walls is poor soundproofing and what they can not withstand large loads.For practical and technical reasons for achieving integrity in the casting and the valve between floors and to eliminate sound transmission, full-time elements of the decks on the racks and to avoid expansion of the slab inside the outer walls. The elements of the decks should be carefully anchored on the walls for transmitting transverse forces caused, for example, winds, and achieve the effect of diaphragms in slab flooring to give the building stability.Manufacturers of houses from wood blocks are often used boom lift walls of various heights, even if the rooms are the same height. Elements walls of wooden houses are normally installed in structural floors, also made of wood. The latter also continue through the wall and exposed to cold air from the outside.Therefore, it is necessary to find a solution for fastening, taking into account these requirements and minimizes the effects of thermal bridges using precast concrete parts.The basis of the invention was based on the task to ensure the satisfactory functioning farm with open grate, more or less resistant to deformation caused by the twisting forces. Especially susceptible to this farm with open gratings consisting of diagonals that are in the same plane. Specifically in bending twisting force is called on twisting the connection between the lattice and the belt due to the directions of the forces: one force stretching and basic structure, that simultaneously provides load-bearing properties and is also used as an area for installation of electrical wiring and plumbing equipment, installations for Central vacuum processing and similar installations as well as installation of outboard equipment for suspended ceilings or equipment in tunnels used for installations.Testing has shown that even if the cables of the lattice and the great belt anchoring element of the long span and subjected to heavy loads still does not have sufficient resistance to twisting deformation, while belt, as seen from the side view, is exposed to a sinusoidal deformation.Especially important is the feature of this invention that it is possible to reduce the load on the belt and thus to increase the strength of the farm and to improve its properties of resistance to twisting deformation.This invention allows the installation of a heating circuit and speed control air flow along the outer wall. Also there is a similar possibility of installation of electrical wiring and cables for stereo audio, computer networks, etc., with access from above.The design of the mount is the problem of strengthening the above truss structures solved by constructing all of the farm as a monolithic structure or component connections in monolithic structure, in a homogeneous material, such as steel, wood, plywood, or composite, or design through the fill entirely, or almost entirely, for example concrete or composite, coupled with belts or belt and slab, respectively.In accordance with the present invention the ends of the chord is given a special configuration to enable installation of the above equipment and the elimination of thermal bridges. Method of strengthening the walls with low bearing capacity is also listed.In this situation, the flooring elements are assembled so that the turning of the slab is at the top. Possibility of installation of the equipment is in the manufacture of farm with special ends longer than the slab, which serves as the attachment. The slab has a smaller size than the span between the walls, thus there is a gap between the outer wall and the slab. Notch above are on the top and on the end of the slab. This design allows you to install the wiring and tubing from the top of the structural deck instead of having to install them from below with thread.This can be achieved, because the element that the new application should serve as part of the installation, Spry.Since the distance between the slab and the belt increases, the end of the farm increases, because in the present invention used in the intermediate gap. Even if the groove is for installations made at the top, for supporting still have sufficient strength. This is one of the advantages of the present invention.The possibility of fixing curtains, etc. is provided at the supply end farm hollows may end-to-end at a distance from the inner part of the outer walls and top slab flooring.Prevention of thermal bridges at the bases and fixture arrows lifting walls of different heights of different manufacturers is achieved by strengthening at the end of farm strong bolt of wood or other material with low thermal conductivity. This bolt and possibly also the end of the farm can support Lejeune wood boards for one wall. Under Lejeune, you can put more crossbars as an additional support between the ends of the farm if they are at a great distance from one another.Further, according to the present invention the ends of the farm is of special configuration to provide the above capabilities for installing and fixing the same to the etc. can be achieved when the supply end of the anchor farm solutions, which can be end-to-end to provide feed valve through the farm. Cast strip or beam, for example, of concrete, the walls inside, slightly lower in level with the structural deck can serve as a mount as well as the anchoring element to the wall.Hereinafter the invention is explained in the description of specific examples of its implementation and the accompanying drawings, on which:
Fig. 1 depicts a cross-section of the entire Foundation of the outer wall 9 with the end of the farm of the present invention, provided with a recess 5 for installations and temperature bolt 8, and the installation of insulation. Zone of the molded material 3;
Fig. 2 is a perspective element structural flooring, attached to the outer wall, with a belt of the present invention, provided with a molded belt and the lattice of curved rods;
