The method of loading and unloading of vessels directly handling of water in the hold and back


(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to processes of loading and unloading vessels, in particular to a method of loading and unloading of vessels directly handling of water in the hold and back. The method consists in that the movement of cargo passes through the receiving and transit compartments. To do this, first swim to the load, open the gate receiving compartment and a common wall with a transit compartment. Letting in fresh water start coming out again for the cargo and place it in the receiving compartment. Close the gate, set the load opposite the transit compartment, adjusting the level of the sea water, draw and place in a transit compartment, close the wall and drop to the bottom of the compartment. Is evacuated from the water overboard, open common with the hold of the wall, draw and place the cargo in the hold of the vessel. Allows loading and unloading of large multi-thousand tons of solid goods. 2 Il.

As is known, the loading and unloading of the majority of vessels of different kind of goods in ports by using shore crane, pump, etc. equipment. The current level of development of cargo handling equipment allows you to raise and p is transported to conduct loading and unloading operations due to the uselessness, because they are loaded and unloaded in ports.

There are such court, as the ferry landing, which are loaded from the shore ramps bow or stern, but rather are themselves the subject of carriage travel in the hold and back.

Today, the world fleet has no ships, designed to handle one-time receptions large and multi-thousand tons of cargo. Because to move such cargo on a vessel required loading equipment, which in the foreseeable future is not going to happen, and the need for transportation of such goods is overdue, for example, transportation multi-thousand tons ' ice-blocks, we propose a method of handling operations consisting in the movement of cargo from the water directly into the hold, using a special design of the ship.

The aim of the study is to develop a method of handling a vessel of large, multi-thousand tons, solid cargoes single move them directly from the water into the hold through the special design of the bow or stern by regulating them in water level.

The need to develop transport vessels for the transport of multi-thousand tons ' ice-blocks and how they are handling dostavka in these countries in the ice of Antarctica, Greenland, etc. Physical properties of frozen water - ice, his buoyancy in the water and the uniqueness of this phenomenon in nature were allowed to approach the problem of it loading, unloading, transporting from the original, is still not considered the parties.

Technology delivering ice includes the stages of production from the array of icebergs and glaciers, loading ships, transporting and unloading at destination. In this work we consider the stage of loading. For its implementation were developed by the special design of the ships, loaded with the bow or the stern. This vessel, comprising a housing with double walls, pumps and winches on the deck of a ship, side blocks with engines and other equipment to improve the performance of the boot holds large bars of ice, supplemented in the aft hold of the gate, sides, bilge slope, going deep into the sea to a distance equal to the depth of a beam of ice, two partitions, together with other signs of forming a loading compartment of the vessel, consisting of the receiving and transit compartments of length equal to the length of the beam of ice.

As the source water was considered glaciers and isih energy consumption for rastarivanie ice and unacceptable terms of loading;

in the form of small pieces of ice here, the energy consumption is lower but significantly increase the capital cost of various equipment; also decreases the density of loading of the hold and increase the time of loading;

in large chopped beams of ice weighing tens of tons, but the loading of the vessel is delayed for weeks, the amount of work for tugs and crane equipment increase hundreds and thousands of times, and so on

All of the above options is unacceptably high increase the cost of delivered water, it is therefore proposed method of delivery in the form of a large ' ice-blocks, which in cross-section equal to the cross section of the hold, but the length is a multiple of the smaller length of the hold. Variant is characterized by the minimum expenses for the ice beam, its delivery to the vessel and placing it in the hold of the vessel. Production of ice is on the iceberg, ice shelf or other source of ice, providing the required size of the ice beams. The ice beam is obtained by way of the melting of the contour from an array of ice using ice-cutters, invented to solve this problem. Because the beam of ice will have to transport to sleep in the hold of the vessel, its shapes and sizes must correspond with the s pull up to standing in some distance to the trimaran-ship.

Scheme of a vessel loading or unloading is shown in Fig. 1, 2.

Structurally, the ship is a trimaran, because this design provides the greatest stability, buoyancy and a margin of safety during loading and unloading and transportation. Transfer engines in the side building, which from the auxiliary, as in conventional trimaran, turned into the equivalent of a major, gave the high maneuverability of the trimaran required for loading and unloading of bulky goods, being in water.

The vessel consists of three buildings. The average housing 2 is designed for transportation of oversized and heavy cargo in the hold with double insulated walls. The side housings 1 and 3 are power equipment, fuel, pumps, engines of the ship. On the deck of the hull 2 is the winch drive 4, the system of gears 5 to control the feed gate 6 and the partitions 7 and 8; bilge slope 9 smoothes the transition from the receiving compartment to the bottom of the vessel, extra long deep sea Board 10 and 11 form the side walls of the receiving compartment.

Together aft bilge gate 6, the partitions 7, 8, bilge slope 9, extra long envisages the fence from the water and placing in the hold ice or other, in the water of cargo, the size and weight of which does not allow the loading operation in the hold of the vessel known technical means and methods.

Bilge gate at the stern, made in the form of several pairs of shutters or vertically descending and ascending plates equal to the cross section of the receiving compartment cargo compartment of the vessel. Formed septa transit compartment provides reception, accommodation and transfer beams ice or cargo from the receiving branch further into the hold and isolation of the hold from the intake of water during loading and unloading. The side wings, which in the usual classical designs trimaran performed a supporting role to increase the stability of the vessel when the water is disturbed, this boat is designed for loading and unloading multi-thousand tons ' ice-blocks or other goods and transport them over long distances, were the main with its own power plants, the location of which they gave the vessel exceptional maneuverability and allowed to carry out their load of water, and significantly increased the stability, buoyancy and capacity of the boat.

Handling on t is remediesa with hermetically sealed feed gate 6 and the partitions 7 and 8. When towed beam of ice delivered to the place of loading, and the tug sailed for the next operation begins by downloading it into the hold of the housing 2. Open feed gate 6 and the partition wall 7. Compartment and transit compartment filled with sea water up to the level of the sea. The design and dimensions of the receiving compartment such that provide reception and placement in themselves intended for loading into the hold beams of ice. Transit compartment is like a prison hold from sea water. The trimaran, maneuvering engines in the side housings, swells of the open stern in an ice beam until he is fully accommodated in the receiving compartment. Next, the gate 6 is closed and starts pumping sea water into the loading compartment until the level in it will not raise an ice beam to the height at which the beam is drawn by the winch, not uplyvaet from the receiving compartment in transit compartment. The bulkhead 7 is closed, excess water if any is pumped overboard. Open bilge gate 6, and in the receiving compartment, the water level falls to the level of the sea. Then open the bulkhead 8, and the beam with the help of the winch is tightened into the hold, where it is placed in the right place. Then the bulkhead 8 is lowered, isolating the hold of the receiver is separated what Olney loading of the ship in a number of techniques to fill the hold.

The method of loading and unloading ships moving floating cargo directly from the water into the hold of the ship and back, characterized in that, to ensure sealing of the bilge, the cargo passes through the receiving and transit compartments, which originally swim to the load, open the gate receiving compartment and a common wall with a transit compartment, letting in fresh water start coming out again for the cargo and place it in the receiving compartment, close the gate, set the load opposite the transit compartment, adjusting the level of the sea water, draw and place in a transit compartment, close the wall and drop to the bottom of the compartment, is evacuated from the water overboard, open common with the hold of the wall, draw and place in the hold.


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