Device to control the aerodynamic hypersonic aircraft
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to rocket and space technology. Primary use - regulation model has maneuvering in the atmosphere hypersonic aircraft. The technical result is an increase in static stability of hypersonic aircraft. Device to control the aerodynamic containing the forebody aerodynamic needle, made in the form of a thin cylindrical rod with a conical tip, it is proposed to provide additional aerodynamic needles placed in the device for the storage and supply of aerodynamic needle, and the control system. Moreover, the device for storage and supply of aerodynamic needles are invited to perform in the form of a stationary cylindrical sealed housing, in which is placed a tank of compressed gas connected through the valve to the supply channel. The end of the feed channel attached to the guiding channel and provided with a position sensor aerodynamic needle. Parallel to the axis of the channels placed in them aerodynamic needles are covered and connected through the valves with Eugenie the length of the extended part of the aerodynamic needle, that, in turn, provides a consistent coordinate of the center of pressure, the GLA and, consequently, the stability of the position of the center of pressure during his long atmospheric planning. In General, it allows to increase the static stability of the GLA in flight. 5 Il. The invention relates to the field of rocket and space technology. Primary use - regulation model has maneuvering in the atmosphere hypersonic aircraft.The known device for controlling the aerodynamic resistance of the aircraft , comprising a retractable aerodynamic surfaces (flaps, spoilers, aerodynamic skirts etc), either by changing parameters of the gas in the zones of separation and containing elements of massanella that implement the suction or blowing gas in the boundary layer and the detachment zone. The disadvantages of these devices are design complexity, most of the additional weight and instability of the aerodynamic characteristics, which reduce the accuracy.Closest to the claimed device is a device to control the aerodynamic resistance , containing the nasal hour of irenie drag devices with the specified device is provided by the formation of zones of separation, close to conical (liquid cones), the pressure which is significantly less than prior devices without needles.A significant disadvantage of this device is the instability of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft, in particular the position of the center of pressure of the apparatus resulting from thermal destruction (Amhara) conical tip needle movement in the atmosphere and, consequently, changes in the length of the aerodynamic needle, which leads to changes in the static stability of the aircraft.The aim of the invention is to increase the static stability of hypersonic aircraft.This objective is achieved in that known device for controlling the aerodynamic containing the nose and drag the needle in the form of a thin cylindrical rod with a conical tip supplied with additional aerodynamic needles placed in the device for the storage and supply of aerodynamic needle, and the control system, and a device for the storage and supply of aerodynamic needles made in the form of a stationary cylindrical sealed housing with hosting the capacity of the channel and provided with a position sensor aerodynamic needle, and parallel to the axis of the feed channels placed in them aerodynamic needles, closed lids, equipped with locking devices and through a valve connected to a tank of compressed gas, and a control system connected to the valve, a locking device and a position sensor aerodynamic needle and the guide channel is made in the nose of the aircraft along its longitudinal axis.Comparative analysis of the proposed device with the prototype shows that the introduction of the additional number of aerodynamic needles, devices, storage and filing, as well as system management allows you to maintain the constant length of the extended part of the aerodynamic needle that allows in-flight GLA in the atmosphere to maintain a constant position of the aerodynamic center of pressure of the apparatus despite Abgar needle due to thermal effects and, thereby, increase its static stability.In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the device for controlling the aerodynamic resistance of the aircraft.In Fig. 2 shows the device for the storage and supply of aerodynamic needles.The device 4 consists of a stationary sealed enclosure 6 has a cylindrical shape, in which are placed the feed channel 7, a container for compressed gas 8 and the channels 9, closed lid 10 and is provided with a locking device 11. The longitudinal axis of the channels 9 parallel to the longitudinal axis CHAP. They will accommodate aerodynamic needle 3. Input channel 7 on the one hand connected through a valve 12 with capacity for compressed gas 8, and on the other side of the guide channel 2. The end of the feed channel 7 is equipped with