Fig. 3A is a cross section of the structural element of the deck with the belts, the ends 4 of which the present invention is provided with a recess 5 for installations, opening, or slot 6 for fastening and opening 7 for anchors;
Fig. 3B is a cross section detail of the exterior walls, including some of the structural flooring with belts, the ends 4 of which pancirov. The figure depicts a light wall in composite structures 19 and the connection with the wall by means of end farm;
Fig. 4 is a perspective structural element of the deck with the belts, the ends of which the present invention provided with a recess 5 for the facilities and opening 7 for anchors. Farm belt 2 made of steel with T-section 21 and straightforward curved grating 11 of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is a vertical section of a structural element of the deck with the belts, the ends 4 of which the present invention is provided with a recess 5 for installations, opening, or slot 6 for the fastener and an aperture 7 for anchors as well as grate plates 31;
Fig. 6 is a vertical section of a structural element of the deck with the belts, the ends 4 of which the present invention is provided with a recess 5 for installations as well as the bars of a long plate 31.Example structures according to the present invention is shown in Fig. 1, showing the cross-section of the entire Foundation of the outer wall 9 with a structural element of flooring, including a belt with ends 4 of the farm, fully or almost fully molded construction in connection with a belt and slab mounted on a beam Foundation.The end of the farm is equipped with a recess 5 for ustanovka, who does not continue to the wall, the recess forms a gap between the slab and the wall.Further, the end of the farm is equipped with an aperture or socket 6 for fasteners. In this case designed in the form of a rectangular recess may end-to-end at a distance from the inner part of the wall and slab.The end 4 of the farm is also provided with a bolt that acts as a thermal barrier. The figure depicts the vertical bolt attached to the end 4 of the farm with the help of cast nails 35. The belt in this example is cast.In addition, a method is specified insulation base as well as the General method of construction for the exterior walls of wood 29, which does not necessarily have to be fixed at the same level with internal partitions.Fig. 2 is a perspective structural element of the flooring with a cast slab 1, which must be attached to the outer wall 9, with the farm, equipped with a molded belt, with the end 4 of the farm according to the present invention as well as a curved, open bars 10.Fig. 3 depicts a cross-section details external walls, including an element of the structural flooring with belts, the ends of which the present invention provided with a recess 5 for installations and wciu with lightweight composite wall 19 as well as the connection with the wall mount for the ends 4 of the farm with embedded reinforcing rod 28.Fig. 4 depicts a perspective element structural flooring with belts, the ends 4 of which the present invention is provided with a recess 5 for the facilities and opening or slot 6 for fasteners. Farm belts of steel T-section 21 and the bars 11.The figure depicts how to use the end 4 of the farm can continue the belt to the desired length corresponding to the length of the passage. Then the belt can be manufactured in accordance with the size of the gaps between the curves 15; 6; 17; 18 diagonals of the lattice and the end 4 of the farm used for support.Even though the drawings are shown and described above, only a small number of possible technical solutions of the present invention, it should be borne in mind that the invention is not limited to these technical solutions, and only those technical solutions, which are indicated in the claims. 1. The farm, which includes a plate, at least one belt and one or two lattices, each of which is made of rods or wires or strips arranged in the longitudinal direction in the form of a zigzag line between the curves, characterized in that connected to one another in a monolithic piece of homogeneous material, so an intermediate region between the two zones (2, 3) farm or between zones (2, 3) and plate (1) of the farm is filled with this material, resulting in the ends (4) farm continue the farm to the desired length, thereby increasing the rigidity and strength of the fastening.2. Farm p. 1, characterized in that the plate (1) farm directed upwards at the ends (4) of the farm is made longer than the plate (1) and the plate (1) directed towards the support (9), in the body of the ends (4) farm made a recess (5), open the top end plate (1).3. Farm p. 1, characterized in that in the body of the end (4), farm connected to the plate (1) at some distance from the butt end (4) directed towards the support (9) made at least one end-to-end mounting hole (6) and/or in the body of the end (4) of the farm from its end directed towards the support (9) made at least one through hole (7) for rebar (28).4. Farm according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the end of the end (4) of the farm turned towards the support (9), the outer wall (9) has a bolt (8) with low thermal conductivity attached to the end (4) of the farm with the help of cast fastening elements (35) and whose height is appropriate
FIELD: building, particularly floor structures of multi-story buildings.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming slab; heat processing thereof; connecting upper and lower slab parts by their engagement, wherein upper slab part is used as cantledge for lower formed one. Slab forming and processing is performed in two stages. On the first stage forming and processing is carried out for upper slab part, on the second one heat processing is performed simultaneously for upper and lower assembled slab parts.
EFFECT: reduced labor and power inputs for slab production.
FIELD: building, particularly to produce reinforced concrete items, namely hollow-core floor structures, by continuous off-form technology.
SUBSTANCE: floor panel comprises concrete body with upper and lower parts and longitudinal ribs and voids 5 formed between upper and lower parts. Panel is provided with gripping loops 6 located in longitudinal voids. Gripping loops are formed by crossing horizontal reinforcing rods arranged in two levels and brought into contact one with another in crossing points in which rod surfaces touch each other. Each rod has front part with chamfer extending at angle β=30-60°, end part bent at 180°-β angle and extends in horizontal plane relative longitudinal ribs at angle α=30-60°. Through gripping holes are arranged above crossing points of the rods. Method for item production involves laying longitudinal reinforcement; installing horizontal way mold assembly and forming hollow-core concrete item body; forming through gripping holes just after concrete item body creation by installing template and caving concrete mass in single operation through template orifice into inner panel void; puncturing concrete mass ribs by reinforcing rods long guiding channels of the template; creating gripping loops and cutting concrete mass into separate items; curing the items to reach stripping strength.
EFFECT: increaser reliability of item engagement.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building material industry, particularly decorative panels adapted for building or building structure facing or room finishing.
SUBSTANCE: facing panel comprises layer made of mixture including hydraulic binder and filler, cellular concrete member and reinforcement to connect the layer with the cellular concrete member. Facing layer is created of above mixture in which pigment is additionally added. The reinforcement is organic and/or mineral and/or steel fiber laid on facing layer as soon as elastic facing layer strength is developed to 0.05-0.09 MPa. The reinforcement is used in amount of 5-7% of facing layer mass. The cellular concrete member is foamed concrete with water absorbability of 8-30 g/dm2 and has surface brought into contact with facing layer preliminarily impregnated with 0.33-0.38% vinyl acetate solution.
EFFECT: increased adherence between facing layer and cellular concrete member.
1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: construction, particularly hollow-core ceiling panels with gripping loops.
SUBSTANCE: hollow-core article comprises concrete body, horizontal hollow channels intersected with vertical partitions within one plane and symmetric engagement cells located over the hollow channels in upper plane of concrete body, caved mass and gripping loops located in hollow channels. Gripping loop is made of bent bar having free ends bent through right angle and provided with additional hook-like bents. The free ends extend in horizontal direction and are arranged in isolated cavity defined by two transversal partitions installed in hollow channel for channel closing. The gripping loops are fixed in isolated cavity with grout to create depression for hoisting hook receiving. The depression is made in cavity under the engagement cell.
EFFECT: increased reliability.