a position sensor 13 aerodynamic needle 3. Channels 9 through the valve 14 is connected with a tank of compressed gas 8.The operation of the device is as follows. On a signal from the control system 5 in accordance with the program voltage is supplied from the onboard source of power CHAP on the valve 14 of one of the channels 9. Odnawialne 9, under the pressure of the compressed gas from the tank 8 through the feed channel 7. After that, the valve 14 and the locking device 11 channel 9 trigger and lock it, preventing ingress of the second needle in the channel 7. Then actuates the valve 12 and under gas pressure from the tank 8 aerodynamic needle 3 moves along the guiding channel 2, compressing there are already the needle 3, thereby ensuring the persistence length extended to the outside part of the aerodynamic needle 3. As of Amhara tip of the needle movement on the guiding channel 2 of the second needle continues. At full extension aerodynamic needle 3 from the feed channel 7 is triggered, the position sensor 13, the locking time of the end of the needle 3 at the exit of the channel 7. The valve 12 is closed, then the valve 14 and the locking device 11 next programmatically selected channel 9 and the next needle 3 is pushed into the input channel 7. The cycle repeats. It is assumed that the length of the needle 3 is equal to the length of the guide channel 2 with extended tip. Software activation sequence locking devices 11 channels 9 provides for the maintenance of the common center of mass in the region of the longitudinal axis of the GLA, which is essential to ensure that when effektivnosti proposed device was made for the case of motion of GLA at a height h=30 km with velocity V=4500 m/s (M=15). Comparing two materials (fiberglass laminate and carbon fiber), which was made aerodynamic needle. Needle length was assumed to be equal to land=0.3 m taking into account that the total number of needles in the device for storage and supply is n=8, the total length of the aerodynamic needle is equal to L=2.4 m by the well-known characteristics of the materials and parameters of the atmosphere at the height of the calculated drift rate of the aerodynamic surface of the needle. For fiberglass it was W=5.810-4m/s, for CFRP - W=7.310-4m/s With a total length of the needle L=2.4 m battery is respectively twith=4140 (for fiberglass) and ty=3287 (for carbon fiber) that provides a stable position of the center of aerodynamic pressure GLA during long-term movement in the atmosphere.The proposed structural diagram of a device for controlling the aerodynamic GLA can be used when developing and designing a space re-entry vehicles engaged in planning the descent in the atmosphere, as well as in the development of new types of items of combat equipment missiles.Literature
1. Krasnov N. F. and other Aerodynamics separated flow: Uch. p the>/P>2. Fundamentals of applied aerogazodinamika. 2 kN. KN.2. The flow of bodies viscous fluid. Steering gear: Uch. guide for colleges /N. F. Krasnov, B. N. Koshevoy, C. F. Zakharchenko and others; Ed. by N. F. Krasnov. - M.: Higher school, 1991, S. 176 180... - prototype. Device to control the aerodynamic resistance of hypersonic aircraft, containing the nose and drag the needle in the form of a thin cylindrical rod with a conical tip, characterized in that it is provided with additional aerodynamic needles placed in the device for the storage and supply of aerodynamic needle, and the control system, and a device for the storage and supply of aerodynamic needles made in the form of a stationary cylindrical sealed casing placed in it a tank of compressed gas connected through the valve to the supply channel, the end of which is attached to the guide channel and is equipped with a position sensor aerodynamic needle, and parallel to the axis of the feed channels placed in them aerodynamic needles, closed lids, equipped with locking devices and through a valve connected to a tank of compressed gas, and the system controls the channel is made in the nose of the aircraft along its longitudinal axis.
FIELD: control of flying vehicle boundary layer.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has layer of active material located on outer skin of flying vehicle and intended for generation of mechanical vibrations. Novelty of invention consists in availability of current-conducting film applied over layer of piezo-active material by spraying or painting. Piezo-active material is applied on surface of outer metal skin of flying vehicle. Located on surface of current-conducting film are sensors of parameters of turbulent motions of flow whose signals are used for control of mechanical vibrations of piezo-active material in phase or in anti-phase relative to vibrations in boundary layer. Layer of piezo-active material may be made from piezo-ceramics. Layer of piezo-active material may be polarized at angle 135 deg. for compensation for turbulence and at angle of 45 deg. for reduction of effect of break-down of flow.
EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency.