6 cl, 6 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry, and namely to reinforced structures, and can be used for constructing buildings and structures of various configuration and with various number of storeys. Reinforced product consists of interior structure made in the form of reinforcement cage, and external curing filling with a mesh located thereinside and interconnected with reinforcement cage. Mesh is provided with solid elements fixed thereon, thus obtaining uniformly thickened layer of curing filling, which is proportional to dimensions of fixed solid elements, and forming load-carrying and enclosing layer.
EFFECT: enlarging technological capabilities, and namely performing load-carrying and enclosing function of construction.
1 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to multi-cellular reinforced concrete board. Multi-cellular reinforced concrete board is intended for operation under conditions of seismic activity. Board is produced by method of continuous off-form vibration compaction. Board contains oval cavities, prestressed armature in the form of parallel longitudinal rods and elements of transverse armature. Board is provided with keys on lateral surfaces. Board has armature protrusions of parallel longitudinal rods in lower part on the side of its end. Board is equipped with two pairs of additional longitudinal armature rods installed in links between cavities symmetrically relative to longitudinal axis of board. Rods of every pair are installed parallel to each other in upper and lower parts of link. Every pair of additional longitudinal rods is created by passage of single rod through link between cavities, creating stitch on link. Between additional longitudinal armature rods of every pair wavy wire is installed along the whole length of board. Wire is coupled in separate points with lower and upper additional longitudinal rods by means of wire clamps or spot welding for its holding in stretched condition. Wavy wire is produced by means of compressed spring wire stretching.
EFFECT: possibility to use board in construction in earthquake regions, simplicity of manufacturing and lower material intensity of board.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction, in particular - to barrier structures of industrial buildings. Three-layer reinforced concrete panel includes heat insulation layer, external and internal reinforced concrete layers joined to each other by means of rigid links arranged in the form of reinforced concrete keys passing through heat insulation layer and reinforced concrete ribs arranged along panel perimetre. Panel is additionally provided with at least two reinforced concrete keys, which are located at opposite ends of panel, and reinforced concrete ribs in section parallel to layers of panel have area determined from the ratio of panel area, thickness of its medium layer, coefficients of conductivity of rib, panel layers, reinforcement and insulator materials, and also required resistance of heat transfer. Coefficient of heat conductivity of material of reinforced concrete keys passing through heat insulation layer 2.5-3 times exceeds coefficient of heat conductivity of material of reinforced concrete keys arranged at opposite ends of panel.
EFFECT: maintenance of panel thermal properties under variable weather conditions.
SUBSTANCE: panel that resists shear loads when fixed to a frame, which comprises the following components: a panel of continuous phase, produced as a result of hardening of an aqueous mixture, which contains, in terms of dry mass, from 35 to 70 wt % of chemically active powder, from 20 to 50 wt % of light filler and from 5 to 20 wt % of glass fibres, besides, the continuous phase is reinforced with glass fibres and contains particles of light filler, at the same time light filler particles have specific weight from 0.02 to 1.00 and the average size of approximately 10-500 mcm; at least one reinforcement element selected from a group, which includes a plate and a mesh sheet attached to the first surface of the panel of continuous phase, besides, at least one reinforcement element covers from 5 to 90% of the first surface of the panel of continuous phase. Also an inflammable system for construction, comprising the above-specified panel, is described.
EFFECT: increased shear strength during cross deformation of a panel.
34 cl, 3 tbl, 40 dwg
SUBSTANCE: panel from a cement building mortar with a pre-stressed biaxial reinforcement is formed by means of a board from a cement building mortar, which, having thickness in the range from 2 to 7 cm, includes a biaxial reinforcement. The board contains a mass of a cement building mortar, multifunctional operating facilities on a panel assembly, providing for its displacement and/or attachment to a building structure. Multifunctional operating facilities represent at one side facilities for their retention in the hardened mass of the cement building mortar, and on the other side, opposite to the first one, facilities of anchor fixation either for elements for panel displacement or for elements for its attachment to a building structure.
EFFECT: invention provides for the panel integrity during its transportation.
31 cl, 17 dwg