FIELD: aviation; single-rotor helicopters.
SUBSTANCE: proposed helicopter has fuselage with main rotor, tail and end booms and steering rotor; tail boom narrows from rear compartment of fuselage towards end boom; external outlines of cross-sections of end boom have shape of aerodynamic profile forming moment of force counter-acting to reaction torque of main rotor under action of velocity head of air during horizontal flight. Secured on side of tail boom is profiled deflector with aerodynamic outer surface; nose of this deflector is located at level of separation of induction flow of air created by rotation of main rotor from lateral surface of tail boom; inner surface of deflector embraces lower part of lateral surface of tail boom forming air passage narrowing under tail boom with longitudinal slit for discharge of reaction jet of air in way opposite to motion of main rotor above tail boom. Deflector is secured on tail boom at distance equal to 0.65-0.85 of radius of rotation of main rotor blade.
EFFECT: enhanced controllability of single-rotor helicopter equipped with steering rotor in yawing under conditions of critical density of air and increased flying altitudes.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; reduction of resistance to motion by forming viscoelastic coats on bodies.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes the following operations: (a) estimation of characteristics of turbulent boundary layer at preset rate of free flow making use of boundary conditions for rigid surface having the same shape and size as surface with coat; characteristics include thickness of boundary layer, phase rate and frequency corresponding to maximum energy-carrying disturbances, profiles of average rate, distribution of Raynolds stresses, distribution of shear stress on wall and friction resistance; (b) selection of properties of material of coat including density, complex shear modulus and thickness of coat at which coat subjected to action of stimulating function identical to load formed by this boundary layer and determined at stage (a) ensures maximum flux of energy with no disturbance in surface; (c) estimation of characteristics of boundary layer on coat at preset rate of free flow making use of amplitude of oscillations and energy flux corresponding to properties of material selected at stage (b) including the average rate profiles, distribution of Raynolds stresses, distribution of shear stresses on wall and friction resistance; (d) determination of reduction of friction resistance in percent as ratio to difference between magnitudes of friction resistance with and without coat estimated at stages (a) and (c) to friction resistance determined at stage (a) for determination of quantitative magnitudes of composition and configuration of coat; (e) forming viscoelastic coat from material or combination of materials selected at stages (a) thru (d).
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of reduction of friction resistance.
15 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: aviation; vertical takeoff and landing flying vehicles; hoisting units.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes reduction of pressure in closed space above lifting surface at presence of atmospheric pressure under it; lift force is created due to difference between said pressures; closed space is formed by closing the upper open portion of chamber by flat jet of liquid. Provision may be also made for evacuation of air from closed space by means of vacuum pump. Device for creating the lift force has at least one body with lift force and at least one unit for forming the closed space at reduction of pressure above respective surface. Each body is made in form of chamber which is open at the top and bottom forming the lifting surface. Each unit for forming the closed space is made in form of slotted nozzle connected with liquid supply unit and located in upper portion of respective chamber for creating the lift force closing the upper open part of chamber for forming closed space inside it. Chambers may be located one above another so that their lifting surfaces are parallel or lie in one plane. At least one chamber may have lifting surface located at angle relative to horizontal plane. Chamber may be rectangular in section parallel to lifting surface; slotted nozzle mounted on its side surface may form rectangular or round lift force when slotted nozzle is round in shape and is located in chamber concentrically relative to its section for creating diverging circular lift force. Each chamber may have inlet hole of intake passage opposite slotted nozzle; said passage is connected with reservoir connected in its turn with liquid supply unit.
EFFECT: improved technical parameters of flying vehicle and hoisting unit.
11 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: heavier-than-air flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed flying vehicle is provided with jet power plant located in center of flat wing round in plan. Power plant includes turbocompressors 13, bypass valves 14, receiver 15, adjusting valves 16 and four-section jet engine used for forming circular radially diverging air jet. Sections 17 of engine are designed for independent control during operation and are separated from one another by receiver. Upper part of body is designed for performing function of wing round in plan.
EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency and reliability.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; bladed machines for supercharging air; propeller blades.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in making blade in form of wing; air of boundary layer is sucked from surface on side opposite to incoming flow through series of slotted holes. Blades have thick aerodynamic profile; suction of air is effected through series of slotted holes made along blade; air is directed to cavities found under said holes with central longitudinal hollow body in each of them forming circular passage in each cavity and vortex-type flow caused by incoming flow of air. Air from cavities and from central body is sucked through discharge passages wherefrom it is evacuated beyond blades. Runoff of air flow along cavity and along blade is limited due to partitions mounted inside cavity and fins mounted on external surface of blade. According to another version, cavities are made without central body.
EFFECT: enhanced operational efficiency.
8 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: aviation; control of supersonic air flow of supersonic and hypersonic flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: working medium under pressure escapes through hollow aerodynamic needle mounted before nose section of flying vehicle in form of separate jets forming aerodynamic cone at vertex of needle. Working medium has density no less than 0.06 g/cm3; jets are expelled from needle at exhaust velocity of Vw.m.Vf.v. where ρair is density of air surrounding the flying vehicle; ρw.m. is density of working medium. Aerodynamic cone is filled with finely-dispersed gaseous and liquid medium forming contact with boundary layer on head section of flying vehicle. Jets of working medium escaping from needle may be directed at angle φ relative to longitudinal axis of needle; α>φ>0, where α is exterior angle between needle axis and cone generatrix. Pressure under which jets of working medium are expelled is formed by means of gas generator. Working medium may have form of liquid, paste or suspension, or endothermic coolant evaporating in inner cavities of needle and cone of gas-air fairing; its cooling effect is sufficient for in-flight cooling of flying vehicle; working medium may have form of liquid energy carrier burning in aft combustion chamber; gas generator is made in form of reservoir with gasified working medium.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel; increased flying range of flying vehicle.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: rocketry and space engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has nose section 1 and central and additional aerodynamic needles 3 made in form of thin cylindrical rods which are stowed in special passages made in nose section of flying vehicle. One passage is located along axis of symmetry and other passages are located at some distance from axis of symmetry smoothly over circumference whose center lies at axis of symmetry. Each passage is provided with mechanism for delivery of aerodynamic needles towards incoming flow; provision is made for extension of each needle through definite length for forming special configuration of set of needles which is necessary for their joint operation in airflow control.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining constant coordinate of center of pressure of hypersonic flying vehicle; reduced force of drag; possibility of forming control forces and moments for manoeuvring in atmosphere.
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes bleeding part of preheated gas from gas source followed by delivery of bled gas to control surfaces of rudder, upper and lower surface of flying vehicle elevator.
Then, air bled from air intake or air compressor of engine plant is fed via hermetic mains through control members to supersonic nozzles which are flat in configuration from leading edges of said planes in way of chord of each rudder and elevator shutting-off local subsonic gas jets escaping from local blow-off zone in takeoff and landing modes by supersonic air flow. Turn and inclination of flying vehicle are performed by control of subsonic gas jets through local blow-off zones of rudder surfaces. Device is designed for surfaces of flying vehicle including the fuselage, engine plant, fuel system, lifting surfaces, control profiles in form of rudder and elevator; it includes local blow-off zones located on lateral surfaces of rudder, lower and upper surfaces of elevator which are connected with engine plant by means of hermetic mains. External surfaces of blow-off zones are located at level of surface of respective planes of rudders and elevators; mounted on leading edges of rudder and elevator are supersonic nozzles which are flat in configuration.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of control surfaces.
11 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: the device is designed for a flight vehicle having a fuselage, jet engine, fuel system, carrying planes and control sections. The device has a source of offtaken gas, which through sealed lines is connected to the zones of local blowing-out of gas to the boundary layer of air flow on the surfaces the flight vehicle. Each zone of local blowing-out of gas is made on the surface of the carrying plane or fuselage, or control sections with a penetrable porous insert with a cross-sectional area of the ducts in the porous insert within 50 to 60% of the area of the insert proper by 10-15 times less than the distance between the adjacent inserts, a flat rectangular slot for a break of the boundary layer is made before each insert and in parallel with it.
EFFECT: reduced drag force and fuel consumption.
10 cl, 2 dwg